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famysshed (their vitayle soone after faylinge theim) or els in fleinge to be slayne by the Romaynes, had nat the craftye and polityke witte of Anniball delyuered them; whiche, for the notable inuention, I wyll borowe so moche tyme of the reder to renewe the remembraunce therof in our Englysshe tunge. Anniball, perceyuinge the daunger that he and his armye The policie

were in, he commaunded in the depe of the nyght, of Anny- whan nothynge was sterynge, to be brought before

him about two thousande great oxen and bulles, cape from

whiche a litle before his men had taken in foraginge,

and causinge fagottes made of drye styckes to be fastened unto their hornes, and set on fyre, the bestes troubled with the flame of fire, ranne as they were woode up towarde the mountaynes, where as laye the hoste of the Romaynes, Anniball, with his hoole armye folowynge in araye. The romaynes which kept the mountaynes, beinge sore a ferde of this newe and terrible sight, forsoke their places, and Fabius, dredynge the deceytefull witte of Anniball, kept the armye within his trenche, and so Anniball with his hoste escaped without domage. But Fabius, beinge painefull


the Ro. maynes.

• Βούς όσον δισχιλίας εκ των αιχμαλώτων εκέλευσε συλλαβόντας αναδησαι δάδα προς έκαστον κέρας η λύγων ή φρυγάνων αύων φάκελον: είτα νυκτός, όταν αρθή σημείον, ανάψαντας ελαύνειν επί τάς υπερβολάς παρά τα στενά και τας φυλακάς των πολεμίων. "Αμα δε ταύτα παρεσκεύαζον οίς προστέτακτο και τον άλλον αυτός αναστήσας στρατόν ήδη σκότους όντος ήγε σχολαίως. Αι δε βόες άχρι μεν το πυρ ολίγον ήν και περιέκαιε την ύλην άτρέμα προσεχώρoυν ελαυνόμεναι προς την υπώρειαν, και θαύμα τους καθορωσι νομεύσιν από των άκρων και βουκόλοις ήσαν αι φλόγες άκρoις επιλάμπουσαι τους κέρασιν, ως στρατοπέδου καθ' ένα κόσμον υπό λαμπάδων πολλών βαδίζοντος. Επει δε πυρούμενον το κέρας άχρι ρίζης διέδωκε τη σαρκί την αίσθησιν και προς τον πόνον διαφέρουσαι και τινάσσουσαι τας κεφαλάς ανεπίμπλαντο πολλής απ' αλλήλων φλογος ουκ ενέμειναν τη τάξει της πορείας, αλλ' έκφοβοι και περιαλγείς ούσαι δρόμο κατά των ορών εφέροντο λαμπόμεναι μεν ουράς άκρας και μέτωπα, πολλήν δε της ύλης, δι' ής έφευγαν, ανάπτουσαι. Δεινόν ούν ήν θέαμα τους παραφυλάττουσι τας υπερβολάς Ρωμαίοις. Και γάρ αι φλόγες έρκεσαν υπ' ανθρώπων θεόντων διαφερουμέναις λαμπάσι και θόρυβος ήν εν αυτοίς πολύς και φόβος, αλλαχόθεν άλλους επιφέρεσθαι των πολεμίων σφίσι και κυκλούσθαι πανταχόθεν ηγουμένων. Διό μένειν ουκ ετόλμων, αλλά προς το μείζον ανεχώρoυν στρατόπεδον πρoέμενοι τα στενά. Και κατά τούτο δε καιρού προσμίξαντες οι φιλοι του Αννίβου τας υπερβολές κατέσχον, ή δ' άλλη δύναμις ήδη προσέβαινεν αδεώς πολλών και βαρείαν εφελκομένη λείαν.- Ρlut. Fabitus, 6.

in pursuinge Anniball from place to place, a waytinge to haue hym at aduauntage, at the laste dyd so fatigate him and his hoste, that therby in conclusion his powar minisshed, and also the strength of the Carthaginensis, of whome he was generall capitayne. In so moche as they were at the laste constrained to countermaunde him by sondrie messangers, willyng him to abandone the warres in Italye, and to retourne to the defence of his owne citie. Whiche by the opinion of moste excellent writars, shulde neuer haue hapned if Fabius wolde haue lefte any parte of his purpose, eyther for the tediousenesse of the payne and trauayle, or for the intollerable rebukes giuen unto hym by Minutius, who imbrayded hym with cowardyse. Amonge the vertues whiche abounded in Julius Cesar, none was accounted more excellent than that in his counsayles, affaires, and exploytures, he omitted no tyme ne forsoke any payne; wherfore moste sonest of any man he achieued and brought to good passe all thynge that he entreprised. Suppose ye that the same Anniball, of whome we late spake, coulde haue wonne from the Romaynes all Spayne, and haue perced the mountaynes called Alpes, makynge a way for his armye where before was neuer any maner of passage, and also haue goten all Italye unto Rome gates, if he had not ben a man paynefull and of labour incomparable ?

