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them, and dispose of the same at their pleasure, paying such duties only as the inhabitants of the country where the said property lies shall be liable to pay in like cases.


Property of absent

In case of the absence of the heirs, the same care shall be taken, provisionally, of such real or personal property as would be taken, in a like case, of the property belonging to the na- heirs to be taken tives of the country, until the lawful owner, or the person who has a right to sell the same, according to Article II, may take measures to receive or dispose of the inheritance.


care of.

If any dispute should arise between the different claimants to the same inheritance, they shall be decided according to the laws and Disputes to be setby the judges of the country where the property is situated. tled by local laws.


All the stipulations of the present convention shall be obligatory in respect to property already inherited, devised, or bequeathed, but not yet withdrawn from the country where the same is situated at the signature of this convention.


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This convention shall be ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of Convention subject their Senate, and by His Majesty the King of Saxony, and to ratification, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Berlin within the changed in eighteen term of eighteen months from the date of the signature, or sooner if possible.

ratifications to be ex

months from date.

Signed in Germau

In faith of which, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the above articles, both in German and English, and and English May 14, have thereto affixed their seals.


Done in triplicata, in the city of Berlin, on the 14th of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-five, and the sixty-ninth of the Independence of the United States of America. HENRY WHEATON. [L. S.] MINCKWITZ.

[L. S.]



DATE JUNE 7, 1854; PROCLAIMED JULY 26, 1854.

[On the 7th of June, 1854, the Government of the Duke of Schaumburg-Lippe formally declared its accession to the convention of the 16th of June, 1852, between the United States and Prussia and other States of the Germanic Confederation, for the mutual delivery of criminals fugitives from justice in certain cases, and to the additional article thereto between the same parties, of the 16th of November, 1852.]


SIAM, 1833.


His Majesty the Sovereign and Magnificent King in the City of SiaYut'hia has appointed the Chau Phaya-Phra-klang, one of the first Ministers of State, to treat with Edmund Roberts, Minister of the United States of America, who has been sent by the Government thereof, on its behalf, to form a treaty of sincere friendship and entire good faith between the two nations. For this purpose, the Siamese and the citi zens of the United States of America shall, with sincerity, hold commercial intercourse in the ports of their respective nations as long as heaven and earth shall endure.

This treaty is concluded on Wednesday, the last of the fourth month of the year 1194, called Pi-marông-chat-tava-sôk, (or the year of the Dragon,) corresponding to the twentieth day of March, in the year of our Lord 1833. One original is written in Siamese, the other in English; but as the Siamese are ignorant of English, and the Americans of Siamese, a Portuguese and a Chinese translation are annexed, to serve as testimony to the contents of the treaty. The writing is of the same tenor and date in all the languages aforesaid. It is signed, on the one part, with the name of the Chau P'haya-P'hra-klang, and sealed with the seal of the lotus flower, of glass; on the other part, it is signed with the name of Edmund Roberts, and sealed with a seal containing an eagle and stars.

One copy will be kept in Siam, and another will be taken by Edmund

Roberts to the United States.

If the Government of the United States

shall ratify the said treaty and attach the seal of the Government, then Siam will also ratify it on its part, and attach the seal of its Government.


There shall be a perpetual peace between the United States of America and the Magnificent King of Siam.


Perpetual peace.

Citizens of United

enter the ports of

goes, &c.

The citizens of the United States shall have free liberty to enter all the ports of the Kingdom of Siam with their cargoes, of whatever kind the said cargoes may consist; and they shall States at liberty to have liberty to sell the same to any of the subjects of the Siam with their carKing, or others who may wish to purchase the same, or to barter the same for any produce or manufacture of the Kingdom, or other articles that may be found there. No prices shall be fixed by the officers of the King on the articles to be sold by the merchants of the United States, or the merchandise they may wish to buy, but the trade shall be free on both sides to sell or buy or exchange on the terms and for the prices the owners may think fit. Whenever the said citizens of the United States shall be ready to depart, they shall be at liberty so to do, and the proper officers shall furnish them with passports: Provided always, There be no legal impediment to the contrary. Nothing contained in this article shall be understood as granting permission to import and sell munitions of war to any person excepting to the King, who, if he does not require, will not be bound to purchase them; neither is permission granted to import opium, which is contraband, or to export rice, which cannot be embarked as an article of commerce. These only are prohibited.




Vessels of the United States entering any port within His Majesty's dominions, and selling or purchasing cargoes of merchandise, shall pay, in lieu of import and export duties, tonnage, license to trade, or any other charge whatever, a measurement duty only, as follows: The measurement shall be made from side to side, in the middle of the vessel's length; and, if a single-decked vessel, on such single deck; if otherwise, on the lower deck. On every vessel, selling merchandise, the sum of one thousand seven hundred Ticals, or Bats, shall. be paid for every Siamese fathom in breadth, so measured; the said fathom being computed to contain seventy-eight English or American inches, corresponding to ninety-six Siamese inches; but if the said vessel should come without merchandise, and purchase a cargo with specie only, she shall then pay the sum of fifteen hundred Ticals, or Bats, for each and every fathom before described. Furthermore, neither the aforesaid measurement duty, nor any other charge whatever, shall be paid by any vessel of the United States that enters a Siamese port for the purpose of refitting, or for refreshments, or to inquire the state of the market.


