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l'affection que

defines it as follows: 'S'il y a quelque several times in Chaucer ; thus, in The loy vrayement naturelle, c'est à dire

Sompnoures Tale : quelque instinct qui se veoye universel

"And therfor pray I God bothe day and night, lement et perpetuellement empreint aux An irous man God send him litil might. bestes et en nous : : :

It is greet harm, and also great pite, l'engendrant porte à son engeance tient

To set an irous man in high degre.'

Poet. Works, vol. ii. p. 269. le second lieu en ce reng.'—Essais, tom. ii. p. 172, ed. 1854.

Again, in The Tale of Melibeus : 'And Instructrice, instructress, a female secoundly, he that is irous and wroth, he teacher.-11. 203. This form of the may not wel deme; and he that may not word would seem to be άπαξ λεγόμενον, wel deme, may nought wel counseile. at least no other instances are to be The thridde is this, that he that is irous found in the Dictionaries.

and wroth, as saith Senec, may not Intelligence, understanding, in the

speke but blameful thinges, and with sense of agreement, or correspondence.

his vicious wordes he stireth other folk -11. 259, 373. Sir Thomas Elyot to anger and to ire.'- Ibid. vol. üi. tell us that this is now used for an p. 152. Again, in The Persones Tale : elegant word' in treaties, &c. And

Speke we now of such cursyng as probably this usage of it was introduced

cometh of irous hert.'— Ibid. p. 317. from France. In this sense Montaigne

Irrecuperable, irreparable.—I. 301. employs it: 'Quand Lelius, en presence

This is simply the French irrecuperable, des consuls romains, lesquels, aprez la

which Cotgrave renders "unrecovercondemnation de Tiberius Gracchus, able, unrepairable, wholly lost, fully pourşuyvoient touts ceulx qui avoient gone.' Grafton, in his history of the esté de son intelligence, veint à s'enquerir

reign of Henry VII., says : • The king de Caius Blossius,' &c.--Essais, tom. i. of Englande, grauely consideryng that p. 268. See also the passage quoted

Britayne was clerely lost, and in maner ante, p. 485. Bacon manifestly uses irrecuperable, beyng nowe adioyned to the word in the same sense when he the crowne of Fraunce by mariage says: 'Factious followers are worse to appointed for commissioners the be liked, which follow not upon affection

Bishop of Excester, and Gyles Lorde to him with whom they range them

Dawbeney, to passe the seas to Calice, selves, but upon discontentment con- to commen with the Lorde Cordes of ceived against some other; whereupon articles of peace to be agreed upon and commonly ensueth that ill intelligence

concluded.' — Chron. p. 894, ed. 1569. that we many times see between great

It is used by Foxe in his story of John personages.'-- Essays, p. 437, ed. 1857.

Philpot : “It is but folly, my lord, for Again, speaking of the Cornish insur- you to reason with him, for he is irre. rection in his Hist. of Hen. VII., he cuperable.'-Actes and Mon. vol. ii, p. says : • Thence they (i.e. the rebels)

1826, ed. 1583. And also by Strype, marched to Wells, where the Lord who prints a letter from Archbishop Audley (with whom their leaders had

Parker to the secretary, ‘Requesting before some secret intelligence), a

him to be an instant means, to have nobleman of an ancient family, but special respects of the country there, to unquiet, and popular and aspiring to the Queens Majesty and her Council: ruin, came in to them, and was by them assuring his Honour that he feared the with great gladness and cries of joy

danger, if it were not speedily looked to, accepted as their general.'— Works,

would be irricuperable.' Life of vol. vi. p. 177. ed. 1858.

Parker, vol. i. p. 291, ed. 1821. Irous, angry, wrathful.-I. 50. This is formed from the French word ireux,

K. which is no longer in use. Palsgrave gives, Irouse angerfull ; m. ireux, f. Kann, Can, to ki:w, to understand. ircuse s.'-L'Escl. p. 316.

