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Sect. 3. Treafon against the United States fhall confift only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No perfon fhall be convicted of treafon unless on the testimony of two witneffes to the fame overt act, or on confeffion in open court.
The Congress fhall have power to declare the punishment of treafon, but no attainder of treafon fhall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the perfon attainted.
Sect. 1. Full faith and credit fhall be given in each state to the publie acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other ftate. And the Congrefs may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings fhall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Sect. 2. The citizens of each ftate fhall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the feveral ftates.
A perfon charged in any ftate with treafon, felony, or other crime, who fhall flee from juftice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the ftate from which he fled be delivered up, to be removed to the ftate having jurifdiction of the crime.
No perfon held to fervice or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, efcaping into another, fhall in confequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from fuch fervice or labour, but fhall be delivered np on claim of the party to whom fuch fervice or labour may be due.
Sect. 3. New ftates may be admitted by the Congrefs into this union, but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurifdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of ftates, without the confent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congrefs.
The Congrefs fhall have power to difpofe of and make all needful rules and regulations refpecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this conftitution fhall be fo conftrued as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular ftate. Sect. 4. The United States fhall guarantee to every ftate in this union a republican form of government, and fhall protect each of them against invafion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domeftic violence.
The Congrefs, whenever two-thirds of both houfes fhall deem it necef. fary, fhall propofe amendments to this conftitution; or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the feveral ftates, fhall call a convention for propofing amendments, which, in either cafe, fhall be valid to all intents and purpofes, as part of this conftitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be propofed by the Congrefs: Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thoufand eight hundred and eight, fhall in any manner affect the first and fourth claufes in the ninth fection of the first article; and that no ftate, without its confent, fhall be deprived of its equal fuffrage in the Senate,
All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adop tion of this conftitution, fhall be as valid against the United States under this conftitution, as under the confederation.
This conftitution, and the laws of the United States which fhall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which fhall be made, under the authority of the United States, fhall be the fupreme law of the land; and the judges in every ftate fhall be bound thereby, any thing in the conftitution or laws of any ftate to the contrary notwithstanding.
The fenators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the feveral ftate legiflatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to fupport this conftitution; but no religious teft fhall ever he required as a qualification to any office or public truft under the United States.
The ratification of the conventions of nine ftates, fhall be fufficient for the establishment of this conftitution between the states fo ratifying the fame.
DONE in Convention, by the unanimous confent of the states prefent, the feventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-feven, and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto fubscribid our names,
GEORGE WASHINGTON, Prefident.
Signed also by all the Delegates which were prefent from twelve States. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
In CONVENTION, Monday September 17, 1787.
The States of New-Hampshire, Maffachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia.
~HAT the preceding conftitution be laid before the United States in that it is opinion of this Convention, that it fhould afterwards be fubmitted to a convention of Delegates, chofen in each state by the people thereof, under the recommendation of its Legiflature, for their affent and ratification; and that each convention affenting to, and ratifying the fame, fhould give notice thereof to the United States in Congrefs affembled.
RESOLVED, That it is the opinion of this convention, that as foon as the conventions of nine states hall have ratified this conftitution, the United States in Congrefs affembled, fhould fix a day on which Electors fhould be appointed by the ftates which fhall have ratified the fame, and a day on which the Electors fhould affemble to vote for the Prefident, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this conftitusion. That after fuch publication, the Electors fhould be appointed, and
the fenators and representatives elected: That the electors fhould meet on the day fixed for the election of the Prefident, and should tranfmit their votes certified, figned, fealed and directed, as the conftitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congrefs affembled; that the fenators and reprefentatives fhould convene at the time and place affigned; that the fenators fhould appoint a Prefident of the fenate, for the fole purpofe of receiving, opening and counting the votes for President; and, that after he fhall be chofen, the Congrefs, together with the Prefident, fhould, without delay, proceed to execute this Conftitution. By the unanimous order of the Convention, GEORGE WASHINGTON, Prefident. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
In CONVENTION, September 17, 1787.
WE have now the honour to fubmit to the confideration of the United
States in Congrefs affembled, that conftitution which has appeared to us the most advisable.
The friends of our country have long feen and defired, that the power of making war, peace and treaties, that of levying money and regulating commerce, and the correfpondent executive and judicial authorities fhould be fully and effectually vefted in the general government of the union; but the impropriety of delegating fuch an extenfive truft to one body of men is evident.-Hence refults the neceffity of a different organization.
It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these states, to fecure all rights of independant fovereignty to each, and yet provide for the intereft and fafety of all.-Individuals entering into fociety, muft give up a fhare of liberty to preferve the reft. The magnitude of the facrifice muft depend as well on fituation and circumftances, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between thofe rights which must be furrendered, and those which may be referved; and on the prefent occafion this difficulty was encreased by a difference among the feveral ftates as to their fituation, extent, habits and particular interefts.
In all our deliberations on this fubject, we kept fteadily in our view, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the confolidation of our union, in which is involved our profperity, felicity, fafety, perhaps our national existence. This important confideration, feriously and deeply impreffed on our minds, led each ftate in the convention to be lefs rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwife expected; and thus the conftitution, which we now prefent, is the refult of a fpirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and conceffion which the peculiarity of our political fituation rendered indifpenfible.
That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state is not perhaps to be expected: but each will doubtlefs confider that had her interefts been alone confulted, the confequences might have been particularly difagreeable or injurious to others: That it is liable to as few exceptions as could reafonably have been expected, we hope and believe: That
though often acknowledged, had never been clearly afcertained. To effect this defign, they captured the English veffels, which they found along the Spanish Main, and many of the British fubjects were doomed to work in the mines of Potofi.