If hereafter the duties payable by foreign vessels be diminished in favor of any other nation, the same diminution shall be made in favor of the vessels of the United States.



If any vessel of the United States shall suffer shipwreck on any part of the Magnificent King's dominions, the persons escaping from the wreck shall be taken care of and hospitably entertained at the expense of the King, until they shall find an opportunity to be returned to their country; and the property saved from such wreck shall be carefully preserved and restored to its owners; and the United States will repay all expenses incurred by His Majesty on account of such wreck.

in Siam.


If any citizen of the United States, coming to Siam for the purpose of Debts contracted trade, shall contract debts to any individual of Siam, or if any individual of Siam shall contract debts to any citizen of the United States, the debtor shall be obliged to bring forward and sell all his goods to pay his debts therewith. When the product of such bona fide sale shall not suffice, he shall no longer be liable for the remainder, nor shall the creditor be able to retain him as a slave, imprison, flog, or otherwise punish him, to compel the payment of any balance remaining due, but shall leave him at perfect liberty.

Merchants United States to rent the king's factories, &C.


Merchants of the United States coming to trade in the Kingdom of Siam, and wishing to rent houses therein, shall rent the King's factories, and pay the customary rent of the country. If the said merchants bring their goods on shore, the King's officers shall take account thereof, but shall not levy any duty thereupon.


If any citizens of the United States, or their vessels, or other property, shall be taken by pirates and brought within the United States taken dominions of the Magnificent King, the persons shall be set at liberty, and the property restored to its owners.

Citizens of the by pirates.


Merchants of the United States trading in the Kingdom United States to re- of Siam shall respect and follow the laws and customs of


spect the laws, &c.


the country in all points.



If hereafter any foreign nation other than the Portuguese shall request and obtain His Majesty's consent to the appointment of Consuls to reside in Siam, the United States shall be at liberty to appoint Consuls to reside in Siam, equally with such other foreign nation.


Whereas the undersigned, Edmund Roberts, a citizen of Portsmouth, the State of New Hampshire, in the United States of America, being duly appointed an envoy, by letters-patent, under the signature of the President and seal of the United States of America, bearing date at the

city of Washington, the twenty-sixth day of January, A. D. 1832, for negotiating and concluding a treaty of amity and commerce between the United States of America and His Majesty the King of Siam:

Now know ye, that I, Edmund Roberts, Envoy as aforesaid, do conclude the foregoing treaty of amity and commerce, and every article and clause therein contained; reserving the same, nevertheless, for the final ratification of the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the said United States. Done at the royal city of Sia-Yut'hia, (commonly called Bankok,) on the twentieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the fifty-seventh.


SIAM, 1856.



The President of the United States of America, and their Majesties Phra-Bard, Somdetch, Phra-Paramendr, Maha, Mongkut, Phra, Chom, Klau, Chau, Yu, Hua, the First King of Siam, and Phra, Bard, Somdetch, Phra, Pawarendr, Ramesr, Mahiswaresr, Phra, Pin, Klau, Chau, Yu, Hua, the second King of Siam, desiring to establish upon firm and lasting foundations the relations of peace and friendship existing between the two countries, and to secure the best interest of their respective citizens and subjects by encouraging, facilitating, and regulating their industry and trade, have resolved to conclude a treaty of amity and commerce for this purpose, and have therefore named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

The President of the United States, Townsend Harris, Esq., of New York, Consul-General of the United States of America for the Empire of Japan, and their Majesties the First and Second Kings of Siam, His Royal Highness the Prince Krom Hluang, Wongsa, Dhiraj, Snidh, His Excellency Somdetch, Chau, Phaya, Param, Maha, Bijai, Neate, His Excellency Chau, Phaya, Sri, Suriwongse, Samuha, Phra, Kralahom, His Excellency Chau, Phaya, Rawe, Wongee, Maha, Kosa, Dhipade, the Phra Klang, His Excellency Chau, Phaya, Yomray, the lord mayor; Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, and found them to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:


There shall, henceforward, be perpetual peace and friendship between the United States and their Majesties the First and Second Kings of Siam and their successors.

Amity &c.

Mutual aid.

All American citizens coming to Siam shall receive from the Siamese Government full protection and assistance to enable them to reside in Siam in all security, and trade with every facility, free from oppression or injury on the part of the Siamese. Inasmuch as Siam has no ships trading to the ports of the United States, it is agreed that the ships of war of the United States shall render friendly

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