It occurs - I. 61, 72, 75; II. 11, 181. This is



ed. 1842.

the Anglo-Saxon verb 'connan' or 'cun- dustrie he could not compasse : neither nan,' which Somner explains by the was his capacitie so good, but his meequivalent expressions 'Callere, scire, morie was as great in reteining whatnoscere, to know, to perceive, to ken.' soeuer he had atteined. Which well In the Promptorium we find •Conyn or appeared in cannyng the text of the hauyn conynge, Scio,' whence ‘Conynge whole New Testanient of Erasmus or wytty, Sciens,' and 'Cunnynge or translation without booke, in his iour. science, Sciencia.'—P. 90. We find ney going and comming from Rome.'precisely the same form of the word Actes and Mon. vol. ii. p. 1178, ed. 1583. used by Langland in The Vision of And he quotes the following article out Piers Ploughman :

of the Summe of the Scripture : “We

thinke when we beleue that God is God I kan no Frensshe, in feith, But of the fertheste ende of Northfolk.'

and can our creed, that we haue the

fayth that a christian man is bound to And again :

haue, but so doth the deuill beleue.''I kan noght parfitly my pater-noster,

Ibid. p. 1254,

Spenser uses both As the preest it syngeth ;

forms in The Shepheards Calendar:
But I kan rymes of Robyn Hood,
And Randolf, erl of Chestre.'

Seemeth thy flocke thy counsel can,
Vol. i. pp. 91, 101,

So lustlesse bene they, so weake, so wan.' So Chaucer in The Man of Lawes

And again, Prologe :

*Of muses, Hobbinoll, I conne no skill, But natheles certeyn

For they bene daughters of the highest Jove,

And holden scorne of homely shephcards I can right now non other tale seyn, That Chaucer, they he can but lewedly

quill. On metres and on rymyng certeynly,

Poet. Works, vol. i. pp. 20, 47, ed. 1866. Hath seyd hem in such Englisch as he can Of olde tyme, as kuoweth many man.'

And so

does Shakespeare in The Poet. Works, vol. ii. p. 171.

Phænir and Turtle : Sir Thomas More, in his Supplicacion of

* Let the priest in surplice white,

That defunctive music can, Soules, says : “This beggers proctour

Be the death-divining swan, woulde faine shew himself a man of Lest the requiem lack his right.' great experience, and one that had great

Works, vol. viii. p. 468, Dyce's ed. knowledge of the maner and order used

As to the last of the above references in the kinges parlimentes ; but than he

to the text, the phrase is best explained speaketh so sauorlie hereof, that it well

by the following illustrations given by appereth of hys wyse wordes he neyther

Palsgrave : 'I can, I knowe, I wotte. Že canneth anye skill i herof, nor neuer came in the house.'— Workes, vol. i. p. 301,

scay, tu scais, &c. I can no skill. Je ne

mo congnoys or je ne mentens. I can nat ed. 1557. The Earl of Surrey in his

skyll of physike : je ne me congnoys Poems uses it in the same way as

poynt en medicine. I can nat skyll of Elyot:

joynars craft : je ne mentens poynt en 'I know, and can by rote the tale that I would menuyserie.'-L'Esclair. pp. 474, 475.

And ‘I kenne, I knowe, jecongnoys. I But oft the words come forth awry of him that loveth well.'

kenne hym well ynoughe by the laste Works, vol. i. p. 25, ed. 1815.

tyme : je le congnoys bien assés par

laultrefoys.'-Ibid. p. 596. Sir John Maundevile says : “Thei conen Kerue, Keruer, Keruynge, to carve no langage but only hire owne, that no as a sculptor, a sculptor, sculpture.-1. man knowethe but thei: and therefore

43, 48, 139, 140, 183. This is the mowe thei not gon out.'- Voiage & C., English form of the Anglo-Saxon word p. 322, ed. 1727. Foxe, in his Life 'ceorfan.' In the Promptorium we of Cromwell,' tells us that ‘Nothyng find : Kervyn or gravyn, Sculpo,' and was so hard which with witte and in- Kervynge or gravynge, Sculptura.'

tell :

