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to be suspected. Also there is in that frende small commoditie whiche foloweth a man lyke his shadowe, meuinge onely whan he meueth, and abidinge where he list to tary. These Plutarchus be the mortall enemyes of noble wittes and specially de libe. edu

cand. in youthe,a whan communely they be more inclined to glorie than grauitie. Wherfore that liberalitie, whiche is on suche flaterers imployed, is nat'onely perisshed but also spilled and deuoured. Wherfore in myne oppinion it were a right necessarye lawe that shulde be made to put suche persones openly to tortures, to the fearefull example of other: sens in all princes lawes (as Plutarche sayetha) nat onely he that

Flatery hathe slayne the kynges son and heire, but also he

per nicious that counterfaiteth his seale, or adulterateth his coyne to gentil with more base metall, shall be iuged to die as a


Απάντων μεν γαρ, όπερ έφην, των πονηρών ανθρώπων απάγειν δει τους παίδας, μάλιστα δε των κολάκων. "Οπερ γαρ πολλάκις και προς πολλούς των πατέρων διατελώ λέγων, και νυν αν είπoιμι· γένος ουδέν έστιν εξωλέστερον, ουδε μάλλον και θάττον έκτραχηλίζουν την νεότητα, ώς των κολάκων.-Plut. de Educ. Puer. cap. 17.

• This side-note has been restored to the position which it was evidently intended by the author to occupy, and from which it was displaced probably per incuriam.

• A modern writer says, “It is indeed a most lamentable truth that friends are more generally seen to be operative for evil than enemies, as if it were a law that that which is sweetest and best in this world should always carry in itself the greatest bitter. Respecting unfortunate princes, the remark has become almost an axiom. Laud and Strafford evidently did more to bring their master, Charles I., to the block than Pym and Hampden. James II. lost his throne, not through the manly English opposition of his enemies, the Whigs, but by those men who called themselves peculiarly his friends--the drivelling bigots who flattered him with their preachings of passive obedience, and changed their religion to please him.'— Chambers, Essays, vol. iii. p. 332.

• The Editor has been unable to verify this quotation, and there seems to be some confusion not only in the text but in the marginal references of this chapter, as will be more fully explained in a subsequent note. It is a curious circumstance, however, that there is a passage in another work of the author, intitled The Image of Governance, which bears a very strong resemblance to that in the text, and which is here subjoined for the purpose of comparison. “If the ancient lawes of this cite iudgeth him to dye that spitefully pulleth down or defyleth the emperor's image, or counterfaiteth his coyne, seale, or signe manuel, of how moch congruence and more with iustice is it, that he shuld suffer deth, which with

traytour. In reason howe moche more payne (if there were any greatter payne than deth) were he worthy to suffre, that with false adulation dothe corrupt and adulterate the gentill and vertuous nature of a noble man, whiche is nat onely his image, but the very man hym selfe. For without vertue man is but in the numbre of bestis. And also by peruerse instruction and flatery suche one sleeth bothe the soule and good renoume of his maister. By whose example and negligence perissheth

” also an infinite numbre of persones, whiche domage to a realme neither with treasure ne with powar can be redoubed.


selling of the administration of iustice, pluckith down and defyleth amonge the people the good renoume of the emperour, or counterfayteth and changeth the mynd of the emperour, which is his very image immortal, wherby bothe the prynce and the people suffrethe incomparably more damage than by forging of money ??—P. 32, ed. 1544. Compare, however, what is said by Demosthenes in his oration against Timocrates : Bούλομαι τοίνυν υμίν κακείνο διηγήσασθαι, και φασί

8 ποτ' ειπείν Σόλωνα κατηγορούντα νόμον τινός ουκ επιτήδειον θέντος· λέγεται γάρ τοις δικασταίς αυτόν ειπείν, επειδή τάλλα κατηγόρησεν, ότι νόμος εστίν απάσαις ως έπος ειπείν ταις πόλεσιν, εάν τις το νόμισμα διαφθείρη, θάνατον την ζημίαν είναι.’ –Vol. ii. p. 572, Whiston's ed.

Cf. Demosth. contra Leptinem, ubi supra, p. 230. * Patrizi has a passage strongly resembling this; he says, 'Dion Prusensis multo pejus adulatores peccare censet, quàm falsos testes ; quandoquidem illi blanditiis, quem laudant, corrumpunt, hi autem judicem tantummodo decipiunt, non autem corrumpunt. Nonne majore odio adulatores digni sunt, quòd homines ignavos vanosque faciunt, et ex stultis insanos reddunt ?'-De Regno et Rog. Inst. lib. iv, tit. 2.

