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What thynges he that is elected or appointed to be a gouernour of a

publike weale ought to premeditate. N the boke precedinge I haue (as I truste) suffi

ciently declared as wel what is to be called a very and righte publike weale, as also that there shulde be therof one prince and soueraigne

aboue all other gouernours. And I haue also expressed my conceipte and opinion touching nat only the studies, but also the exercises concernynge the necessary education of noble men and other, called to the gouernance of a publike weale, in suche fourme as, by the noble example of their liues and the frute therof coming, the publike weale, that shal happen to be under their gouernance, shall nat faile to be accounted happy, and the autoritie on them to be emploied well and fortunately. Nowe will I traicte of the preparation of suche personages, whan they firste receyue any great dignitie, charge, or gouernance of the weale publike.

• Francesco Patrizi, on whose work, as we have seen, “The Governour' was modelled, says : ‘Hactenus superioribus argumentis et exemplis satis abundè probatum sit, naturale imperium unius esse hominis, et unum longè melius imperare quàm plures : deinceps autem in sequente volumine ostendemus justum imperium unius esse regnum, et Regem bonum justè imperare,'-De Regno et Reg. Instit. lib. i. tit. 13. ed. 1582.

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Firste, suche persones beinge nowe adulte, that is to saye, passed theyr childehode as well in maners as in yeres, if for their vertues and lernynge they happe to be called to receyue any dignitie, they shulde firste amoue all company from them; and in a secrete oratorie or priuie chambre, by them selfe assemble all the powers of their wittes to remembre these VII articles, whiche I haue nat of myn owne heed deuised, but excerped or gathered as well out of holy scripture as out of the warkes of other excellent writars of famouse memorie, as they shall sone perceiue whiche haue radde and perused good autours in greke and latine.

First, and aboue all thing, let them consider that from god" only procedeth all honour, and that neither noble progenie, succession, nor election be of suche force, that by them any astate for or dignitie maye be so stablished that god beinge stered to vengeaunce shall nat shortly resume it, and perchance translate it where it shall like hymn. And for as moche as examples greatly do profite in the stede of experience, here shall it be necessarye to remembre the historie of Saule, whom god hym selfe elected to be the firste kynge of Israhel ;that where Saul and god commaunded hym by the mouth of Samuel the Amalech. prophet, that for as moche as the people called Amalech had resisted the children of Israhel, whan they first departed from Egypt, he shuld therfore distroy al the countray, and slee men, women, and children, all beastis and catell, and that he shulde nothinge saue or kepe therof." But Saul after Disobe

that he had vainquisshed Amalech, and taken Agag, dience. kynge therof, prisoner, he hauing on hym compas

• The following 'articles' are all, with one exception, taken from the Institutio Principis Christiani, of which the author had already spoken in terms of the highest approval.-See Vol. i. p. 95 and notes.

• This was the starting point so strongly insisted upon by Erasmus. Quoties venit in mentem te principem esse, pariter succurrat et illud, te Christianum esse principem. Theologia Christianorum tria præcipua quædam in Deo ponit, summam potentiam, summam sapientiam, summam bonitatem. Hunc ternarium pro viribus absolvas oportet.'— Instit. Principis Christiani, pp. 26, 32, ed. 1519.

• See i Sam. ix. 16, 17. d See I Sam. xv. 3.

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sion saued his life only. Also he preserued the best oxen, catel, and vestures, and all other thing that was fairest and of most estimation, and wolde nat consume it accordyng as god had commaunded him, saying to Samuel that the people kept it to the intent that they wolde make there with to all mightie god a solemne sacrifice. But Samuel, reprouing him, said, Better is obedience than sacrifice, with other wordes that do folowe in the historie. Finally, for that offence onely, al mightie god abiected Saul, that he shulde no more reigne ouer Israhel, and caused Samuel furthe with to enoynte Dauid kynge, the yongest sonne of a poure man of Bethleem, named Isai, whiche was kepyng his father's shepe. Sens for ones neglecting the commandement of god, and that neither natural pitie, nor the intent to do sacrifice with that whiche was saued, mought excuse the transgression of goddes commandement nor mitigate his greuous displesure. Howe vigilant ought a christen man beinge in autoritie—howe vigilant (I say), industrious, and diligent ought he to be in the administration of a publike weale? Dreding alway the wordes that be spoken by eternall sapience to them that be gouernours of publik

Sapientie. weales d; All powar and vertue is gyuen of the lorde that of al other is highest, who shal examine your dedes, and

* See i Sam. xv. 22.
I.e. Jesse. Josephus calls him 'lerraios, whence Isai.
e See i Sam. xvi. II.

& 'For the power is gyuen you of the lorde, and the strength from the hyghest, which shall trye your workes and searche out your ymagynacyons.

*Howe that ye, beynge offycers of hys kyngdome, haue not executed trewe iugement, haue not kept the law of rightuousnes, nor walked after his wil.

Horrybly and that ryght soone shal he apere unto you; for an harde Judgement shall they haue that beare rule.

Mercy is graunted unto the symple, but they that be in auctorite shall be sore punyshed.

•For God, which is Lorde ouer al, shal excepte no mans person, neyther shal he stande in awe of any mans greatnesse ; for he hathe made the smal and great, and careth for all alyke.

• But the myghtie shall haue the sorer punyshment.

*Unto you, therfore (O ye Kynges) do I speake, that ye maye learne wysdome and not go amysse.'- The Boke of Wysedome, cap. vi. ed. 1542.

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