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gentleman wore a rapier have become the rudest since Civilization disarmed them."-Vol. ii. pp. 265.68.

” A word on the dietary and domestic arrangements of the Madani.

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“The citizens, despite their being generally in debt, manage to live well. Their cookery, like that of Meccah, has borrowed something from Egypt, Turkey, Syria, Persia, and India ; like all Orientals they are exceedingly fond of clarified butter. I have seen the boy Mohammed drink off nearly a tumbler full, although his friends warned him that it would make him as fat as an elephant. When a man cannot enjoy clarified butter in these countries, it is considered a sign that his stomach is out of order, and all my excuses of a melancholic temperament were required to be in full play to prevent the infliction of fried meat swimming in grease, or that guest-dish, rice saturated with melted-perhaps I should say-rancid butter. The ‘Samn' of El Hejaz, however, is often fresh, being brought in by the Bedouins ; it has not therefore the foul flavour derived from the old and impregnated skinbag which distinguishes the ghee of India. The house of a Madani in good circumstances is comfortable, for the building is substantial, and the attendance respectable. Black slave-girls here perform the complicated duties of servant-maids in England ; they are taught to sew, to cook, and to wash, besides sweeping the house and drawing water for domestic use. Hasinah (the “Charmer,' a decided misnomer,) costs from 40 to 50 dollars : if she be a mother, her value is less, but neathandedness, propriety of demeanour, and skill in feminine accomplishments, raise her to 100 dollars, £25. A little black boy, perfect in all his points, and tolerably intelligent, costs about 1000 piastres; girls are dearer, and eunuchs fetch double that sum. The older the children become, the more their value diminishes, and no one would purchase, save under exceptional circumstances, an adult slave, because he is never parted with but for some incurable vice. The Abyssinian, mostly Galla, girls, so much prized because their skins are always cool in the hottest weather, are here rare ; they seldom sell for less than 201., and often fetch 601. I never heard of a Jariyah Bayza, a white slave girl, being in the market at El Medinah : in Circassia they fetch from 1001. to 4001. prime cost, and few men in El Hejaz could afford so expensive a luxury. The bazaar at El Medinah is poor, , and as almost all the slaves are brought from Meccah by the Jallabs, or drivers, after exporting the best to Egypt, the town receives only the refuse."-Vol. ii. pp. 268-272.


. The reader will be curious, too, to learn something of the morality of the Sacred City of Islam.

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“ It is not to be believed that in a town garrisoned by Turkish troops, full of travelled traders, and which supports itself by plundering Hajis, the primitive virtues of the Arab could exist. The Meccans, a dark people, say of the Madani that their hearts are black as their skins are white. This is of course exaggerated; but it is not too much to assert that pride, pugoacity, a peculiar point of honour, and a vindictiveness of wonderful force and patience, are the only characteristic traits of Arab character which the citizens of El Medinah habitually display. Here you meet with scant remains of the chivalry of the desert. A man will abuse his guest, even though he will not dine without him, and would protect him bravely against an enemy. And words often pass lightly between individuals which suffice to cause a blood feud amongst Bedouins. The outward appearance of decorum is conspicuous amongst the Madani. There are no places where Corinthians dwell, as at Meccah, Cairo, and Jeddah. Adultery, if detected, would be punished by lapidation, according to the rigour of the Koranic law, and simple immorality by religious stripes, or, if of repeated occurrence, by expulsion from the city. But scandals seldom occur, and the women, I am told, behave with great decency. Abroad, they have the usual Moslem pleasures of marriage, lyingsin, circumcision feasts, holy visitations, and funerals. At home they employ themselves with domestic matters, and especially in scolding Hasinah' and · Zaaferan.' In this occupation they surpass even the notable English housekeeper of the middle rders of society—the latter being confined to knagging at her slave, whereas the Arab lady is allowed an unbounded extent of vocabulary. At Shaykh Hamid's house, however, I cannot accuse the women of

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"Swearing into strong shudders The immortal gods who heard them.'

“They abused the black girls with unction, but without any violent expletives. At Meccah, however, the old lady in whose house I was living would, when excited by the melancholy temperament of her eldest son, and his irregular hours of eating, scold him in the grossest terms not unfrequently ridiculous in the extreme. For instance, one of her assertions was that he—the son—was the offspring of an immoral mother; which assertion, one might suppose, reflected not indirectly upon herself. So in Egypt I have frequently heard a father, when reproving his boy, address him by o dog, son of a dog !' and spawn of an infidel-of a Jew—. of a Christian. Amongst the men of El Medinah I remarked a considerable share of hypocrisy. Their mouths were as full of religious salutations, exclamations, and hacknied quotations from the Koran as of indecency and vile abuse,--a point in which they resemble the Persiaus. As before observed, they preserve their reputation as the

sons of a holy city by praying only in public. At Constantinople they are by no means remarkable for sobriety. Intoxicating liquors, especially araki, are made in El Medinah only by the Turks : the citizens seldom indulge in this way at home, as detection by smell is imminent among a people of water-bibbers.”—Vol. ii. pp. 280-84.