Repeated feverities of this kind at length (1739) produced a war between England and Spain. Porto Bello was taken from the Spaniards by Admiral Vernon. Commodore Anfon, with a fquadron of fhips, failed to the South Seas, diftreffed the Spanish fettlements on the wettern thore of America, and took a Galleon laden with immenfe riches. But in 1741 a formidable armament, destined to attack Carthagena, under the command of Lord Cathcart, returned unfuccefsful, with the lofs of upwards of twelve thousand British soldiers and feamen, and the defeat of the expedition, raised a clamour against the minifter, Sir Robert Walpole, which produced a change in the administration. This change removed the scene of war to Europe, fo that America was not immediately affected by the fubfequent tranfactions; except that Louifburgh, the principal fortrefs of Cape Breton, was taken from the French by General Pepperell, affifted by Commodore Warren and a body of New-England troops.
This war was ended in 1748 by the treaty of peace figned at Aix la Chapelle, by which reftitution was made on both fides of all places taken during the war.
Peace, however, was of fhort duration. The French poffeffed Canada, and had made confiderable fettlements in Florida, claiming the country on both fides of the Miffiffippi, by right of difcovery. To fecure and extend their claims, they established a line of forts, on the English poffeffions, from Canada to Florida. They had fecured the important pafs at Niagara, and erected a fort at the junction of the Allegany and Monongahela rivers, called Fort Du Quefne. They took pains to fecure the friendship and affiftance of the natives, encroachments were made upon the English poffeffions, and mutual injuries fucceeded. The difputes among the fettlers in America, and the measures taken by the French to command all the trade of the St. Lawrence river on the north, and of the Miffiffippi on the fouth, excited a jealoufy in the English nation, which foon broke forth in open war.
In 1756, four expeditions were undertaken in America against the French. One was conducted by General Monckton, who had orders to drive the French from the encroachments on the province of Nova-Scotia. This expedition was attended with fuccefs. General Johnfon was ordered, with a body of troops, to take poffeffion of Crown Point, but he did not fucceed. General Shirley commanded an expedition against the fort at Niagara, but loft the feafon by delay. General Braddock marched against fort Du Quefne, but in penetrating through the wildernefs, he incautiously fell into an ambufcade and fuffered a total defeat. General Braddock was killed, but a part of his troops were faved by the prudence and bravery of General Washington, at this time a Colonel, who then began to exhibit proofs of those military talents, by which he afterwards conducted the armies of America to victory, and his country to independence. The ill fuccefs of thefe expeditions left the English fettlements in America exposed to the depredations of both the French and Indians. But the war now raged in Europe and the Eaft-Indies, and engaged the attention of both nations in those quarters.
It was not until the campaign in 1758 that affairs affumed a more favourable afpect in America. But upon a change of administration, Mr. Pitt was appointed prime minifter, and the operations of war became more vigorous and fuccefsful. General Amherst was fent to take poffeffion of Cape Breton; and after a warm fiege, the garrifon of Louifburgh furrendered by capitulation. General Forbes was fuccefsful in taking poffeffion of Fort Du Quefne, which the French thought fit to abandon. But General Abercrombie, who commanded the troops destined to act against the French at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, attacked the lines at Ticonderoga, where the enemy were ftrongly entrenched, and was defeated with a terrible flaughter of his troops. After his defeat, he returned to his camp at Lake George.
The next year, more effectual measures were taken to fubdue the French in America. General Prideaux and Sir William Johnfon began the operations of the campaign by taking the French fort near Niagara. General Amherst took poffeffion of the forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, which the French had abandoned.
But the decifive blow, which proved fatal to the French interefts in America, was the defeat of the French army, and the taking of Quebec, by the brave General Wolfe. This hero was flain in the beginning of the action, on the plains of Abram, and Monfieur Montcalm, the French commander, likewife loft his life. The lofs of Quebec was foon followed by the capture of Montreal by General Amherst, and Canada has remained ever fince in poffeffion of the English.
Colonel Grant, in 1761, defeated the Cherokees in Carolina, and obliged them to fue for peace. The next year, Martinico was taken by Admiral Rodney and General Monckton; and alfo the island of Grenada, St. Vincents, and others. The capture of thefe was foon followed by the furrender of the Havanna, the capital of the island of Cuba.
In 1763, a definitive treaty of peace was concluded at Paris between Great Britain, France, and Spain, by which the English ceded to the French feveral iflands in the Weft-Indies, but were confirmed in the poffeffion of all North America on this fide the Miliffippi, except New Orleans, and a fmall district of the neighbouring country.
But this war, however brilliant the fucceffes, and glorious the event, proved the caufe of great and unexpected misfortunes to Great-Britain. Engaged with the combined powers of France and Spain, during feveral years, her exertions were furprizing, and her expence immenfe. To difcharge the debts of the nation, the parliament was obliged to have recourfe to new expedients for raifing money. Previous to the laft treaty in 1763, the Parliament had been fatisfied to raife a revenue from the American Colonies by a monopoly of their trade.
It will be proper here to obferve that there were three kinds of government eftablished in the British American Colonies. The firft was a charter government, by which the powers of legiflation were vefted in a governor, council, and affembly, chofen by the people. Of this kind were the governments of Connecticut and Rhode-ifland. The fecond was a
* General Prideaux was killed by the bursting of a mortar, before the fur render of the French.