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by the above-mentioned treaty of marriage, fhall
mife and oblige himself, as by this prefent article he
doth, to defend and protect all conquefts or colonies
belonging to the crown of Portugal, against all his
enemies, as well future as prefent: moreover, his Ma-
jefty of Great Britain doth oblige himself to mediate a
good peace between the King of Portugal and the
States of the United Provinces, and all companies or
focieties of merchants fubject unto them, upon condi-
tions convenient and becoming the mutual interest of
England and Portugal; and in cafe fuch a peace enfue
not, then his Majefty of Great Britain fhall be obliged
to defend, with men and fhips, the faid dominions and
conquefts of the King of Portugal. In cafe alfo that
any towns, forts, caftles, or any other places, fhall be
taken by the Dutch, after the first of May this present
year 1661, then his Majefty of Great Britain doth
promife and engage to oblige the Dutch to a full and
perfect reftitution thereof. His Majefty of Great
Britain doth moreover oblige himself to fend, the
next monfoon enfuing after the ratification of the
treaty of marriage, and this article, a convenient fuc-
cour to the Eaft Indies, proportionable to the neceffity
of Portugal and ftrength of our enemies. It being
declared, that his Majefty nor his fucceffors fhall not
at any time require any pay or fatisfaction for the fame.

Defenfive Treaty between Great Britain and Portugal, 1703.

ANNE, by the grace of God, &c. To all and every one to whom thefe prefents may come, greeting.

Whereas a perpetual defenfive alliance, in the words and articles following, was, on the 16th of May laft, concluded and figned at Lifbon, between our plenipotentiaries and thofe of the Lords the States General of the United Provinces on the one hand, and thofe of the King of Portugal on the other: and whereas many mutual

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mutual advantages accrue to the most Serene and most Potent Kings and kingdoms of Great Britain and Portugal, and to the High and Mighty Lords the States. General of the United Provinces, and their fubjects, from the peace and good friendship which fubfifts between the three forefaid Powers: and whereas it is neceffary, that that peace be not only preferved inviolate, but be likewise ftrengthened by firmer and closer ties, by which a stronger foundation may be laid for maintaining the general peace and tranquillity of Europe, which the abovefaid Powers endeavour, with all their might, to fupport: they have therefore, for the common good of all, refolved to enter into a mutual alliance; and for that purpose have granted their full powers and instructions, viz. the moft Serene and most Potent Princefs Anne, by the grace of God, Queen of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, to Paul Methuen, Efquire, her ambaffador extraordinary in Portugal; the most Serene and most Potent Prince Peter, by the grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves on this fide; and beyond the feas in Africa, Lord of Guinea, and of the conqueft, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Perfia, India, &c. to Don Nonio de Metto Alvares Pereira, his near kinfman, Duke of Cadaval, Marquis of Ferreira, &c. to Don Emanuel Felles de Silva, Marquis of Algrete, &c. to Don Francifco de Tavora, Count of Alvor, &c. to Don Regno Monterio, Lord of Alva, &c. and to Don Jofeph de Farria, great historiographer of the kingdom; and the High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Provinces, to Van Francis Schonemberg: which plenipotentiaries, by virtue of the abovefaid full powers (which, before the figning of this treaty, were mutually exchanged, examined, and admitted) after maturely and deliberately weighing the matter, have, in the name of their above-mentioned fovereigns, agreed and confented to the following terms and articles.

. I. All former treaties between the abovefaid Powers

are

are hereby approved, confirmed, and ratified, and are ordered to be exactly and faithfully obferved, except in fo far as by the prefent treaty is otherwife provided and established; fo that there fhall be between the faid kingdoms and ftates, their people and fubjects, a fincere friendship and perfect amity: they fhall all of them mutually affift one another; and each of the faid Powers fhall promote the intereft and advantage of the reft, as if it were his own.

