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United States to
effects of subjects of Sweden.
In like manner the United States of North America shall protect and defend the vessels and effects belonging to the subjects of protect vessels and His Swedish Majesty, which shall be in the ports, havens, or roads, or on the seas near to the countries, islands, cities and towns of the said States, and shall use their utmost efforts to recover and restore to the right owners all such vessels and effects which shall be taken from them within their jurisdiction.
In war at sea, ships
sels of each nation.
If, in any future war at sea, the contracting Powers resolve to remain neuter, and as such to observe the strictest neutrality, then of war to protect ves it is agreed that if the merchant ships of either party should happen to be in a part of the sea where the ships of war of the same nation are not stationed, or if they are met on the high sea, without being able to have recourse to their own convoys, in that case the commander of the ships of war of the other party, if required, shall, in good faith and sincerity, give them all necessary assistance; and in such case the ships of war and frigates of either of the Powers shall protect and support the merchant-ships of the other: provided, nevertheless, that the ships claiming assistance are not engaged in any illicit commerce contrary to the principle of the neutrality.
Regulations to citizens of one party
It is agreed and concluded that all merchants, captains of merchantships or other subjects of His Swedish Majesty, shall have transact business by full liberty in all places under the dominion or jurisdiction in the dominions of of the United States of America, to manage their own affairs, and to employ in the management of them, whomsoever they please; and they shall not be obliged to make use of any interpreter or broker, nor to pay them any reward unless they make use of them. Moreover, the masters of ships shall not be obliged, in loading or unloading their vessels, to employ labourers appointed by public authority for that purpose; but they shall be at full liberty, themselves, to load or unload their vessels, or to employ in loading or unloading them whomsoever they think proper, without paying reward under the title of salary to any other person whatever; and they shall not be obliged to turn over any kind of merchandizes to other vessels, nor to receive them on board their own, nor to wait for their lading longer than they please; and all and every of the citizens, people, and inhabitants of the United States of America shall reciprocally have and enjoy the same * privileges and liberties in all places, under the jurisdiction of the said realm.
No vessels to be ease of fraud.
It is agreed that when merchandizes shall have been put on board the ships or vessels of either of the contracting parties, they searched unless in shall not be subjected to any examination; but all examination and search must be before lading, and the prohibited merchandizes must be stopped on the spot before they are embarked, unless there is full evidence or proof of fraudulent practice on the part of the owner of the ship, or of him who has the command of her; in which case only he shall be responsible and subject to the laws of the country
in which he may be. In all other cases, neither the subjects of either of the contracting parties who shall be with their vessels in the ports of the other, nor their merchandizes, shall be seized or molested on account of contraband goods, which they shall have wanted to take on board, nor shall any kind of embargo be laid on their ships, subjects, or citizens of the State whose merchandizes are declared contraband, or the exportation of which is forbidden; those only who shall have sold or intended to sell or alienate such merchandize being liable to punishment for such contravention.
Done at Paris, the third day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.
GUSTAV PHILIP COMTE DE CREUTZ.
[L. S.] [L. S.
SWEDEN AND NORWAY, 1816.
TREATY WITH SWEDEN AND NORWAY. CONCLUDED SEPTEMBER 4,1816; PROCLAIMED DECEMBER 31, 1818.
[This treaty expired by virtue of Article XIV, eight years after the exchange of ratifications.]
