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enteruewe and conuersation is moche more pleasaunt, specially if the studies haue in them any delectable affection or motion. For where they be to serious or full of contention, frendship is oftentimes assaulted, whereby it is often in parile. Where the studie is elegant and the mater illecebrous, that is to say, swete to the redar, the course wherof is rather gentill persuasion and quicke reasoninges than ouer subtill argumentes or litigious controuersies, there also it hapneth that the studentes do delite one in a nother and be without enuie or malicious contention.
Nowe let us trie out what is that frendshippe that we suppose to be in good men. Verely it is a blessed and stable connexion of sondrie willes, makinge of two parsones one in
• But Dugald Stewart observes that where the ground-work of two characters in point of moral worth is the same, there is sometimes a contrast in the secondary qualities, of taste, of intellectual accomplishments, and even of animal spirits, which instead of presenting obstacles to friendship, has a tendency to bind more strongly the knot of mutual attachment between the parties. And he adds that 'two very interesting and memorable examples of this may be found in Cuvier's account of the friendship between Buffon and Daubenton, and in Playfair's account of the friendship between Black and Hutton.'—Works, vol. vi. p. 176, ed. 1855.
• Hume says, “A delicacy of taste is favourable to love and friendship, by confining our choice to few people and making us indifferent to the company and conversation of the greater part of men ... One that has well digested his knowledge both of books and men, has little enjoyment but in the company of a few select companions. He feels too sensibly how much all the rest of mankind fall short of the notions which he has entertained. And, his affections being thus confined within a narrow circle, no wonder he carries them further than if they were more general and undistinguished. The gaiety and frolic of a bottle companion improves with him into a solid friendship ; and the ardours of a youthful appetite become an elegant passion.'-- Phil. Works, vol. iii. pp. 6, 7. 'Mathematicians and natural philosophers,' says Adam Smith, from their independency upon the public opinion, have little temptation to form themselves into factions and cabals, either for the support of their own reputation, or for the depression of that of their rivals. They are almost always men of the most amiable simplicity of manners, who live in good harmony with one another, are the friends of one another's reputation, enter into no intrigue in order to secure the public applause, but are pleased when their works are approved of, without being either much vexed or very angry when they are neglected.'-— Theory of Mora, Sent. p. 181.
hauinge and suffringe. And therfore a frende is proprely named of Philosophers the other I. For that in them is but one mynde and one possession; and that, which more is, a man more reioiseth at his frendes good fortune than at his
Horestes and Pilades, beinge wonderfull like in all features, were taken to gider and presented unto a tyrant who deedly hated Horestes, but whan he behelde them bothe, and wolde haue slayne Horestes onely, he coulde nat decerne the one from the other. And also Pilades, to deliuer his frende, affirmed that he was Orestes; on the other parte Orestes, to saue Pilades, denied and said that he was Orestes (as the trouthe was). Thus a longe tyme they to gither contendinge, the one to die for the other, at the laste so relented the fierse and cruell harte of the
• It was Zeno who originated the expression which afterwards passed into a proverb. According to Diogenes Laertius, ερωτηθείς τι εστι φίλος, άλλος εγώ' έφη. -Lib. vii. cap. 1, $23, p. 164, ed. Didot. 1850. The Latin equivalent is 'alter ego,' which is frequently employed by Cicero : thus in the Letters to Atticus he says, “Me enim ipsum multo magis accuso; deinde te, quasi me alterum.'-Lib. iii. 15. And again, Ille legatos quindecim quum postularet, me principem nominavit ; et ad omnia me alterum se fore dixit.'-Lib. iv. I. Another for of the same expression is also found. Thus, speaking of a 'true friend,' he says, • Est enim is quidem tamquam alter idem.'—De Amicit. cap. 21.
Aristotle says, "Έστι γαρ, ώς φαμέν, ο φίλος έτερος εγώ. - Magn. Moral. lib. ii. cap. 15. Bacon says, “The best way to represent to life the manifold use of friendship, is to cast and see how many things there are which a man cannot do himself; and then it will appear that it was a sparing speech of the ancients, to say that “a friend is another himself,” for that a friend is far more than himself.'— Essays, p. 265, ed. 1857.