II. If ever it fhall happen that the Kings of Spain and France, either the prefent or future; that both of them together, or either of them separately, fhall make war, or give occafion to fufpect that they intend to make war upon the kingdom of Portugal, either on the continent of Europe or in its dominions beyond feas; her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, and the Lords the States General, fhall use their friendly offices with the faid Kings, or either of them, in order to perfuade them to obferve the terms of Portugal, and not to make war upon it,

peace towards

III. But thefe good offices not proving fuccefsful, but altogether ineffectual, fo that war fhould be made by the aforefaid Kings, or by either of them, upon Portugal, the above-mentioned Powers of Great Britain and Holland fhall make war, with all their force, upon the forefaid Kings or King who fhall carry hoftile arms into Portugal; and towards that war which fhall be carried on in Europe, they fhall fupply twelve thoufand men, whom they fhall arm and pay, as well when in quarters as in action; and the faid high allies fhall be obliged to keep that number of men complete, by recruiting it from time to time at their own expence.

IV. And in this cafe alfo, the aforefaid Powers of Great Britain and Holland fhall be obliged to keep and maintain upon the coaft of Portugal, and in its harbours, a competent number of men of war, to defend the faid coafts and harbours, the trade and merchant

chant-fhips, from all hoftile attempts; fo that if it fhall appear that the faid harbours and fhips are in danger of being attacked with a greater force by the enemy, the faid high allies fhall be obliged to fend to Portugal fuch a number of men of war as fhall be equal, or even fuperior, to the ships and force of the enemy who fhall meditate an attack upon the abovefaid fhips and harbours.

V. But if the forefaid Kings of Spain and France, or either of them, fhall make war, or give occafion to fufpect that they intend to make war, upon the pro vinces or dominions of Portugal beyond feas, the above-mentioned Powers of Great Britain and Holland fhall furnish to his Portuguese Majefty fuch a number of men of war as fhall be equal, or even fuperior, to the ships of the enemy; fo that he may be able not only to oppose them, but even to prevent fuch attack or invasion, as long as the war fhall laft, or occafion require. And if the enemy fhall take any town or feize any place, which they may fortify, in the forefaid provinces and dominions beyond feas, thefe fuccours fhall continue until fuch town or place be fully recovered, or more towns and places, if more fhould be taken.

VI. All these auxiliary fhips fhall be fubject to the command of his Portuguese Majefty, fo that they hall perform whatever fhall be enjoined by his faid Majefty; and if they fhould fail to the Portuguese provinces and dominions beyond feas, they fhall there likewife perform whatever fhall be enjoined them, in the name of his Majefty, by his viceroys and gover

nors.

VII. When these auxiliary fhips of the two Powers of Great Britain and Holland fhall be joined with the Portuguese ships (in which cafe they must always affift them) the admiral of the Portuguese fleet, who has the right of carrying the flag, fhall give fignals, and fummon to a council of war, which fhall be held in

his own cabin; and the fame admiral of the Portuguefe fleet fhall iffue the neceffary orders for executing thofe points which fhall have been refolved upon in the council of war; which points the admirals of the auxiliary ships fhall execute, each with his own ships.

VIII. But if, at any time, the ships of the three allied nations shall be conjoined in order to attempt any thing, in which all the allies are equally interefted, the admiral, who has the right of carrying the flag, and has under his command the greateft number of fhips of his own nation, fhall enjoy the right and privilege mentioned in the former article, viz. of giving fignals, of fummoning to a council of war in his own cabin, and of doing every other thing requifite, as is above fpecified.

IX. The twelve thousand men, which the Powers of Great Britain and Holland are bound to furnish to his Portuguese Majesty, and to maintain at their own expence, and occafionally recruit, during the continuance of the war, as ftipulated in the third article of this treaty, shall be fubject, not only to the fupreme command of his Portuguese Majefty, but alfo to that of his commanders or generals, and even of fuch of his officers as by their rank in the army are fuperior to them. But for breach of orders, and for the crimes and enormities of which they fhall be guilty, they fhall be punished by the commanders or generals of their own army, in the fame manner as the Portuguese themfelves are punished by martial law, especially for those crimes which regard the violation of religion.

X. The high allies fhall, in the cafe above-mentioned, grant full liberty, and all kind of aid and affiftance to the commiffaries of his Portuguese Majefty, to export from their territories and harbours all forts of military ftores, fuch as powder, balls, arms, corn, and every other kind of ammunition, that fhall be defired of them, as well belonging to the fea as the land service; and that too at the fame price as the said high

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