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members, in fuch manner, and under fuch penalties as each house may provide.

Each houfe may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for diforderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

Each houfe fhall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the fame, excepting fuch parts as may in their judgment require fecrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any queftion fhall, at the defire of one-fifth of those prefent, be entered on the journal.

Neither houfe, during the feffion of Congrefs, fhall, without the confent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houfes fhall be fitting.

Sect. 6. The fenators and reprefentatives fhall receive a compenfation for their fervices, to be afcertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They fhall in all cafes, except treason, felony, and breach of peace, be privileged from arreft during their attendance at the feffion of their refpective houses, and in going to and returning from the fame; and for any fpeech or debate in either house, they fhall not be queftioned in any other place.

No fenator or reprefentative fhall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which fhall have been created, or the emoluments whereof fhall have been encreased during fuch time; and no perfon holding any office under the United States, fhall be a member of either houfe during his continuance in office.

Sect. 7. All bills for raifing revenue fhall originate in the house of reprefentatives; but the fenate may propofe or concur with amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which fhall have paffed the house of reprefentatives and the fenate, fhall, before it becomes a law, be prefented to the prefident of the United States; if he approve he fhall fign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that houfe in which it fhall have originated, who fhall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to re-confider it. If after fuch re-confideration two-thirds of that houfe fhall agree to pafs the bill, it fhall be fent, together with the objections, to the other houfe, by which it fhall likewife be re-confidered, and if approved by twothirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all fuch cafes the votes of both houses fhall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the perfons voting for and against the bill fhall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill fhall not be returned by the prefident within ten days, (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been prefented to him, the fame fhall be a law, in like manner as if he had figned it, unless the Congrefs, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it fhall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and Houfe of Reprefentatives may be neceffary (except on a queftion of adjournment) fhall be prefented to the prefident of the United States; and before the fame fhall take effect, fhall be approved by him, or, being difapproved by him, fhall be re-paffed by two-thirds of the Senate and Houfe

of Reprefentatives, according to the rules and limitations prefcribed in the cafe of a bill.

Seat. 8. The Congress fhall have power

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, impofts, and excifes fhall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several ftates, and with the Indian tribes ;

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the fubject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the fecurities and current coin of the United States;

To eftablish poft offices and poft roads;

To promote the progrefs of fcience and ufeful arts, by fecuring, for limited times, to authors and inventors the exclufive right to their refpective writings and difcoveries;

To conftitute tribunals inferior to the fupreme court;

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high feas, and offences against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprifal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

To raife and fupport armies, but no appropriation of money to that ufe fhall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and na val forces;

To provide for the calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, fupprefs infurrections, and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and difciplining the militia, and for governing fuch part of them as may be employed in the fervice of the United States, referving to the ftates refpectively, the appointment of the officers. and the authority of training the militia according to the difcipline prescribed by Congrefs;

To exercife exclufive legiflation in all cafes whatsoever, over fuch dif trict (not exceeding ten miles fquare) as may, by ceffion of particular ftates, and the acceptance of Congrefs, become the feat of government of the United States, and to exereife like authority over all places pur chafed by the confent of the legislature of the state in which the fame fhall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arfenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings;-And

To make all laws which fhall be neceffary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vefted by this conftitution in the government of the United States, or in any department, or officer thereof.

Sect. 9. The migration or importation of fuch perfons as any of the ftates now exifting fhall think proper to admit, fhall not be prohibited by


the Congrefs prior to the year one thoufand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be impofed on fuch importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each perfon.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus fhall not be fufpended, un lefs when in cafes of rebellion or invafion the public fafety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex poft facto law fhall be paffed.

No capitation, or other direct tax, fhall be laid, unless in proportion to the cenfus or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No tax or duty fhall be laid on articles exported from any ftate.-No preference fhall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one ftate over thofe of another: nor fhall veffels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

No money fhall be drawn from the treafury, but in confequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular ftatement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money fhall be published from

time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States :-And no perfon holding any office of profit or truft under them, fhall, without the confent of the Congrefs, accept of any prefent, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. Sect. 10. No ftate fhall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confedera tion; grant letters of marque and reprifal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and filver coin a tender in payment of debts; pafs any bill of attainder, ex poft facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No ftate fhall, without the confent of the Congrefs, lay any impofts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be abfolutely neceffary for executing its infpection laws; and the net produce of all duties and impofts, laid by any ftate on imports or exports, fhall be for the use of the Treafury of the United States; and all fuch laws fhall be fubject to the revifion and control of the Congrefs. No ftate fhall, without the consent of Congrefs, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or fhips of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another ftate, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in fuch im. minent danger as will not admit of delay.


