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Consuls' exequatur.

In order that the Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the two contracting parties may enjoy the rights, prerogatives, and immunities which belong to them by their public character, they shall, before entering on the exercise of their functions, exhibit their commission or patent in due form to the Government to which they are accred ited; and having obtained their exequatur, they shall be held and considered as such by all the authorities, magistrates, and inhabitants in the consular district in which they reside.

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It is likewise agreed that the Consuls, their secretaries, officers, and Exemption of Con- persons attached to the service of Consuls, they not being citizens of the country in which the Consul resides, shall be exempt from all public service; and also from all kind of taxes, imposts, and contributions, except those which they shall be obliged to pay on account of commerce or their property, to which the citizens and inhabitants, native and foreign, of the country in which they reside are subject, being in everything besides subject to the laws of the respective States. The archives and papers of the consulates shall be respected inviolably, and under no pretext whatever shall any magistrate seize or in any way interfere with them.



The said Consuls shall have power to require the assistance of the authorities of the country for the arrest, detention, and custody of deserters from the public and private vessels of their country; and for that purpose they shall address themselves to the courts, judges, and officers competent, and shall demand in writing the said deserters, proving, by an exhibition of the registers of the vessels or ship's roll or other public documents, that those men were part of the said crews; and on this demand so proved, (saving, however, where the contrary is proved by other testimonies,) the delivery shall not be refused. Such deserters, when arrested, shall be put at the disposal of the said Consuls, and may be put in the public prisons at the request and expense of those who reclaim them, to be sent to the ships to which they belonged or to others of the same nation. But if they be not sent back within two months, to be counted from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall be no more arrested for the same cause.



For the purpose of more effectually protecting their commerce and Consular conven- navigation, the two contracting parties do hereby agree to form, as soon hereafter as circumstances will permit, a consular convention, which shall declare specially the powers and immunities of the Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the respective parties.


The United States of America and the Republic of New Granada, desiring to make as durable as possible the relations which are to be established between the two parties by virtue of this treaty, have declared solemnly, and do agree to the following points:

Isthmus of Pan


1st. For the better understanding of the preceding articles, it is and has been stipulated between the high contracting parties, that the citizens, vessels, and merchandise of the United States shall enjoy in the ports of New Granada, including those of the part of the Granadian territory generally denominated Isthmus of Panama, from its southernmost extremity until the boundary of Costa Rica, all the exemptions, privileges, and immunities concerning commerce and navigation, which are now or may hereafter be enjoyed by Granadian citizens, their vessels, and merchandise; and that this equality of favors shall be made to extend to the passengers, correspondence, and merchandise of the United States, in their transit across the said territory, from one sea to the other. The Government of New Granada guarantees to the Government of the United States that the right of way or transit across the Isthmus of Panama upon any modes of communication that now exist, or that may be hereafter constructed, shall be open and free to the Government and citizens of the United States, and for the transportation of any articles of produce, manufactures, or merchandise, of lawful commerce, belonging to the citizens of the United States; that no other tolls or charges shall be levied or collected upon the citizens of the United States, or their said merchandise thus passing over any road or canal that may be made by the Government of New Granada, or by the authority of the same, than is, under like circumstances, levied upon and collected from the Granadian citizens; that any lawful produce, manufactures, or merchandise, belonging to citizens of the United States, thus passing from one sea to the other, in either direction, for the purpose of exportation to any other foreign country, shall not be liable to any import duties whatever; or, having paid such duties, they shall be entitled to drawback upon their exportation; nor shall the citizens of the United States be liable to any duties, tolls, or charges of any kind, to which native citizens are not subjected for thus passing the said Isthmus. And, in order to secure to themselves the tranquil and constant enjoyment of these advantages, and as an especial compensation for the said advantages, and for the favors they have acquired by the 4th, 5th, and 6th articles of this treaty, the United States guarantee, positively and efficaciously, to New Granada, by the present stipulation, the perfect neutrality of the before-mentioned isthmus, with the view that the free transit from the one to the other sea may not be interrupted or embarrassed in any future time while this treaty exists; and, in consequence, the United States also guarantee, in the same manner, the rights of sovereignty and property which New Granada has and possesses over the said territory. 2d. The present treaty shall remain in full force and vigor for the terin of twenty years from the day of the exchange of the ratifications; and from the same day the treaty that was concluded between the United States and Colombia, on the 13th of October, 1824, shall cease to have effect, notwithstanding what was disposed in the 1st point of its 31st article.

Duration of treaty.

Alteration of

3d. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if neither party notifies to the other its intention of reforming any of, or all, the articles of this treaty twelve months before the expiration of the twenty treaty. years stipulated above, the said treaty shall continue binding on both parties beyond the said twenty years, until twelve months from the time that one of the parties notifies its intention of proceeding to a reform. 4th. If any one or more of the citizens of either party shall infringe any of the articles of this treaty, such citizens shall be held personally responsible for the same, and the harmony and good correspondence between the nations shall not be interrupted thereby:


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each party engaging in no way to protect the offender, or sanction such violation.

Reprisals not authorized.

5th. If unfortunately any of the articles contained in this treaty should be violated or infringed in any way whatever, it is expressly stipulated that neither of the two contracting parties shall ordain or authorize any acts of reprisal, nor shall declare war against the other on complaints of injuries or damages, until the said party considering itself offended shall have laid before the other a statement of such injuries or damages, verified by competent proofs, demanding justice and satisfaction, and the same shall have been denied, in violation of the laws and of international right.