Julius Cesar, after that he had the intier gouernaunce and dominion of the empyre of Rome, he therfore

Painefulomitted labour and diligence, as well in commune nesse in

hearynge causes as private, concernynge the defence and assistence of innocentes. Also he laborousely and uersies.



• Cicero considered him a universal genius. Fuit in illo ingenium, ratio, memoria, literatura, cogitatio, diligentia : res bello gesserat, quamvis reipublicæ calamitosas, attamen magnas: multos annos regnare meditatus, magno labore, magnis periculis, quod cogitarat, effecerat.'—Philipp. ii. cap. 45. Niebuhr says, 'He had been accustomed from his youth, and more especially during the last fifteen years, to an enormous activity, and idleness was intolerable to him.'-Lecture cxi. ed. 1870. But he adds that his talents were so diversified that most of the things he did bear no impress of labour or study.'--Lecture cvi.

b • Studium et fides erga clientes ne juveni quidem defuerunt.'-Sueton. Fulius,

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studiousely discussed controuersies, whiche all most dayly he herde in his owne persone.a

Traiane and bothe Antonines, emperours of Rome, and for their vertue worthy to be emperours of ail the worlde, as well in exterior affaires as in the affaires of the citie, were euer so continually occupied that uneth they founde any litle tyme to haue any recreation or solace.

Alexander also, emperour, for his incomparable grauitie called Seuerus, beinge but of the age of xviii yeres whan he firste was made emperour, was inclyned to so incredible labours, that where he founde the noble citie of Rome, than mastresse of the worlde, throughly corrupted with moste abhominable vices, by the moste shameful example and liuing of that detestable monstre, Varius Heliogabalus, next emperour before him,o a great parte of the Senate and nobilitie beinge resolued in to semblable vices, the


71. 'Εν δε Ρώμη πολλή μεν επί τω λόγω περί τας συνηγορίας αυτού χάρις εξέλαμπε, πολλή δε της περί τας δεξιώσεις και ομιλίας φιλοφροσύνης εύνοια παρά των δημοτών απήντα, θεραπευτικού παρ' ηλικίαν όντος.- Ρlut. Cesar, 4. But these passages refer solely to Cæsar's early career, and not to the period of his elevation to the supreme power.

“Jus laboriosissimè ac severissimè dixit.'-Sueton. Julius, 43.

Merivale says, “The legislator qualified himself for the task of propounding or applying legal principles, by assiduous labour in the administration of existing law. Trajan exchanged the toils of war for the labours of the forum.'-- Hist. of Rome, vol. vii. p. 266, ed. 1862. Whilst speaking of the first of the Antonines, the same writer tells us that 'from his early years Antoninus had been engaged in the active discharge of official duties.'-- Ibid. p. 498. And of Aurelius, that “to the cares of public administration he devoted his patient attention ; but his heart was in the libraries of ancient wisdom, or with its best living expositors; for these he reserved the hours borrowed from sleep or recreation ; and throughout his father's reign, he never, it is said, was tempted to quit his closet at Rome but for two nights.'- Ibid. p. 514.

' 'Ubi ergo Augustus agere cæpit imperium, primum removit judices omnes à Republicâ et à ministeriis atque muneribus, quos impurus ille Heliogabalus ex genere hominum turpissimo provexerat : deinde senatum et equestrem ordinem purgavit. Ipsas deinde tribus, et eos qui militaribus nituntur prærogativis, purgavit, et palatium suum comitatumque omnem, abjectis ex aulico ministerio cunctis obscenis et infamibus, nec quemquam passus est esse in palatinis nisi necessarium hominem.'-- Hist. Aug. tom. i. p. 901, ed. 1671.