• A modern writer says, 'How often is a really promising youth ruined because his friends have thought too well of him, and done too much for him. Compared with this evil, the utmost efforts of declared or even secret enemies would be as nothing; for, from the nature of things, such efforts can rarely be of much avail in any circumstances. But the dangers from a friend, who would make us aspire to that for which we are unfit, who would send us every hour of our lives into false positions from an overweening zeal for our interest, and whose flattering counsels tend to sap away every inclination to those exertions and self-denyings from which alone any good can be expected—these are indeed dangers.'-Chambers, Essays, vol. iii. p. 335.

• From the French radouber, to renew, repair, restore, amend. Thus Wolsey, in a letter to the King, dated 21 June, 1527, says, 'I perceyue that the same Frenche King is so occupied, not oonly aboutes matiers of justice and his fynances, but also for the spedy depeche of M. de Lotrect, and furniture of his renforcementes in Italy, and otherwise, that if he shulde, before the same were put in good ordre, leve those matiers unperfited, it shulde be long bisore he coude redubbe or conduce

But harde it is all way to exchewe these flaterers, whiche, lyke to crowes, do pyke out mennes eyes or they be dedde. And it is to noble men moste difficile, whome all men couayte to please and to displease them it is accounted no wysedome, perchaunce leste there shulde ensue thereby more parayle than profite.

Also Carneades the Philosopher was wont to saye that the sonnes of noble men lerned nothing well but onely Exo

Plutarcho to ryde. For whiles they lerned lettres their maisters de cogn. flatered them, praysinge euery worde that they spake; amico ab in wrastlynge their teachers and companions also A notable

adulatore. flatered them, submittyng them selfes and fallinge example. downe to their fete; but the horse or courser nat understandynge who rydeth him, ne whether he be a gentyll man or yoman, a ryche man or a poore, if he sitte nat suerly and can skill of ridynge, the horse casteth him quickely. This is the sayenge of Carneades.

them to good effect.'--State Papers, vol. i. p. 193. And in another letter, dated 9 August of the same year, he writes : 'Som notable provision and expedicion, by commen consent of all Princes, might be had and made for the redubbing of the said calamities, repressing of heresies, and withstanding the malice of the Turke.'

- Ubi supra, p. 242. Grafton recording the events of the year 1557, says, “The losse of Calice, Hammes, and Guysnes, with all the countrie on that side the sea, (which followed sone after) was suche a buffet to Englande as happened not in more then an hundred yere before, and a dishonor wherwith this realme shall be blotted, untyll God shall geue power to redubbe it with some like requitall to the French.'—Chronicle, p. 1353, ed. 1569.

• Erasmus speaks of the familiarium assentatio, cui pesti potissimum obnoxia est magnatum conditio.' -Opera, tom. v. col. 229, ed. 1704. And in another place he says that sentiments worthy of his position cannot be instilled into the mind of a Christian prince 'nisi modis omnibus arceantur assentatores, cui pesti maxime obnoxia est magnorum Principum felicitas.' And he adds, “Jam ipsa ætatis simplicitas huic malo præcipue patet, partim quòd naturæ propensione blandis magis gaudeat quàm veris, partim ob rerum imperitiam, quo minus suspi. catur insidias, hoc minus cavere novit.'— Ins. Prin. Christ. p. 74, ed. 1519.

b The marginal note in the original is 'Plutarchus de libe. educandi,' but this is obviously a mistake, and the reference has been transposed from the preceding page, to which it is now restored.

Καρνεάδης δε έλεγε, ότι πλουσίων και βασιλέων παίδες ιππεύειν μόνον, άλλο δε ουδέν εύ και καλώς μανθάνουσι κολακεύει γάρ αυτούς εν ταις διατριβαΐs και διδάσκαλος

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There be other of this sorte, whiche more couertly lay their Subtyll snares to take the hartes of princes and noble men. flaterers."

And as he which entendeth to take the fierse and mighty lyon pytcheth his hayeb or nette in the woode, amonge great trees and thornes, where as is the moste haunte of the lyon, that beinge blynded with the thickenes of the couerte, or he be ware, he may sodainly tumble into the nette; where the hunter, seelynge bothe his eyen and bindynge his legges strongly to gether, finally daunteth his


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επαινών, και ο προσπαλαίων, υποκατακλινόμενος και δε ίππος ουκ ειδώς ουδέ φροντίζων, όστις ιδιώτης και άρχων, η πλούσιος ή πένης, εκτραχηλίζει τους μη δυναμένους οχείσθαι. Plut. de Adul. et Am. cap. 16. This apophthegm is also quoted by Erasmus in the 2nd chapter of his Institutio Principis Christiani, from which no doubt Sir Thos. Elyot borrowed the illustration.

