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they are dependent, there is nothing of the nature of true virtue or religion in them.....And it may be asserted in general that nothing is of the nature of true virtue in which God is not the first and the last ; or which with regard to their exercises in general, have not their first foundation and source in apprehensions of God's supreme dignity and glory, and in answerable esteem and love of him, and have not respect to God as the supreme end.
Concerning the Secondary and Inferior kind of Beauty,
THOUGH this which has been spoken of, alone, is justly esteemed the true beauty of moral agents, or spiritual Beings; this alone being what would appear beautiful in them, upon a clear and comprehensive view of things; and therefore alone is the moral amiableness of Beings that have under standing and will in the eyes of him that perfectly sees all things as they are ; yet there are other qualities, other sensations, propensities and affections of mind, and principles of action, that often obtain the epithet of virtuous, and by many are supposed to have the nature of true virtue ; which are entirely of a distinct nature from this, and have nothing of that kind ; and therefore are erroneously confounded with re, al virtue.....as may particularly and fully appear from things which will be observed in this and the following chapters.
That consent, agreement, or union of Being to Being, which has been spoken of viz. the union or propensity of minds to mental or spiritual existence, may be called the highest, and first, or primary beauty that is to be found among things that exist : Being the proper and peculiar beauty of spiritual and moral Beings, which are the highest and first part of the universal system, for whose sake all the rest has existence. Yet there is another inferior, secondary beauty, which is some image of this, and which is not paculiar to
spiritual Beings, but is found even in inanimate things; whick consists in a mutual consent and agreement of different things in form, manner, quantity, and visible end or design ; called by the various names of regularity, order, uniformity, symmetry, proportion, harmony, &c. Such is the mutual agreement of the various sides of a square, or equilateral triangle, or of a regular polygon. Such is, as it were, the mutual consent of the different parts of the periphery of a circle, or surface of a sphere, and of the corresponding parts of an ellipsis. Such is the agreement of the colors, figures, dimensions and distances of the different spots on a chess board. Such is the beauty of the figures on a piece of chints, or brocade..... Such is the beautiful proportion of the various parts of an human body, or countenance. And such is the sweet mutual consent and agreement of the various notes of a melodious time. This is the same that Mr. Hutcheson, in his treatise on beauty, expresses by uniformity in the midst of variety, Which is no other than the consent or agreement of different things, in form, quantity, &c. He observes, that the greater the variety is, in equal uniformity, the greater the beauty. Which is no more than 10 say, the more there are of different mutually agreeing things, the greater is the beauty. And the reason of that is, because it is more considerable to have many things consent one with another, than a few only.
The beauty which consists in the visible fitness of a thing to its use and unity of design, is not a distinct sort of beauty from this. For it is to be observed, that one thing which contributes to the beauty of the agreement and proportionof various things, is their relation one to another ; which connects them, and introduces them together into view and consideration, and whereby one suggests the other to the mind, and the mind is led to compare them and so to expect and desire agreement. Thus the uniformity of two or more pil. lars, as they may happen to be found in different places, is plot an equal degree of beauty, as that uniformity in so many pillars in the corresponding parts of the same building. So means and an intended effect are related one to another. The miswerableness of a thing to its use is only the proportion,
fitness, and agreeing of a cause or means to a visibly designed effect, and so an effect suggested to the mind by the idea of the means. This kind of beauty is not entirely different from that beauty which there is in fitting a mortise to its tenon. Only when the beauty consists in unity of design, or the adaptedness of a variety of things to promote one intendo ed effect, in which all conspire, as the various parts of an ingenious complicated machine, there is a double beauty, as there is a twofold agreement and conformity. First, there is the agreement of the various parts to the designed end. Secondly, through this, viz. the designed end or effect, all the various particulars agree one with another, as the general medium of their union, whereby they being united in this third, they thereby are all united one to another:
