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and on whom it ought to be employed. Therfore it maye be saide that he usethe euery thynge best that exerciseth the vertue whiche is to the thinge most appropred. For riches is of the nombre of thinges that may be either good or iuell, whiche is in the arbitrement of the gyuer." And for that cause liberalitie and beneficence be of suche affinitie, that the one may neuer from the other be seperate. For the employment of money is nat liberalitie if it be nat for a good ende or purpose."

The noble emperours Antonine and Alexander Seuerus

• Adam Smith thus distinguishes between the good and bad employment of capital. The expense,' he says, 'that is laid out in durable commodities gives maintenance, commonly, to a greater number of people, than that which is employed in the most profuse hospitality. Of two or three hundredweight of provisions which may sometimes be served up at a great festival, one half, perhaps, is thrown to the dunghill, and there is always a great deal wasted and abused. But if the expense of this entertainment had been employed in setting to work masons, carpenters, upholsterers, mechanics, &c., a quantity of provisions of equal value would have been distributed among a still greater number of people, who would have bought them in pennyworths and pound weights, and not have lost nor thrown away a single ounce of them. In the one way, besides, this expense maintains productive, in the other (to some degree ?) unproductive hands. In the one way therefore it increases, in the other it does not increase, the exchangeable value of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country.'- Wealth of Nations, vol. ii. p. 32. Those princes who have heaped, with the greatest profusion, wealth, power, and honour upon their favourites, have seldom excited that degree of attachment to their persons which has often been experienced by those who were more frugal of their favours. The well-natured but injudicious prodigality of James I. of Great Britain seems to have attached nobody to his person; and that prince, notwithstanding his social and harmless disposition, appears to have lived and died without a friend.'-Adam Smith's Theory of Mor. Sent., p. 101, ed. 1853.


b Liberality in princes,' says Hume, ‘is regarded as a mark of beneficence; but when it occurs that the homely bread of the honest and industrious is often thereby converted into delicious cates for the idle and the prodigal, we soon retract our heedless praises. The regrets of a prince, for having lost a day were noble and generous; but had he intended to have spent it in acts of generosity to his greedy courtiers it was better lost than misemployed after that manner.'-Philosoph. Works, vol. iv. p. 251, ed. 1826.

The author has here, as on a former occasion, (See Vol. I. p. 288), confounded this emperor with Septimius Severus, whom he undoubtedly alludes to in this place. Gibbon says of the latter, 'His expensive taste for building, magnificent shows, and, above all, a constant and liberal distribution of corn and provisions, were the surest means of captivating the affection of the Roman people.'-Decline and Fall

gaue of the reuenues of the empire innumerable substaunce, to the reedifieng of cities and commune houses Antonine decayed for age, or by erthe quaues subuerted, wherin and Alexthey practised liberalitie and also beneficence.


liberall em

But Tiberius, Nero, Caligula, Heliogabalus and perours. other semblable monsters, whiche exhausted and consumed infinite treasures in bordell houses, and places where Prodigaabominacions were used, also in enriching slaues, con- litie.

of Rom. Emp., vol. i. p. 258. Spartianus tells us, 'Sunt per plurimas civitates opera ejus insignia. Magnum vero illud in vitâ ejus, quòd Romæ omnes ædes publicas, quæ vitio temporum labebantur, instauravit, nusquam prope suo nomine ascripto, servatis tamen ubique titulis conditorum. Moriens septem annɔrum canonem, ita ut quotidiana septuaginta quinque millia modiorum expendi possent, reliquit olei vero tantum ut per quinquennium non solum urbis usibus, sed et totius Italiæ quæ oleo egeret, sufficeret.'-Hist. August., tom. i. p. 638. With regard to Antoninus Pius, Merivale says, 'While all the public establishments were maintained on the most frugal scale, he was munificent in his gifts and largesses. He acquitted the promises of Hadrian at his adoption, completed many of his predecessor's buildings, and remitted the coronary gold expected on his accession, to the Italians entirely, to the extent of one half to the provincials. When the treasury, which he received full from Hadrian, became at last empty, he replenished it by the sale of the imperial furniture.'-Hist. of Rome, vol. vii. p. 501. The account given by Capitolinus is as follows:- 'Multas etiam civitates adjuvit pecuniâ, ut opera vel nova facerent, vel vetera restituerent ... Vini, olei, et tritici penuriam, per ærarii sui damna emendo et gratis populo dando, sedavit. Adversa ejus temporibus hæc provenerunt: fames de quà diximus, circi ruina, terræmotus, quo Rhodiorum et Asiæ oppida conciderunt: quæ omnia mirificè instauravit.'-Hist. Aug. tom. i. pp. 267, 268, and it was without doubt this account with which Sir Thos. Elyot was familiar.

