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Mr. RUSSELL. Yes; both for the purpose of hearing General MacArthur, and for the purpose of subsequent hearings to be held on the same subject.
II. CHRONOLOGY OF SOME SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MILITARY SITUATION IN THE FAR EAST
[Compiled by John L. Houk and Ellen Clodfelter, Foreign Affairs Section, Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress, April 16, 1951]
September 9: United States troops accept the surrender of Japanese forces south of the 38° parallel and United States Military Government in Korea is established.
May 17: South Korean Interim Government is established by Ordinance No. 141 of the United States Army Military Government in Korea: November 14: The UN General Assembly passes a resolution stating that the Korean people themselves should create a provisional government through free and secret election of representatives and that subsequently foreign troops should be withdrawn from Korea. UN Temporary Commission on Korea is created to observe the election and to consult with the elected representatives and the government.
June 25: The UN Temporary Commission on Korea adopts a resolution stating that the election held in the southern zone on May 10 was a "valid expression of the free will of the electorate in those parts of Korea which were accessible to the Commission and in which the inhabitants constituted approximately two-thirds of the people of all Korea."
August 15: The Government of the Republic of Korea with Syngman Rhee as its President, is inaugurated and Army Military Govern
ment in Korea is terminated.
September 9: The Supreme People's Council in North Korea formally declares the establishment of a "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" claiming jurisdiction over the entire country.
October 12: The U. S. S. R. extends diplomatic recognition to the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea." During the following six weeks the Mongolian People's Republic and the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe also recognize the "government" in North Korea.
April 8: Russian veto blocks Korean Republic's admission to UN. July 1: United States Army discloses that the withdrawal of American occupation forces is completed. Only a small contingent of some 500 officers and men for training Korean forces is left.
June 19: Dulles assures Korea of continued United States support and predicts Communists will lose grip on North Korea eventually.
June 25: Between 4 and 5 o'clock in the morning (Korean time) North Korean Communist forces attack South Korea defense positions south of the 38th parallel.
At 5:45 p. m. the Security Council adopts a resolution (9-0, Yugoslavia abstaining, U. S. S. R. absent) calling for an immediate cease-fire and the withdrawal of the North Korean forces to the 38th parallel. All members are requested to "render every assistance to the United Nations in the execution of this resolution and to refrain from giving assistance to the North Korean forces. June 27: At 12 noon President Truman reveals that, pursuant to the Security Council's call upon UN members to render every assistance to the execution of the June 25 resolution, he has ordered United States air and sea units "to give the Korean Government troops cover and support," and has asked Moscow to act to terminate the fighting in Korea.
At 10:45 p. m. the Security Council adopts a resolution sponsored by the United States requesting "that the Members of the United Nations furnish such assistance to the Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security in the area.
June 29: In reply to United States note of June 27 asking that the U. S. S. R. "use its influence with the North Korean authorities toward immediate withdrawal of their invading forces," the U. S. S. R. replies that "the events which are going on in Korea were provoked by the attack of troops of the South Korean authorities," and that the Soviet Government "holds now also to the principle of the inadmissibility of the interference of foreign powers in the internal affairs of Korea."
U. S. S. R. declares that the Security Council resolution on Korea is illegal.
President Truman holds that the United States is "not at war." June 30: President Truman states he has authorized General MacArthur to use certain supporting ground units and the Air Force to conduct missions on specific targets in northern Korea wherever militarily necessary, and a naval blockade of the entire Korean coast. "Within hours" a battalion of United States infantry is ashore in Korea.
July 2: In answer to the Chinese Nationalist's offer of June 29 and 30 to furnish troops, United States replies that in view of Chinese Communists' threat to attack Formosa, a conference should be held with General MacArthur before troops are dispatched from the island.
July 7: The Security Council adopts by 7 votes (India, Egypt, and Yugoslavia abstaining) a resolution to channel men, ships, planes, and supplies from contributing UN members directly to a unified command under the United States which would have discretion as to using the United Nations flag.
In a note to the United States, the U. S. S. R. states that it will hold the United States responsible for "all damage to interest of the Soviet Union" caused in carrying out the blockade.
July 8: President Truman names MacArthur as the UN Commander and orders him to use the UN flag concurrently with those of the participating nations.
July 13: Nehru sends personal notes to the United States and U. S. S. R. asking aid in localizing and terminating the Korean fighting by "breaking the present deadlock in the Security Council * August 2: Statement issued by Gen. Chiang Kai-shek states that he and General MacArthur have reached agreement on the defense of Formosa, based on Chinese-United States military cooperation. October 7: UN General Assembly adopts resolution, 47-5, recommending that "all appropriate steps be taken to ensure conditions of stability throughout Korea.”
October 9: General MacArthur addresses to "the Premier, Government of North Korea" a demand for the surrender of the forces under his command in whatever part of Korea they are situated. October 15: A conference is held on Wake Island between President Truman and General MacArthur. President Truman issues a statement stating that a "very complete unanimity of view" had prevailed in the discussions covering Korea, Japan, and United States policy to promote peace in the Pacific.
November 16: President Truman states that "we have never at any time entertained any intention to carry hostilities into China * * * we will take every honorable step to prevent any extension of the hostilities in the Far East."
November 24: UN forces open general "end the war" offensive in northwestern Korea under the personal direction of General MacArthur.
November 28: General MacArthur announces that the United Nations forces in Korea "face an entirely new war" as over 200,000 Red China troops intervene in Korea.