chiualrye dispersed, martiall prowesse abandoned, and well nyghe the maiestie emperiall dissolued and brought in contempt, this noble yonge prince Alexander, inflamed with the zeale of the pristinate honour of the Romaynes, layenge a parte utterly all pleasures and quietnesse, holy gaue his witte and body to studye and trauayles intollerable, and chesinge out of all partes of the worlde men of grettest wisedome and experience, consultinge with theim,“ neuer ceased untill he had reduced as well the Romaynes as all other cities and prouinces unto them subiecte, to their pristinate moderation and temperaunce. Many other examples coulde I reherce to the commendation of paynefulnesse. But these shall suffice at this present tyme to proue that a gouernour must nedes be painefull in his owne persone, if he desire to haue those thinges prosper that be commytted to his gouernaunce.


Of the noble and fayre vertue named Pacience. PACIENCE is a noble vertue, appertayninge as well to inwarde gouernaunce as to exterior gouernaunce, and is the vainquisshour of iniuries, the suer defence agayne all affectes and passions of the soule, retayninge all wayes glad semblaunt bin aduersitie and doloure.

• 'Fuit præterea illi consuetudo, ut si de jure aut de negotiis tractaret, solos doctos et disertos adhiberet : si vero de re militari, milites veteres et senes ac benemeritos, et locorum peritos ac bellorum et castrorum, et omnes literatos, et maximè eos qui historiam norant : requirens quid in talibus causis quales in disceptatione versabantur, veteres imperatores vel Romani vel exterarum gentium fecissent.'— Hist. Aug. tom. i. p. 905. 1.c. countenance. So Chaucer in the Romaunt of the Rose,

• Hir forheed frounceles al pleyne,

Bent were hir browis two,
Hir yen greye, and glad also,
That laugheden ay in hir semblaunt.'

Poet. Works, vol. vi. p. 27, ed. 1866.

Saynt Ambrose saieth in his boke of offices, Better is he Ambrosius that contemneth iniurie, than he that soroweth. For Offi. i. he that contemneth it as he nothynge felte, he passeth nat on it : but he that is sorowfull, he is therewith tourmented as though he felt it."

Whiche was well proued by Zeno Eleates, a noble Philosopher, who beinge a man of excellent wisedome and eloquence, came to a citie called Agrigentum, where raygned Phalaris, the mooste cruell Tyraunt of all the worlde, who kept and used his owne people in mooste miserable seruitude. Zeno firste thought by his wisdome and eloquence to haue so persuaded the Tyraunt to temperaunce that he shulde have abandoned his cruell and auaricious appetite. But custome of vice more preuayled in him than profitable counsayle. Wherfore Zeno, hauynge pitie at the wretched astate of the people, excited dyuers noble men to deliuer the citie of that seruile condition. This counsayle was nat so secretely gyuen but that notice therof came to the Tyraunt, who, causinge all the people to be assembled in the market place, caused Zeno there to be cruciate with sondrye turmentes, all wayes demaundynge of hym who dyd participate with hym of his said counsayle. But for no paynes wolde he confesse any persone, but induced the Tyraunt to haue in mistrust his nexte frendes and familyar seruauntes, and reprouynge the people for their cowardise b and drede, he at the laste so inflamed them unto


* Melior est itaque qui contemnit injuriam, quàm qui dolet. Qui enim con temnit, quasi non sentiat, ita despicit : qui autem dolet, quasi senserit, torquetur.'Ambros. de Off. lib. i. cap. 6, fo. gb. ed. 1609.

b • Incipiam autem a Zenone Eleate : qui cum esset in despiciendâ rerum naturâ maximæ prudentiæ, inque excitandis ad vigorem juvenum animis promtissimus, præceptorum fidem exemplo virtutis suæ publicavit. Patriam enim egressus, in quâ frui securâ libertate poterat, Agrigentum miserabili servitute obrutum petiit, tantâ fiduciâ ingenii ac morum suorum fretus, ut speraverit, et tyranno et Phalari vesanæ mentis feritatem à se diripi posse. Postquam deinde apud illum plus consuetudinem dominationis, quàm consilii salubritatem, valere animadvertit, nobilissimos ejus civitatis adolescentes cupiditate liberandæ pa:riæ inflammavit. Cujus rei cum indicium ad tyrannum manasset, convocato in forum populo, torquere eum

rio cruciatûs genere coepit: subinde quærens, quosnam consilii participes haberet.

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