Bordell = brothel. Du Fresne in his notes to Joinville's work, derives the French equivalent bordel (mod. bordeau) from the English. 'Le mot de Bordet, pour designer un lieu infame, lupanar, vient de ce qu'ordinairement les garces, et autres gens de cette farine, habitoient les petites maisons, qu'en vieux langage François on nommoit bordels, du diminutif de borde, qui signifie maison, et probablement a esté emprunté du bord des Saxons Anglois, où ce mot a la même signification.'-Observations sur Hist. de S. Louys, p. 63, ed. 1668. But there is no need to assume that the French borrowed the word from the Anglo-Saxons, because the word bordellum was in common use in the Middle Ages as a synonym for ædicula, tuguriolum. Thus Guillaume de Jumièges, better known as Gulielmus Gemiticensis, who wrote before 1087, says, 'Ricardus nempe qui primogenitus erat noctu in vili casâ juxta quoddam stagnum securus dormiebat. Protinus quidam miles potens, nomine Ricardus de Sanctâ Scholasticâ, cujus terram devastaverat, domuncu

cubines and baudes,a were nat therfore named liberall, but suffreth therfore parpetuall reproche of writars, beinge called lam circumdedit cum suâ familiâ. Sorengus vero expergefactus de Bordello exiit, et fugiens in vivarium exilire voluit.'—De Ducibus Normannis, lib. vi. cap. 14, Here it is evident that vilis casa, domuncula, and bordellum, are equivalent expressions. Again, in the Black Book of the Exchequer, we find the same use of the word in a proclamation of outlawry of one William de Braose, in which it is alleged by the King that 'postquam transfretavimus in Hyberniam, ipse nobis malum fecit quod potuit, et unum molendinum et tres Bordellos combussit,' vol. i. p. 382. ed. 1771. Dugdale, who gives this document at length in his Baronage, vol. i. p. 417, translates the above passage thus: After the king was gone into Ireland (W. de B.) did more mischief by burning of houses.' And in a charter belonging to the Priory of Briweton or Bruton, in Somersetshire, we find enumerated amongst their possessions, ortum ante portam atrii cum bordello.'-Mon. Angl. vol. vi. pt. I, p. 336, ed. 1830. In a letter of protection granted by King John II. of France to the city of Florence, A. D. 1351, occurs the following clause: Mandantes Senescallis Tholose et Agenni, &c., quatenus dictos Consules et habitatores dicta villæ eorum officiales et servitores, familiares hominesque suos de corpore, cum eorum bonis et rebus, juribus, domibus, maneriis, bordillis et possessionibus universis et singulis, in et sub dictis protectione et salvâ ac speciali Gardiâ Regiâ manuteneant et conservent.'-Ordon. des Rois de France, tom. iv. p. 96, ed. 1734, where the word bordillis is explained in a side note to be 'especes de maison.' The word, however, had even at this period acquired the secondary and less reputable signification which it has retained up to the present time, for we find it so used in an award of arbitrators appointed by Gregory X. to settle certain disputes between the Archbishop of Vienne and the Chapter of St. Romain, made in 1274. Item quòd prout decet, dict. Dom. Archiepiscopus, Vicarius, Judex, seu Correarius non permittant neque sustineant morari mulierem uxoratam publicè in prostibulo seu bordello.'-Hist. de Dauphiné, tom. i. p. 126, ed. 1722. Dugdale, among the charters relating to the foundation of Saint Mary's Abbey at York, prints one in which occurs the following passage: Item inquiratur qualiter dicti canonici capellam sive heremitorium de Bordelbi primitus obtinuerunt, et utrum ante Conquestum dictum Bordelbi pro lupanari habebatur.'-Mon. Ang. vol. iii. p. 547, ed. 1821. To turn to English writers, the word is used by Chaucer in The Persones Tale, in the sense applied to it by Sir T. Elyot, 'namely these harlottis, that haunten bordels of these foule wommen.'-Works, vol. iii. p. 346, ed. 1866. While Harrison employs a form of the word which appears to be intermediate between its earliest and latest forms. Speaking of monks he says, 'Being bold from time to time to visit their tenants, they wrought oft great wickednesse, and made those endwares little better than brodelhouses, especiallie where nunries were farre off.'— Descript. of Engl. p. 194.


This word may perhaps come from the name of the place, bordellum, borda, or from the French word baude, signifying bold, insolent, impudent. It is impossible in the face of the facts stated in the last note to accept Richardson's suggestion that bordell is derived from bawd.


deuourers and wasters of treasure. Wherfore in as moche as liberalite holy resteth in the geuynge of money, it somtyme coloureth a vice. But beneficence is neuer taken but in the better parte, and (as Tulli saieth) is taken out of vertue, where liberalite commeth out of the cofer. Also where a man distributeth his substaunce to many parsones, the lasse liberalitie shall he use to other; so with bounteousnes bountie is minisshed.c Onely they that be called beneficiall, and do use the vertue of beneficence, whiche consisteth in counsaylinge and helpinge other with any assistence in tyme of nede, shall alway fynde coadiutours and supportours of their gentyll courage. And doughtlas that maner of gentilnesse that consisteth in labour, studie, and diligence, is more commendable, and extendeth further, and also may more profite parsones, than that whiche resteth in rewardes and expences. But to retourne to liberalitie.