The reason, or at least one reason why God has made this kind of mutual consent and agreement of things beautiful and grateful to those intelligent Beings that perceive it, probably is, that there is in it some image of the true, spiritual original beauty which has been spoken of; consisting in Being's consent to Being, or the union of minds or spiritual Beings in a mutual propensity and affection of heart. The other is an image of this, because by that uniformity, diverse things become as it were one, as it is in this cordial union. And it pleases God to observe analogy in his works, as is manifest in fact in innumerable instances į and especially to establishe inferior things in an analogy to superior. Thus, in how many instances has he formed brutes in analogy to the nature of mankind ? And plants in analogy to animals with respect to the manner of their generation, nutrition, &c. And so he has constituted the external world in an analogy to things in the spiritual world, in numberless instances; as might be shewn, if it were necessary, and here were proper place and room for it..... Why such analogy in God's works pleases him, it is not needful now to inquire. It is sufficient that he makes. an agreement or consent of different things, in their forin, manner, measure, &c. to appear beautiful, because here is some image of an higher kind of agreement and consent of spiritual Beings. It has pleased him to establish a law of nature, by virtue of which the uniformity and mutual corresa pondence of a beautiful plant, and the respect which the various parts of a regular building seem to have one to another, and their agreement and union, and the consent or concord of the various notes of a melodious tune, should appear beautiful; because therein is some image of the consent of mind, of the different members of a society or system of intelligent Beings, sweetly united in a benevolent agreement of heart...... And here by the way, I would further observe, probably it is with regard to this image or resemblance, which secondary beauty has of truc spiritual beauty, that God has so constituted nature, that the presenting of this inferior beauty, especially in those kinds of it which have the greatest resemblance of the primary beauty, as the harmony of sounds, and the beauties of nature, have a tendency to assist those whose hearts are under the influence of a truly virtuous temper, :o dispose them to the exercises of divine love, and enliven in them a sense of spiritual beauty.
From what has been said we may see, that there are two sorts of agreement or consent of one thing to another. (1) There is a cordial agreement ; that consists in concord and unioni of mind and heart ; which, if not attended (viewing things in general) with more discord than concord, is true virtue, and the original or primary beanty, which is the only true moral beauty......(2.) There is a natural union or agreement; which, though some image of the other, is entirely a distinct thing; the will, disposition, or affection of the heart having no concern in it, but consisting only in uniformity and consent of nature, form, quantity, &c. (as before described) wherein lies an inferior secondary sort of beauty, which may, in distinction from the other, be called natural beauty..... This may be sufficient to let the reader know how I shall hereafter use the phrases of cordial, and natural agreement; and moral, spiritual, divine, and primary original beauty, and secondary, or natural beauty.
Concerning this latter, inferior kind of beauty, the following things may be observed :
1. The cause why secondary beauty is grateful to men, is only a law of nature, which God has fixed, or an instinct he has given to mankind ; and not their perception of the same thing which God is pleased to have regard to, as the ground or rule by which he has established such a law of nature..... This appears in two things.
(1.) That which God has respect to, as the rule or ground of this law of nature he has given us, whereby things having a secondary beauty are made grateful to men, is their mutual agreement and proportion, in measure, form, &c. But in
many instances persons that are gratified, and have their minds affected, in presenting this beauty, do not reflect on that particular agreement and proportion which, according to the law of nature is the ground and rule of beauty in the case, yea, are ignorant of it. Thus, a man may be pleased with the harmony of the notes in a tune, and yet know nothing of that proportion or adjustment of the notes, which by the law of nature is the ground of the melody. He knows not, that the vibrations in one note regularly coincide with the vibrations in another, that the vibrations of a note coincide in time with two vibrations of its octave ; and that two vibrations of a note coincide with three of its fifth, &c. Yea, he may not know, that there are vibrations of the air in the case, or any corresponding motions in the organs of hearing, in the auditory nerve, or animal spirits.....So, a man may be affected and pleased with a beautiful proportion of the features in a face, and yet not know what that proportion is, or what measures, quantities, and distances it consists in.
In this a sensation of secondary beauty differs from a sensation of primary and spiritual beauty, consisting in a spiritual union and agreement. What makes the latter grateful, is perceiving the union itself. It is the immediate view of that wherein the beauty fundamentally lies, that is pleasing to the virtuous mind.
(2.) As was observed before, God, in establishing such a law that mutual natural agreement of different things, in form, quantity, &c. should appear beautiful or grateful to men, seems to have had regard to the image and resemblance Voz. II.