Sect. 1. The executive power fhall be vefted in a prefident of the United States of America. He fhall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the vice-prefident, chofen for the fame term, be elected as follows:

Each state fhall appoint, in fuch manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of fenators and reprefentatives to which the ftate may be entitled in the Congrefs: but no fenator or reprefentative, or person holding an office of truft or profit under the United States, fhall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two perfons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the fame ftate with themselves, And they shall make a list of all the perfons voted


for, and of the number of votes for each; which lift they fhall fign and certify, and tranfmit fealed to the feat of the government of the United States, directed to the prefident of the fenate. The prefident of the fenate fhall, in the prefence of the fenate and house of reprefentatives, open all the certificates, and all the votes fhall then be counted. The perfon having the greatest number of votes fhall be the prefident, if fuch number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have fuch majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of reprefentatives fhall immediately choose by ballot one of them for prefident; and if no perfon have a majority, then from the five highest on the lift, the faid house fhall in like manner choose the prefident. But in choofing the prefident, the votes fhall be taken by ftates, the reprefentations from each ftate having one vote; a quorum for this purpofe fhall confift of a member or members from two-thirds of the itates, and a majority of all the ftates fhall be neceffary to a choice. In every cafe, after the choice of the prefident, the perfon having the greatest number of votes of the electors fhall be the vice-prefident. But if there fhould remain two or more who have equal votes, the fenate fhall choose from them by ballot the vice-prefident.

The Congrefs may determine the time of choofing the electors, and the day on which they fhall give their votes; which day fhall be the fame throughout the United States.

No perfon, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this conftitution, fhall be eligible to the office of prefident; neither fhall any perfon be eligible to that office who fhall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a refident within the United States.

In cafe of the removal of the prefident from office, or of his death, refignation, or inability to difcharge the powers and duties of the faid office, the fame fhall devolve on the vice-prefident, and the Congrefs may by law provide for the cafe of removal, death, refignation, or inability, both of the prefident and vice-prefident, declaring what officer fhall then act as prefident, and fuch officer fhall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a prefident shall be elected.

The prefident fhall, at stated times, receive for his fervices a compenfation, which fhall neither be encreafed nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he fhall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he fhall take the following oath or affirmation :

"I do folemnly fwear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of prefident of the United States, and will to the beft of my ability, preferve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States." Sect. 2. The prefident fhall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the feveral states, when called into the actual fervice of the United States; he may require the opinion in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any fubject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he fhall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences again the United States, except in cafes of impeachment.


He fhall have power, by and with the advice and confent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the fenators prefent concur; and he fhall nominate, and by and with the advice and confent of the fenate fhall appoint ambaffadors, other public minifters and confuls, judges of the fupreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whofe appointments are not herein otherwife provided for, and which fhall be established by law. But the Congrefs may by law veft the appointment of fuch inferior officers, as they think proper, in the prefident alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The prefident fhall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recefs of the fenate, by granting commiffions which shall expire at the end of their next feffion.

Sect. 3. He fhall from time to time give to the Congrefs information of the state of the union, and recommend to their confideration fuch meafures as he fhall judge neceffary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occafions, convene both houfes, or either of them, and in case of difagreement between them, with refpect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to fuch time as he fhall think proper; he fhall receive ambaffadors and other public minifters; he fhall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and fhall commiffion all the officers of the United States.

Sect. 4. The prefident, vice-prefident, and all civil officers of the United States, fhall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.


Sect. 1. The Judicial power of the United States fhall be vested in one fupreme court, and in fuch inferior courts as the Congrefs may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the fupreme and inferior courts, fhall hold their offices during good behaviour, and fhall, at stated times, receive for their fervices, a compenfation, which fhall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sect. 2. The Judicial power fhall extend to all cafes, in law and equity, arifing under this conftitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which fhall be made, under their authority; to all cafes affecting ambaffadors, other public minifters and confuls; to all cafes of admiralty and maritime jurifdiction; to controverfies to which the United States fhall be a party; to controverfies between two or more flates, between a ftate and citizens of another ftate, between citizens of different flates, between citizens of the fame ftate claiming lands under grants of different ftates, and between a ftate, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or fubjects.

In all cafes affecting ambaffadors, other public minifters and confuls, and thofe in which a itate fhall be party, the fupreme court fhall have original jurifdiction. In all the other cafes before mentioned, the fupreme court fhall have appellate jurifdiction, both as to law and fact, with fuch exceptions, and under fuch regulations as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cafes of impeachment, fhall be by jury; and fuch trial fhall be held in the ftate where the faid crime fhall have been committed; but when not committed within any ftate, the trial shall be at fuch place or places as the Congrefs may by law have directed.


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