• Thoas, King of Tauris. The story of the friendship of Orestes and Pylades forms the subject of two tragedies of Euripides viz. Orestes, and Iphigenia in Tauris, and has been embellished in various ways by the poets. The particular form of it, referred to by the author, seems to have been popularised through a play of Pacuvius, which has not come down to us, but which is mentioned by Cicero. Qui clamores totâ caveâ nuper in hospitis et amici mei M. Pacuvii novâ fabulâ, quum ignorante rege, uter eorum esset Orestes, Pylades Oresten se esse diceret, ut pro illo necaretur; Orestes autem, ita ut erat, Orestem se esse perseveraret ?' - De A micitia, cap. 7.
And it may be presumed that it was from Cicero that Sir Thomas Elyot derived his knowledge of the story, but, according to his usual practice, he has himself added some details which are not given by Cicero, and, after the fashion of a modern novelist, has made the tale end happily, and in a way which would commend it to the sympathies of his readers.
tyrant, that wondringe at their meruailous frendship he suffred them frely to departe, without doinge to them any damage."
Pitheas and Damon, two Pythagoriens, that is to say, studentes of Pythagoras lerninge, beinge ioyned to gither in a parfeite frendship, for that one of them and was accused to haue conspired agayne Dionyse, king
Damon. of Sicile, they were bothe taken and brought to the kinge, who immediately gaue sentence, that he that was accused shulde be put to dethe. But he desired the kinge that, er he died, he mought retourne home to set his householde in ordre and to distribute his goodes; whereat the kinge laughinge demaunded of him skornefully what pledge he wolde leaue hym to come agayne. At the whiche wordes his companyon stepte furthe and saide, that he wolde remayne there as a pledge for his frende, that in case he came nat againe at the daye to hym appointed, that he wyllingly wolde lose his hede ; whiche condicion the tyraunt receyued. The yonge man that shuld haue died, was suffred to departe home to his house, where he set all thinge in ordre and disposed his goodes wisely. The day appointed for his retourne was commen, the tyme moche passed; wherfore the kynge called for him that was pledge, who came furthe merely without semblaunte of drede, offringe to abide the sentence of the tyraunt, and without grudginge to die for the sauinge the life of his frende. But as the officer of iustyce had closed his eien with a kerchiefe, and had drawen his swerde to haue striken of his hedde, his felowe came runninge and cryenge that the daye of his appointment was nat yet past; wherfore he desired the minister of iustice to lose his felowe, and to prepare to do execution on hym that had giuen the occasion. Whereat the tyraunt being all abasshed, commaunded bothe to be brought in his presence, and whan he
Ire jubet Pylades carum periturus Oresten.
Hic negat : inque vicem pugnat uterque mori.
Ovid, Epist. ex Pont. lib. iii. 2, 85-88.
had ynough wondred at their noble hartes and their constance in very frendship, he offring to them great rewardes desired them to receyue hym into their company; and so, doinge them moche honour, dyd set them at liberte. Undoughtedly that frendship whiche dothe depende either on profite or els in pleasure, if the habilitie of the parsone, whiche mought be profitable, do fayle or diminisshe, or the disposition of the parsone, whiche shulde be pleasaunt, do chaunge or appayre, the feruentnesse of loue cesseth, and than is there no frendship.
The wonderfull history of Titus and Gisippus, and whereby is fully
declared the figure of perfet amitie. BUT nowe in the middes of my labour, as it were to pause, and take brethe, and also to recreate the reders, which, fatigate
• 'Damon et Phintias, Pythagoricæ prudentiæ sacris initiati, tam fidelem inter e amicitiam junxerunt, ut, cum alterum ex his Dionysius Syracusanus interficere vellet, atque is tempus ab eo, quo, prius quàm periret, domum profectus res suas ordinaret, impetravisset, alter vadem se pro reditu ejus tyranno dare non dubitarit. Solutus erat periculo mortis, qui modo cervices gladio subjectas habuerat: eidem caput suum subjecerat, cui securo vivere licebat. Igitur omnes, et in primis Dionysius, novæ atque ancipitis rei exitum speculabantur. Appropinquante deinde definitâ die, nec illo redeunte, unusquisque stultitiæ tam temerarium sponsorem damnabat. At is “nihil se de amici constantiâ metuere” prædicabat. Eodem autem momento, et horâ à Dionysio constitutâ, qui eam acceperat, supervenit. Admiratus amborum animum tyrannus, supplicium fidei remisit; insuperque eos rogavit, “ut se in societatem amicitiæ, tertium sodalitii gradum ultimâ culturum benevolentiâ, reciperent." — Val. Max. lib. iv. cap. 7, ext. 1.