• The marginal note opposite to this passage in the original is ` Ex Plutarcho de cogn. amico ab adulatore,' but as this evidently has reference to the story of Carneades, which is to be found in that treatise, and has been transposed by mistake, it has been restored to its proper place in the present edition.

• From the French word haye. John Harmar, who was Greek Professor at Oxford in the reign of Elizabeth, uses the word in this sense in his translation of the sermons of M. de Bèze. •Go to then, saith the Bridegroome in this place, yee gardiens and keepers of my vineyard, be you continual in chase of these hurtfull beastes, and leaue not untill you haue rid and freed my vineyard of them. And by what means ? Marie setting the toiles and pitching the haies of the word of God, to catch and entrap them therein.'— Sermons on Canticles, p. 293, ed. 1587. So too Mortimer tells us, that “Coneys are destroyed or taken either by ferrets or purse nets in their burrows, or by hayes, curs, spaniels, or tumblers, bred up for that purpose, or by gins, pitfalls, or snares.'--Art of Husbandry, p. 244, ed. 1708.

• From the French siller. This word is more generally applied to falconry, where it is used to denote the act of hoodwinking the falcon. Bacon uses the word metaphorically. “No man will take that part except he be like a secled dove, that mounts and mounts, because he cannot see about him.'- Essays, p. 360. And Ford must have had this last passage in his mind when he wrote,

* Ambition, like a seeled dove, mounts upward,
Higher and higher still, to perch on clouds,
But tumbles headlong down with heavier ruin.'

Dramatic Works, vol. i. p. 142, ed. 1831. Randle Holme in his Academy of Armoury, says that 'Seeled or Secling is when a hawk, first taken, hath her eyes drawn so up, or blinded, with a thread run through her eyelids, that she sees not or very little, the better to make her indure the hood.' P. 240, ed. 1688.



fiercenesse and maketh him obedient to his ensignes and to ens. Semblably there be some that by dissimulation can ostent or shewe a highe grauitie, mixte with a sturdy entretaynement and facion, exilinge them selfes from all pleasure and recreation, frowninge and grutchinge at euery thinge wherin is any myrthe or solace, all though it be honeste; tauntinge and rebuking immoderately them with whome they be nat contented ; naminge them selfes therfore playne men, all though they do the semblable and often tymes wars in their owne houses. And by a simplicitie and rudenes of spekynge, with longe deliberation used in the same, they pretende the high knowlege of counsayle to be in them onely. And in this wise pytchinge their nette of adulation they intrappe the noble and vertuous harte, which onely beholdeth their fayned seueritie and counterfayte wisedome, and the rather by cause this maner

• Whence did the author derive his notion of lion hunting ? Certainly not from the pages of Plutarch, nor yet from Pliny, who merely says, 'Capere eos ardui erat quondam operis, foveisque maximè.'— Nat. Hist. lib. viii. cap. 21. But the use of nets is mentioned by Xenophon in his description of boar-hunting, which Sir Thos. Elyot had probably read, or the latter may have drawn altogether upon his imagination. It is curious that he should describe the capture of the king of beasts' as being effected by such an ignoble method, for Patrizi altogether repudiates such unsportsmanlike artifices, and says, “Omitto insidias, retia, casses, plagas, et alia multa id genus, quæ feris tenduntur per varios multiplicesque dolos, quibus quidem præda quæ capitur, vilior omnino, atque ignorabilior esse videtur ; sicut enim in re bellicâ præstantior victoria est, ubi collatis signis et aperto Marte decernitur, quàm ubi hostes dolis atque insidiis capiuntur, sic etiam in venatione gratior præda est quæ canum hominumque virtute cadit, quàm quæ laqueo aut aliâ fraude strangulatur.'— De Regno et Reg. Ins. lib. iii. tit. 6, p. 123, ed. 1582.

• This seems to be almost the exact counterpart of the description given by Lord Macaulay of the Puritans in the following century. "What were then considered as the signs of real godliness, the sad coloured dress, the sour look, the straight hair, the nasal whine, the speech interspersed with quaint texts, the abhorrence of comedies, cards, and hawking, were easily counterfeited by men to whom all religions were the same. The sincere Puritans soon found themselves lost in a multitude, not merely of men of the world, but of the very worst sort of men of the world. For the most notorious libertine who had fought under the royal standard might justly be thought virtuous when compared with some of those who, while they talked about sweet experiences and comfortable scriptures, lived in the constant practice of fraud, rapacity, and secret debauchery.' –Hist. of Eng. vol. i. p. 165, 12th ed.

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