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P. 273. Palsgrave has “I kerve as a oure synnes and clense us fro al wickidkerver dothe an ymage. Je taille, prim. nesse.' - The New Test. p. 232, ed. conj., and je menuise, prim. conj. This Baber, 1810. And Sir John Maundechayer is well kerved : ceste chaire cest vile says, 'And for suche auctoritees, bien taillée, or bien menuysée.'-L'Es- thei seyn that only to God schalle a clair. p. 598.

form of the word man knouleche his defautes, zeldynge is constantly used by Chaucer, as in him self gylty, and cryenge him mercy, The Knightes Tale:

and behotynge to him to amende him In all the lond ther nas no craftys man,

self.' --- Voiage &c. p. 145, ed. 1727. That geometry or arsmetrike can,

Chaucer, in The Tale of Melibeus, says, Ne portreyour, ne kerver of ymages,

• For we considere and knowleche wel That Theseus ne yaf hem mete and wages that we have offended and greved my The theatre for to maken and devyse.

lord Melibe out of resoun and out of But yit had I forgeten to devyse

mesure.'-Poet. Works, vol. iii. p. 190. The nobil kervyng, and the purtretures, Bishop Fisher, referring to the parable The schap, the contynaunce of the figures, That weren in these oratories thre.'

of the Prodigal Son, says, 'He made Poet. Works, vol. ii. p. 59.

couenaunt with hym seife shortly to de

parte from thens, to go agayne to his Again in The House of Fame :

fader, knowlegynge his faut and mys. ‘Hyt nedeth noght yow more to tellen,

lyuynge, askynge forgyuenes, and more To make yow to longe duellen,

ouer pray his fader to take hym onely Of these yates floriss hinges,

as his seruaunt.' - Seuen Penyteneyall Ne of compasses, ne of kervynges, Ne how they hat in masoneries,

Psalmes, (Dom. exaud. post.) ed. 1509. As corbetz ful of imageries.'

Sir Thos. More, speaking of Dr. Barnes's Ibid, vol. v. p. 249.

book, says, “When the bokes, that he Tyndall, in his exposition upon 1 John brought furth before him, and his igno

cyteth and alledgeth in his boke wer iv. says : Blind reason sayth God is a kerued post and will be serued with a

raunceshewed him, himselfe did in diuers

thinges confesse hys ouersighte, and candle. But Scripture sayth God is loue and wil be serued with loue.'

clerely knowledged that he hadde mysseWorkes, p. 417, ed. 1573.

taken and wronge understanden the places.'

'-Workes, vol. i. p. 343, ed. 1557. Knotte, a flower bed.-II. 443 and

We find the word in use in the same sense note, 445. Knowlege, verb, to acknowledge. - II.

nearly a century after Elyot wrote, for

Bacon, in his Advertisement touching 140, 362. In the Promptorium we find • Knowlechyn or ben a-knowe, be con

an Holy War, says, “The prophet

Hosea, in the person of God, saith of the streynynge, Fateor. Knowlechyn or ben a-knowe wylfully, Confiteor,' and

Jews : “They have reigned, but not by • Knowlechynge or beynge a-knowe,

me; they have set a signory over them. Fassio, confessio.'-P. 280. Palsgrave

selves, but I knew nothing of it." gives, I knowledge hym my faulte, or I

Which place proveth plainly, that there knowledge my faute to hym. Je lui re

are governments which God doth not

For though they be ordained congnoys ma faulte and je confesse, prim. conj. If thou knowledge this

by his secret providence, yet they are faulte to him, I knowe well he wyll

not knowledged by his revealed will.— forgyve the : se tu luy en recongnoys ta

Works, vol. vii. p. 31, ed. 1859. faulte, or se tu luy confesses ta faulte, je scay bien quil te pardonnera or quil te la

L. pardonnera.'-L'Esclair. p. 600. The verb used in this sense is very common Laude, subst. praise. - I. 58. From. with the early writers. Thus Wiclif in the Latin word "laus,' whence also was his translation of 1 John chap. i., has derived the French los. Cotgrave trans. *If we knowlechen oure synnes, he is lates the latter, 'Laud, praise, comseithful and iust that he forgyve to us mendation.' It is used by Gower:


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* The nynthe sterre faire and wele
By name is hote Alaezele,
Which taketh his propre kinde thus,
Bothe of Mercurie and of Venus.
His stone is the grene Emeraude,
To whom is geuen many a laude.'
Conf. Am.

cxlix. ed. 1554.
And also by Chaucer, in The Prioresses
Tale :
O Lord, oure Lord, thy name how merveylous
Is in this large world i-sprad (quod sche),
For nought oonly thy laude precious
Parformed is by men of heih degré,
But by mouthes of children thy bounté
Parformed is.