Mr. Burton had originally intended to proceed from El Medinah direct across to Muscat, from which city, in former times, a caravan regularly set out for the pilgrimage. Finding that this usage had long been discontinued, he proposed to undertake the journey in Bedouin fashion ; and had formed, in this view, a friendship with one of his fellow travellers fronı Yambu, called by the ominous name, Mujrim, or“ the Sinful.” Mujrim undertook to procure

' for him all possible information as to the route, and at last almost consented to be his travelling companion. But in the end, he frankly avowed that no traveller, not even a native Bedouin, could at that time safely undertake a journey in the proposed direction; and as it was impossible to proceed alone, Mr. Burton reluctantly contented himself with the less adventurous route to Meccah. The details of this journey are reserved for his third and concluding volume.

In parting from this amusing and most instructive writer-incomparably the greatest master of Oriental life and manners since Mr. Lane—we must express our very sincere regret that so cultivated and liberal a scholar should have deformed more than one of his pages by coarse and vulgar sneers and insinuations, which must cause deep pain, not alone to every Catholic, but we might add, to almost every religious mind. We shall not stop to particularize the statements and expressions of which we complain. But their presence, as well as a certain vague and unavowed lightness of tone and sentiment on religious subjects, which occasionally makes itself felt rather than ostentatiously displays itself, have been a serious drawback on the otherwise unmixed pleasure with which we have read the Pilgrimage to El Medinah.

1855) De Ravignan’s Times of Clement XIII. and XIV. 109



ART. IV. Clément XIII. et Clément XIV., par le PERE DE RAVIGNAN, De la Compagnie de Jésus. Paris : Julien. Lanier et Cie. 1854. N a former number of this Journal, under the head of

Theory of Jesuit History,” we speculated somewhat at large upon the features of Jesuit character and incidents of Jesuit life, which have given rise to such a diversity and conflict of opinion; and we ventured some timid notions of our own regarding that Society, which for the last three hundred years has filled the world with its action, its successes, its disasters, and finally its extinction and revival. In doing so we had occasion to notice, though very cursorily, Fr. Theiner's Life of Clement XIV., the interest of which is necessarily concentrated upon the suppression of the Jesuits by that Pontiff, and while giving to the eminent author full credit for the spirit at once of candour and of charity in which we believe his work to have been undertaken, we felt it our duty to observe, that whether by a fatality attendant on the subject he had proposed to deal with, or by the mere imperfection of human nature, even in its finest developments, the book was of a character to lead to misconception, and give currency to error; that it was likely to work pain or pleasure in the wrong men, and be oftenest effective in the wrong places; that it would recoil on the friends of truth more damagingly than it could advance upon her enemies, and that it was peculiarly liable to perversion by the malignant and designing. In confirmation of our views upon the last particular, we had only to quote from the pamphlet of a Swiss ecclesiastic, named Leu, pırporting to give the substance and spirit of Fr. Theiner's book, and which we are not called upon to notice further at present, the more especially as the author has made submission in the proper quarter upon other subjects, and may therefore be charitably presumed to have corrected some, at least, of his ideas upon this. It was our wish, however, in the few and possibly crude conceptions we drew together upon a •subject embarrassed by so many difficulties, to have as broad a basis as might be for our theory, and therefore,


fearful of appearing to found it upon any one phase of Jesuit history, such as the pontificate of Clement XIV., and, moreover, not finding in Fr. Theiner's work any peculiarity of view it might be necessary to examine, as a new theory; we did not think it within the scope of our task at the moment to enter at large into the discussion of his work. Our own view, whatever it be worth, was nothing very original, ascribing, as it did, the fortunes, good and evil, of the society, the sympathy and antipathy it provoked, to its very constitutions and functions; treating its successes and disasters not as accidents of its position, but as conditions of its existence; on the simple ground that being a militant, and consequently, according to the slang of the time, an aggressive body, always in active service, and operating against all enemies of the Church and of authority generally, it could not fail to attract the hostility of every enemy, whether of religion or of order. This is the view taken by the Père de Ravignan in his “ Times of Clement XIII. and XIV.,” elicited by Fr. Theiner's work, rather than written in opposition to it, for the Père de Ravignan does not profess to argue but merely to narrate. Having laid down his thesis, which we shall come to presently, and which is, in truth, a contraction, perhaps we ought to say a condensation of our own, he proceeds to detail his facts, and remits their application to the discretion of the reader, a course he probably thinks most conformable to the spirit of the motto he has chosen for the book, "Les Papes n'ont besoin que de la vérité."

The appearance of the work before us is undoubtedly due, as we have said, and as is admitted by Father de Ravignan, to the previous appearance of Fr. Theiner's history of Clement XIV. although the author disclaims any intention of putting it forward as a refutation of what is contained in that volume, and is unwilling that any one should attach a controversial or polemical character to his pages. It requires, however, a rather powerful faculty of abstraction to regard it precisely and to all intents in this light. To do the Père de Ravignan justice, and to enter fully into his ideas, that is not his view or expectation. Substantially, though not formally, his work is apologetic of the society in the latter days of its first existence, and is intended so to be, but without taking the shape of controversy, which almost always leads to a certain amount; however small, of recrimination and bitterness, not quite

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