Wu Hsiu-chwan, chief of Communist China's delegation to the Security Council, makes first speech at Lake Success, accusing the United States of "criminal armed aggression" against China and announcing that the Chinese Reds will not talk to the Council about the presence of Chinese troops in North Korea. November 30: President Truman declares "the forces of the United Nations have no intention of abandoning their mission in Korea." In answer to reporter's questions, he states that the United States would take whatever steps were necessary to meet the military situation in Korea, and that consideration is being given to the use of the atomic bomb if necessary to assure victory, but he did not want to see it used.
December 1: General MacArthur states that orders forbidding him to strike across the Korean border at Chinese Communists were putting the UN forces under "an enormous handicap, without precedent in military history.'
As of this date the following members of the UN have troops in or en route to Korea: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, France, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Fanama, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, and the United States.
December 22: Communist China's Premier and Foreign Minister Chou-en-lai rejects the proposal of the UN Cease-Fire Committee, stating the Committee is unlawful because Communist China had not participated in creating it. He demands the withdrawal
of all foreign troops from Korea, the withdrawal of the United States from Formosa, and the admission of Communist China to the United Nations.
January 23: United States Senate unanimously adopts a resolution calling on the United Nations "to immediately declare Communist China an aggressor in Korea."
February 1: The United States resolution introduced January 20, as amended, which would declare the Chinese Communist government to be engaged in aggression and establish a Good Offices Commission, is adopted 44-7 with 9 abstentions. The amendment, submitted by Lebanon, had the effect of withholding any recommendations for sanctions if the proposed good offices committee reported satisfactory progress.
March 7: United Nations forces recapture Seoul.
General MacArthur reports that the battle lines would remain in a "theoretical military stalemate" as long as there was a "continuation of the existing limitation upon our freedom of counteroffensive action" and no major additions to the organization strength. March 24: General MacArthur asserts he is ready at any time to confer in the field with the commander of the Chinese and North Korean forces to end the war and "find any military means whereby the realization of the political objectives of the United Nations in Korea, to which no nation may justly take exceptions, might be accomplished without further bloodshed." He added that a decision of the United Nations to depart from its effort to contain the war in Korea would "doom Red China to the risk of imminent military collapse."
The State Department subsequently issues a statement that "the political issues, which General MacArthur has stated are beyond his responsibility as a field commander, are being dealt with in the United Nations and by intergovernmental consultations." March 29: Chinese Communist radio rejects MacArthur's offer of a truce in Korea and urges the Red troops to renew their efforts. The offer is termed a "bluff" and an "insult to the Chinese people." April 5: Representative Martin makes public a letter written March 20 by General MacArthur in which the general endorses Martin's demand for the use of Chinese Nationalist forces to open a second front against the Communists in Asia.
April 11: President Truman relieves General MacArthur of all command in the Far East. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway is appointed to succeed MacArthur.
III. BEGINNING OF MILITARY OPERATIONS IN KOREA
A. Statement by United States representative to the United Nations, June 25, 1950
At 4 o'clock in the morning Sunday, June 25, Korean time, armed forces from North Korea commenced an unprovoked assault against the territory of the Republic of Korea. This assault was launched by ground forces along the thirty-eighth parallel, in the Ongjin,
Kaesong, and Chunshon sectors, and by amphibious landings on the east coast in the vicinity of Jangmung. In addition, North Korean aircraft have attacked and strafed the Kimpo airport in the outskirts of the capital city of Seoul.
Under the circumstances I have described, this wholly illegal and unprovoked attack by the North Korean forces, in the view of my Government, constitutes a breach of the peace and an act of aggression. This is clearly a threat to international peace and security. As such, it is of grave concern to my Government. It is a threat which must inevitably be of grave concern to the governments of all peace- and freedom-loving nations.
A full-scale attack is now going forward in Korea. It is an invasion upon a state which the United Nations itself, by action of its General Assembly, has brought into being. It is armed aggression against a government elected under United Nations supervision.
Such an attack strikes at the fundamental purposes of the United Nations Charter. Such an attack openly defies the interest and authority of the United Nations. Such an attack, therefore, concerns the vital interest which all the members of the United Nations have in the organization.
The history of the Korean problem in the United Nations is well known to you. At this critical hour I will not review it in detail. But let me recall only a few milestones in the development of the Korean situation.
A Joint Commission of the United States and the Soviet Union for 2 years sought unsuccessfully to agree on ways and means of bringing to Korea the independence which she assumed would automatically come when Japan was defeated. This 2-year deadlock prevented 38,000,000 people in Korea from getting the independence which it was agreed was their right.
My Government, thereupon, sought to hold a four-power conference at which China and the United Kingdom would join the United States and the Soviet Union to seek agreement on the independence of Korea. The Soviet Union rejected that proposal.
The United States then asked the General Assembly to consider the problem. The Soviet Union opposed that suggestion. The General Assembly by resolution of November 14, 1947, created the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea. By that resolution the General Assembly recommended the holding of elections not later than the 31st of March 1948, to choose representatives with whom the commission might consult regarding the prompt attainment of freedom and independence of the Korean people. These elected representatives would constitute a National Assembly and establish a National Government of Korea.
The General Assembly further recommended that upon the establishment of a National Government, that Government should in consultation with the Commission constitute its own national security forces, and to dissolve all military or semimilitary formations not included therein. The General Assembly recommended that the National Government should take over the functions of government from the military command and from the civilian authorities of North and South Korea, and arrange with the occupying powers for the complete withdrawal from Korea of the armed forces as early as practicable and if possible within 90 days.