Poet. Works, vol. iii. p. 122, And in The House of Fame :

These ben that wolden honour
Have, and do noskynnes labour,
Ne doo no good, and yet han lawde.'

Ibid. vol. v. p. 263 Tyndall, in The Obedience of a Christian man, says: Wilt thou be without feare of the power? So do well, and thou shalt haue laude of the same (that is to say, of the ruler).'—Works, p. III, ed. 1573. Shakespeare, in Second Part of Hen. IV., makes the king say, on hearing that the apartment to which he is carried is called the Jerusalem Chamber : *Laud be to God! even there my life must

end. It hath been prophesied to me many years,

I should not die but in Jerusalem.' We also meet with the word in The New Atlantis : • We have certain hymns and services, which we say daily, of laud and thanks to God for his marvellous works.'— Bacon, Works, vol. iii. p. 166, ed. 1857.

Laud, verb, to praise.-I. 23. This verb appears to be somewhat rarer than the substantive. Palsgrave gives it as the equivalent of louer : I lawde, I prayse one. He loue, prim. conj. He laudeth me somtyme beyonde the nocke: il me loue aulcunes foys oultre mesure.' -L'Esclair. p. 604. Chaucer, in The Testament of Love, says : 'If thou laudest and ioyest any wight, for he is stuffed with soche maner richesse, thou art in that beleeue beguiled, for thou wenest thilke ioy to be selinesse or els ease, and he that hath loste soche haps

to been unseilie.'—Works, fo. 280 b, ed. 1602. It is used by Shakespeare in First Part of Hen. IV., where Falstaff says : 'Well, God be thanked for these rebels--they offend none but the virtuous: I laud them, I praise them.' Act iii, sc. 3. And also by Joye, in his Exposicion of Daniel : Sayth not Cryste : Whatsoeuer is hyghely estemed, lauded, and praysed for decent and holy before men is abominable before God.'— Fo. 216, ed. 1545.

Layser, leisure.-I. 99, 252. It is interesting to trace in this word the intermediate stage from the original form of the French loisir. In the poetry of the Troubadours we find it spelt lezer. Thus a poem of Bernard de Ventadour commences as follows :

"Tuit sels que m pregan qu'ieu chan,
Volgra'n saubesson lo ver,

S'ieu n'ai aize ni lezer.' Which M. Raynouard translates: “Tous ceux qui me prient que je chante, je voudrais qu'ils en sussent le vrai, si j'en ai aise et loisir, '-Lex. Rom. tom. iv. p. 57.

In another, by Garin d'Apchier, we find :

'Ans lo pot laissar domneiar,

Et estar ab leys a leser.' And we are told that this means, "Le peut laisser galantiser et demeurer avec elle à loisir.'— Ubi supra. In the Roman de Fierabras we have:

'Dos jorns et una nueyt aqui feyro lezor.' Meaning . Deux jours et une nuit là ils firent repos.'-P.125, ed. Bekker, 1829. Then in Le Rom. de la Rose we have a rather different form :

'Mort m'a qui si l'a fait irestre,
Car ge n'aurai jamès lesir
De véoior ce que ge desir.'

Tom. i. p. 153, ed. 1814. And again :

Bien m'en poés vostre voloir
Confesser trestout par lesir,
Et ge tout à vostre plesir.'