Relations of friend
In the name of the most Holy and Indivisible Trinity. The United States of America and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, equally animated with a sincere desire to maintain and confirm the relations of friendship and com- ship and commerce. merce which have hitherto subsisted between the two States, and being convinced that this object cannot be more effectually accomplished than by establishing, reciprocally, the commerce between the two States upon the firm basis of liberal and equitable principles, equally advantageous to both countries, have named to this end Plenipotentiaries, and have furnished them with the necessary full powers to treat, and in their name to conclude a treaty, to wit:
The President of the United States, Jonathan Russell, a citizen of the said United States, and now their Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of Stockholm; and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, His Excellency the Count Laurent d'Engeström, his Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Chancellor of the University of Lund, Knight Commander of the Orders of the King, Knight of the Order of Charles XIII, Grand Cross of the Orders of St. Etienne of Hungary, of the Legion of Honour of France, of the Black Eagle and of the Red Eagle of Prussia, and the Count Adolphe George de Mörner, his Counsellor of State, and Commander of the Order of the Polar Star;
And the said Plenipotentiaries, after having produced and exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed Full powers exon the following articles:
There shall be between all the territories under the dominion of the United States of America, and of His Majesty the King of Reciprocal liberty Sweden and Norway, a reciprocal liberty of commerce. The of commerce. inhabitants of either of the two countries shall have liberty, with all
*Translation from the original in the French language.
security for their persons, vessels, and cargoes, to come freely to all ports, places, and rivers within the territories of the other, into which the vessels of the most favored nations are permitted to enter. They can there remain and reside in any part whatsoever of the said territories; they can there hire and occupy houses and warehouses for their commerce; and, generally, the merchants and traders of each of the two chants and traders.. nations shall enjoy in the other the most complete security and protection for the transaction of their business, being bound alone to conform to the laws and statutes of the two countries, respectively.
Security for mer
No other or higher duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, of the produce or manufactures of the United States, nor on the importation into the United States of the produce or manufactures of the territories of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, than those to which the same articles would be subjected in each of the two countries, respectively, if these articles were the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any other country. The same principle shall likewise be observed in respect to exportation, in such manner that in each of the two countries, respectively, the articles which shall be exported for the other, cannot be charged with any duty, impost, or charge, whatsoever, higher or other than those to which the same articles would be subjected if they were exported to any other country whatever.
Equalization of duties, &c.
Nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the exportation or importa tion of any article, the growth, produce, or manufacture, of importations. the territories of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, or of the United States, to or from the said territories of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, or to or from the said United States, which shall not equally extend to all other nations. Swedish or Norwegian vessels arriving in ballast, or importing into the United States the produce or manufactures of their countries, or exporting from the United States the produce or manufactures of said States, shall not be obliged to pay, either for the vessels or the cargoes, any other or higher duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, than those which the vessels of the United States would pay in the same circumstances; and, vice versa, the vessels of the United States, arriving in ballast, or importing into the territories under the dominion of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway the produce or manufactures of the United States, or exporting from the territories under the dominion of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway the produce or manufactures of these territories, shall not pay, either for the vessels or the cargoes, any other or higher duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, than those which would be paid if these articles were transported by Swedish or Norwegian vessels, respectively.
That which is here above stipulated shall also extend to the Swedish colony of St. Barthelemy, as well in what relates to the rights and advantages which the vessels of the United States shall enjoy in its ports, as in relation to those which the vessels of the colony shall enjoy in the ports of the United States, provided the owners are inhab itants of St. Barthelemy, and there established and naturalized, and shall have there caused their vessels to be naturalized.
His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway agrees that all articles the growth, produce, or manufacture, of the West Indies, (*This article not which are permitted to be imported in Swedish or Norwe- ratified.) gian vessels, whether these articles be imported, directly or indirectly, from said Indies, may likewise be imported into its territories in vessels of the United States, and there shall not be paid, either for the said vessels or the cargoes, any higher or other duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, than those which would be paid by Swedish or Norwegian vessels in the same circumstances, with an addition only of ten per centum on the said duties, imposts, and charges, and no more.
In order to avoid misapprehension in this respect, it is expressly declared, that the term "West Indies" ought to be taken in its most extensive sense, comprising all that portion of the earth, whether mainland or islands, which at any time has been denominated the West Indies, in contradistinction to that other portion of the earth denominated the East Indies.