6th. Any special or remarkable advantage that one or the other power may enjoy from the foregoing stipulation, are and ought to Special advantages, be always understood in virtue and as in compensation of the obligations they have just contracted, and which have been specified in the first number of this article.


The present treaty of peace, amity, commerce, and navigation shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof; and by the President of the Republic of New Granada, with the consent and approbation of the Congress of the same; and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the city of Washington, within eighteen months from the date of the sig nature thereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof, we, the Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America and of the Republic of New Granada, have signed and sealed these presents in the city of Bogota, on the twelfth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six.

[L. S.]

[L. S.



The Republics of the United States and of New Granada will hold and admit as national ships of one or the other, all those that shall be provided by the respective Governments with a

National ships.

patent, issued according to its laws.

The present additional article shall have the same force and validity as if it were inserted, word for word, in the treaty signed this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at the same time.

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto their seals.

Done in the city of Bogota, the twelfth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six.

L. S.] [L. S.]

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Consular Convention between the Republic of New Granada and the United States of America.

In the name of the Most Holy Trinity.

Peace, &c.

The Governments of the Republics of New Granada and the United States of America, having engaged by the thirty-fourth article of the treaty of peace, amity, navigation, and commerce, concluded on the 12th of December, 1815, to form a consular convention, which shall declare specially the powers and immunities of the Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the respective parties, in order to comply with this article, and more effectively to protect their commerce and navigation, they have given adequate authority to their respective Plenipotentiaries, to wit:

The Government of New Granada to Raphael Rivas, its Chargé d'Affaires in the United States, and the Government of the United States to John M. Clayton, Secretary of State;

Who, after the exchange and examination of their full powers, found to be sufficient and in due form, have agreed upon the following articles:


Grades of Consuls.

Each of the two contracting Republics may maintain in the principal cities or com[m]ercial places of the other, and in the ports open to foreign commerce, Consuls of its own, charged with the protection of the commercial rights and interests of their nation, and to sustain their countrymen in the difficulties to which they may be exposed. They may likewise appoint Consuls-General, as chiefs over the other Consuls, or to attend to the affairs of several commercial places at the same time, and Vice-Consuls for ports of minor importance, or to act under the direction of the Consuls. Each Republic may, however, except those cities, places, or ports in which it may consider the resi dence of such functionaries inconvenient, such exception being common to all nations. All that is said in this convention of Consuls in general shall be considered as relating not only to Consuls, properly so called, but to Consuls General and Vice-Consuls, in all the cases to which this convention refers.



The Consuls, appointed by one of the contracting parties to reside in the ports or places of the other, shall present to the Government of the Republic in which they are to reside their letters-patent or commission, in order that they may receive the proper exequatur, if it be deemed expedient to give it, which shall be granted without any charge; and this exequatur, when obtained, is to be exhibited to the chief authorities of the place in which the Consul is to exercise his functions, in order that they may cause him to be recognized in his character, and that he may be sustained in his proper prerogative, in his respective consular district. The Government receiving the Consul may withdraw the exequatur er his consular commission whenever it may judge proper to do so, but in such case shall state a reasonable ground for the proceeding.


The Consuls admitted in either Republic may exercise in their respective districts the following functions:

Consular privileges.

1. They may apply directly to the authorities of the district in which they reside, and they may, in case of necessity, have recourse to the National Government through the diplomatic agent of their nation, if there be any, or directly, if there be no such agent, in complaint against any infraction of the treaties of commerce committed by the authorities or persons employed by them in the country, to the injury of the commerce of the nation in whose service the Consul is engaged.

2. They may apply to the authorities of the consular district, and, in case of necessity, they may have recourse to the National Government through the diplomatic agent of their nation, if there be any, or directly, if there be no such agent, against any abuse on the part of the authorities of the country, or the persons employed by them, against individuals of their nation in whose service the Consul is engaged; and they may, when necessary, take such measures as may be proper to prevent justice from being denied to them, or delayed, and to prevent them from being judged or punished by any other than competent judges, and agreeably to the laws in force.

3. They may, as the natural defenders of their fellow-countrymen, appear in their name and behalf, whenever so requested by them, before the respective authorities of the place, in all cases in which their sup port may be necessary.


4. They may accompany the captains, mates, or masters of vessels of their nation in all that they may have to do with regard to the manifests of their merchandise and other documents, and be present in all cases in which the authorities, courts, or judges of the country may have to take any declarations from the persons above mentioned, or any other belonging to their respective crews.

5. They may receive depositions, protests, and statements from captains, mates, and masters of vessels of their nation respectDepositions. ing losses and injuries sustained at sea, and protests of any individuals of their nation respecting mercantile affairs. These documents, drawn up in authentic copies, certified by the Consul, shall be admitted in the courts and offices of justice, and shall have the same validity as if they had been authenticated before the same judges or


Injuries to mer@handise at sea.

6. They may determine on all matters relating to injuries sustained at sea by effects and merchandise shipped in vessels of the nation in whose service the Consul is employed arriving at the place of his residence, provided that there be no stipulations to the contrary between the shippers, owners, and insurers. But if, among the persons interested in such losses and injuries, there should be inhabitants of the country where the Consul resides, and not belonging to the nation in whose service he is, the cognizance of such losses and injuries appertains to the local authorities.

ences out of court.

7. They may compromise amicably, and out of court, the differences Compromise differ arising between their fellow-countrymen, provided that those persons agree voluntarily to submit to such arbitration; in which case the document containing the decision of the Consul, authenticated by himself and by his chancellor or secretary, shall have all the force of a notarial copy authenticated, so as to render it obligatory on the interested parties.

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