Ibid. tom. ïïi. p. 108. But in other poems we find a form to which we can clearly trace the origin of Elyot's mode of spelling. Thus in Le Roman d'Aubri li Borgonnon :


Se par mon cors pooit avoir laisor,
Je me metroie por le dolor.'
Bekker, Der Rom. von Fierabras,

p. Ixviii. ed. 1829. In another still more celebrated poem we have the same form:

'Si orent en lor cuers grant joie
Quant il orent aise et laissor

De corre seure à lor segnor.'
And also:

*Car c'est li drois neus del vilain,
Qu'il soit tosjors de bone main
Vers celui de cui a péor,
Tant que de mal faire ait laissor.'

Partonopeus, tom. i. pp. 9, 91, ed. 1834. In the Chron. des Ducs de Normandie precisely the same form occurs :

'Jà ne os ert mais laissor donée
Que contre mei sachiez espée.'

Tom. i. p. 182. And again :

‘U aveir en aise e laissor
Si funt mainz desleiz li plusor.'

Ibid. tom. ii. p. 347, ed. 1838. Now turning to English writers who have used the same form as Elyot, we find Chaucer in Troylus and Cryseyde does so: ‘And eseth there youre hertes right ynough, And lat se which of yow shal bere the belle To speke of love aright?' And therwith he

lough, 'For ther have ye a layser for to telle.'

Poet. Works, vol. iv. P. 233. And again : “But to the grete effect thanne sey I thus, That stondyng in concord and in quiete This ilke twey, Cryseyde and Troilus, As I have tolde, and in this tyme swete, Save only often myghte they not mete, Ne layser have, hire speches to fulfille, That it befel right as I shal yow telle.'

Ibid. p. 245. In The Seven Sages, an English version made in the fourteenth century of a still earlier romance, we have :

Certis,' he sayd, 'hit his no rede,
Bot hastilich smyt of my hede,
And god laysyr when thou myght have.
Byrye hit in cristyne grave.'

P. 43, ed. 1846. Percy Soc. Palsgrave gives: “I am at layser, I have lytell besynesse to do. vacque. Verb. imp. prim. conj. They use also je suis a loisir.

Whan you be

at layser, make up my gowne : quant il vous vacque, parachouez ma robe. I wolde speke with my lorde, if he were at layser: je parleroys voulentiers a monsieur sil estoyt a loysir.'--L'Escl. p. 423. Udall, in his translation of the Paraphrase of Erasmus, says: By menne of ryghte good credite, and suche as use not to lye, it hath bene reported unto me, aswel that Charles the Emperoure, in case anye vacante tyme of laysure maye in so greate unquyetenes and troublous state of the world bee gotten, dooeth gladly bestow the same in readynge the Ghospell booke.'— Tom. i. fo. ccvii b. ed. 1551.

Leasinge, Leasynge, a lie, a false. hood.-1. 123; II. 217 and note, 384, 394, 398, 400. This represents the AngloSaxon word “leasunge,' which Somner explains by the Latin equivalents, mendacium, figmentum. In the Promptorium we find 'Lees, or false. Falsus. And • Leesynge, or lyynge (or gabbynge, lezynge, liynge) Mendacium.'--P. 298. Both Somner and Skinner connect it with the old French losange, losenge or lozenge, which Congrave interprets to mean 'guile, deceit, fraud, cousenage.' And Palsgrave gives some countenance to the supposed connexion between the two words, for he gives . Lye, a false tale-baue s, f.; losange s, f.; mensonge s, m.; contreme s, f.'-L'Esclair. p. 239. But it is curious that though the word losenge occurs frequently in Le Roman de la Rose, it is always distinguished from mensonge by Chaucer. Thus for the passage

Por Dieu, dame, ne créés pas
Male-Bouche le losengier ;
C'est uns homs qui nent de legier,
Et maint prod'omme a réusé.
S'il a Bel-Acueil accusé,
Ce n'est pas ore li premiers :
Car Male-Bouche est coustumiers
De raconter fauces noveles
De valez et de damoiseles.
Sans faille ce n'est pas mençonge,
Bel-Acueil a trop longue longe.

Tom. i

p. 145, ed. 1814. Chaucer substitutes the following imita.


Il me

Sire, ne leveth noughte Wikkid-tunge, that fals espie, Which is so glad to feyne and lye.

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