(This article not
The United States of America, on their part, agree that all articles the growth, produce, or manufacture, of the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, or bordering thereon, which are ratified.) permitted to be imported in vessels of the United States, whether these articles be imported, directly or indirectly, from the Baltic, may likewise be imported into the United States in Swedish or Norwegian vessels; and there shall not then be paid for the said vessels, or for the cargoes, any higher or other duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, than those which would be paid by vessels of the United States in the same circumstances, with an addition only of ten per centum on the said duties, imposts, and charges, and no more.
In order to avoid all uncertainty in respect to the duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, which a vessel belonging to the citizens or subjects of one of the contracting parties ought to pay, on arriving in the ports of the other, with a cargo consisting partly of articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the country to which the vessel belongs, and partly of any other merchandize, which the said vessel is permitted to import by the preceding articles, it is agreed that, in case a cargo should be thus mixed, the vessel shall always pay the duties, imposts, and charges, according to the nature of that part of the cargo which is subjected to the highest duties, in the same manner as if the vessel imported this sort of merchandise only.
The high contracting parties grant mutually the liberty of having, in the places of commerce and ports of the other, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, or Commercial Agents, who shall enjoy all the protection and assistance necessary for the due discharge of their functions. But it is here expressly declared that, in case of illegal or improper conduct in respect to the laws or government of the country to which they are sent, the said Consul, Vice-Consul, or Agent, may be either punished according to law, dismissed, or sent away, by the offended Government, that Government assigning to the other the reasons therefor. It is, nevertheless, understood, that the archives and docu- Archives, &c., inments relative to the affairs of the consulate shall be pro
tected from all examination, and shall be carefully preserved, being placed under the seal of the Consul and of the authority of the place where he shall have resided.
The Consuls and their deputies shall have the right, as such, to act as judges and arbitrators in the differences which may arise between the captains and crews of the vessels of the nation whose affairs are entrusted to their care. The respective Governments shall have no right to interfere in matters of this kind, except the conduct of the captain and crew shall disturb the peace and tranquillity of the country in which the vessel may be, or that the Consul of the place shall feel himself obliged to resort to the interposition and support of the executive authority to cause his decision to be respected and maintained; it being, nevertheless, understood, that this kind of judgment, parties under con or award, shall not deprive the contending parties of the sular decisions. right which they shall have, on their return, to recur to the judicial authorities of their own country.
Rights reserved to
(This article not ratified.)
In order to prevent all dispute and uncertainty in respect to what may be considered as being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the contracting parties respectively, it is agreed that whatever the chief or intendant of the customs shall have designated and specified as such, in the clearance delivered to the vessels which depart from the European ports of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, shall be acknowledged and admitted as such in the United States; and that, in the same manner, whatever the chief or collector of the customs in the ports of the United States shall have designated and specified as the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States, shall be acknowledged and admitted as such in the territories of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway.
The specification or designation given by the chief of the customs in the colonies of His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, and confirmed by the governor of the colony, shall be considered as sufficient proof of the origin of the articles thus specified or designated to obtain for them admission into the ports of the United States accordingly.
The citizens or subjects of one of the contracting parties, arriving Vessels and cargoes with their vessels on any coast belonging to the other, but may enter ports. not willing to enter into port, or being entered into port, and not willing to unload or break bulk, shall have liberty to depart, and to pursue their voyage, without molestation, and without being obliged to render account of their cargo, or to pay any duties, imposts, or charges, whatsoever, on the vessels or cargo, excepting only the dues of pilotage, when a pilot shall have been employed, or those of quayage, or light-money, whenever these dues are paid in the same circumstances by the citizens or subjects of the country. It being, nevertheless, underLimitation of this stood, that whenever the vessels belonging to the citizens or subjects of one of the contracting parties shall be within the jurisdiction of the other, they shall conform to the laws and regulations concerning navigation, and the places and ports into which it may be permitted to enter, which are in force with regard to the citizens or subjects of the country; and it shall be lawful for the officers of the customs in the district where the said vessels may be, to visit them, to