⚫ Gibbon declares that 'it is almost superfluous to enumerate the unworthy successors of Augustus. Their unparalleled vices, and the splendid theatre on which they were acted, have saved them from oblivion. The dark unrelenting Tiberius, the furious Caligula, the feeble Claudius, the profligate and cruel Nero, the beastly Vitellius, and the timid inhuman Domitian, are condemned to everlasting infamy.' The same writer says of Elagabalus, that he 'abandoned himsel to the grossest pleasures with ungoverned fury, and soon found disgust and satiety in the midst of his enjoyments. The inflammatory powers of art were summoned to his aid; the confused multitude of women, of wines, and of dishes, and the studied variety of attitudes and sauces, served to revive his languid appetites. New terms and new inventions in these sciences, the only ones cultivated and patronised by the monarch, signalised his reign, and transmitted his infamy to succeeding times. A capricious prodigality supplied the want of taste and elegance; and whilst Elagabalus lavished away the treasures of his people in the wildest extravagance, his own voice and that of his flatterers applauded a spirit and magnificence unknown to the tameness of his predecessors.'-Decline and Fall of Rom. Emp. vol. i. pp. 217, 282, ed. 1854.

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Altera ex arcâ, altera ex virtute, depromitur.'-De Off. lib. ii. cap. 15.

⚫ 'Ita benignitate benignitas tollitur; quâ quo in plures usus sis, eo minus in multos uti possis.'-Cic. ubi supra.


At qui operâ, id est virtute et industriâ, benefici et liberales erunt, primum, quo pluribus profuerint, eo plures ad benignè faciendum adjutores habebunt.'Cic. ubi supra.

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'Quamobrem id quidem non dubium est, quin illa benignitas, quæ constet

What greater foly may be, than that thinge that a Prodi- man most gladly dothe, to endeuour him with all galytie. studie that it may no lenger be done? Wherfore Tulli calleth them prodigall, that in inordinate feastes and bankettes, vayne playes, and huntinges, do spende al their substaunce, and in those thinges wherof they shall leaue but a shorte or no remembraunce. Wherfore to resorte to the counsaile of Aristotle before expressed. Natwithstandinge that liberalitie, in a noble man specially, is commended, all though it somwhat do excede the termes of measure; yet if it be well and duely emploied, it acquireth parpetuall honour to the giuer, and moche frute and singuler commoditie therby encreaseth.b For where honeste and virtuous parsonages be aduaunced, and well rewarded, it sterith the courages of men, whiche haue any sparke of vertue, to encrease therein, with all their force and endeuour. Wherfore nexte to the helpinge and relieuinge of a communaltie, the great part of liberalitie is to be emploied on men of vertue and good qualities. Wherein is required to be ex operâ et industriâ, et honestior sit, et latiùs pateat, et possit prodesse pluribus.' --Cic. De Offic. lib. ii. cap 15.

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'Prodigi, qui epulis et viscerationibus, et gladiatorum muneribus, ludorum venationumque apparatu pecunias profundunt in eas res, quarum memoriam aut brevem, aut nullam omnino, sint relicturi.'-De Off. lib. ii. cap. 16.

• Πρέπει δὲ καὶ οἷς τὰ τοιαῦτα προϋπάρχει δι' αὐτῶν ἢ διὰ τῶν προγόνων ἢ ὧν αὐτοῖς μέτεστι, καὶ τοῖς εὐγενέσι καὶ τοῖς ἐνδόξοις καὶ ὅσα τοιαῦτα· πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα μέγεθος ἔχει καὶ ἀξίωμα. Μάλιστα μὲν οὖν τοιοῦτος ὁ μεγαλοπρεπής, καὶ ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοις δαπανήμασιν ἡ μεγαλοπρέπεια, ὥσπερ εἴρηται· μέγιστα γὰρ καὶ ἐντιμότατα.— Arist. Ethic. Nicom. lib. iv. cap. 2, § 14.

• It was thus that Addison, starting as a poor scholar, with a pension of £300 a year, procured for him by the influence of Montague, to enable him to travel, was advanced to the highest office. 'Addison,' says Lord Macaulay, 'without high birth, and with little property, rose to a post which Dukes, the heads of the great houses of Talbot, Russell, and Bentinck, have thought it an honour to fill. Without opening his lips in debate he rose to a post the highest that Chatham or Fox ever reached.' But he explains that this rapid promotion was due to the fact that 'to the influence which Addison derived from his literary talents was added all the influence which arises from character.'-Essays, vol. ii. pp. 335, 336, ed. 1854.

a Pitt seems to have totally ignored this injunction. The love of literature,' says Lord Macaulay, 'had induced Augustus to heap benefits on Pompeians,

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