• The greater portion of this chapter is entirely omitted in Mr. Eliot's edition.
• The tale which occupies nearly the whole of the present chapter is a translation of one of the stories in the Decameron of Boccaccio (Gior. X. Novel. viü.), and is probably the earliest English version of any of the great poet's writings. It is doubtful, however, whether Sir Thos. Elyot translated directly from the original or (as appears more probable) made use of a Latin version, by the celebrated Philip Beroaldo, whose editions of the classics were in great repute in the sixteenth century. As copies of the latter version are now extremely rare, it has
with longe preceptes, desire varietie of mater, or some newe pleasaunt fable or historie, I will reherce a right goodly example of frendship. Whiche example, studiousely radde, shall ministre to the redars singuler pleasure and also incredible comforte to practise amitie.
There was in the citie of Romea a noble senatour named Fuluius, who sent his sone called Titus, beinge a childe, to the citie of Athenes in Greece (whiche was the fountaine of al maner of doctrine), there to lerne good letters, and caused him
been deemed advisable to present a new edition of it to the reader, who can of course easily make for himself the comparison with the original in its native tongue. The single copy in the Brit. Mus., which is now reprinted for the first time, bears the title • Mithica bistoria Johannis Boccatii, poetæ laureati, de Tito Romano Gisippoque Atheniensi, philosophiæ tironibus ac commilitonibus, amicitiæ vim elucidans, nuper per Philippum Beroaldum ex italico in latinum transversa ;' and is without date, but is supposed to have been printed at Leipsic in 1495. More than thirty years after the publication of The Governour, one Edward Lewicke, whose name, says Warton, is ‘not known in the catalogue of English poets,' brought out a rhythmical version of the story, calling it ‘The most wonder ful and pleasaunt History of Titus and Gisippus, whereby is fully declared the figure of perfect frendshyp, drawen into English metre by Edwarde Lewicke, anno 1562.' Mr. Collier has shown conclusively (Poet. Decameron, vol. ii. pp. 84, 85) that Lewicke was indebted not only for the form of the narrative, but ‘even for some of his very words and phrases,' to this chapter of The Governour; and there is not only a strong resemblance throughout, but a perfect identity in some passages,' which renders it extremely probable that the story was only known to Lewicke by a perusal of Sir T. Elyot's work. Lewicke's version, therefore, deservedly sank into obscurity, and is now very rarely met with. According to M. Brunet, a copy was sold in 1854 for £27, but the National Library does not contain any specimen of this poetaster. Another metrical version of much the same character was that printed by Wynkyn de Worde, entitled “The History of Tytus and Gesyppus, translated out of Latyn into englyshe by Willyam Walter ;' this is even more rare than the former, and is not to be found in the Brit. Mus., but a copy is said to have realised the high price of £36 at the Roxburgh sale. According to Brunet, the Latin text which Walter translated was written by Matthew Bandello, and published at Milan in 1509. Warton calls this an exceedingly scarce book.'-Hist. E. P. vol. ii. p. 493, note. The reader who compares Sir T. Elyot's version either with the Italian of Boccaccio, or with the Latin of Beroaldo, will not fail to remark that our author has diverged widely from both sources.
• 'Quo tempore Octavius Cæsar, nondum cognominatus Augustus, in triumviratum Romanum tegebat imperium, fuit Romæ P. Qu. Fulvius, homo patricius ac nobilis, qui filium nomine Titum Fulvium, juvenem singulari ingenio præditum,