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1882-83 1883-84 1884-85 1885-86 1886-87 1887-88 1888-89 1889-90 1990-91 1891-92 1892-93 1893-94 1894-95

914 7, 312 559 5, 031 223 2, 230 588

6, 468 155 1,860 1, 214 15, 782 1, 374 19, 236 1, 247 18, 705

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108,345 - 8,117 = 13.3 years.

TABLE VI.-St. Louis public schools, Column C.

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11, 104 496

8, 432 339 6, 102 197 3, 743 117

2, 340 8,117 108, 345

440 3, 520 687 6,183 279

2,790 675 7, 425

323 3, 876 1, 152 14,976 1, 174 16, 436 1, 320 19, 800

542 8, 672 466 7, 922 377 6, 786 162 3. 078

121 2, 420 7,718 103, 884

103,884 – 7,718=13.5 years.

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227,386 - 15,699=14.5 years.

TABLE IX.Chicago public schools, Column C.

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605 174 433 647

608 1, 701 3, 563 2, 883 2, 263 1,033 1, 065

422
302

4, 840 1,566 4,330 7, 117 7, 296 22, 113 49, 882 43, 245 36, 208 17,561 19, 170 8,018 6,040

15, 699 227, 386

130 427 899

395 1, 917 2, 270 2, 664 1,790 1,051

852 497 254

1, 170 4,270 9, 889 4, 740 24, 921 31, 780 39, 960 28, 640 17, 867 15, 336 9, 443 5,080

13, 146 193, 196 Column.

193,096 + 13,146=14.7 years.

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St. Louis. Chicago. Boston.

B. C.

Years.

13. 1 13. 3 13.5 13.3

Years.

14.4 14.5 14.7 14.5

Years.

16.2 15.9 15.5

Average

15.9

CHAPTER XXV.

ADMISSION TO COLLEGE BY CERTIFICATE.

The question of requirements for admission to college is receiving considerable attention at the present time from educators and educational journals and magazines. This is evidenced by the large number of articles on tho subject published in the periodicals and by the formation of associations of colleges and secondary schools, tho leading objects of such associations being to securo uniformity in admission requirements and to improve the standard of collegiate as well as secondary education. One of the most important educational publications bearing upon the subject is the report of the Committee of Ten on secondary school studies. Tho intention of the Committee of Ten, in formulating the four different courses of study recommended in the report, was to provide courses of study for pupils who can not take a college course, and to provide courses, the completion of which could and should be accepted by tho universities and colleges for admission to corresponding courses in such institutions, believing “that this close articulation between tho secondary schools and the higher institutions would be advantageous alike for the schools, tho colleges, and the country.” That this report has borne fruit is shown by the fact that the courses of study recommended therein have been adopted with modifications by some of the secondary schools and by preparatory departments of colleges. There is, however, still a wide divergence in the courses of study of secondary schools as well as in the requirements for admission to the freshman classes of the various universities and colleges of the country. These facts have thus far rendered it impossible for all of the institutions to agree upon uniform entrance requirements or upon uniform lists of accredited or approved schools, but it can not bo doubted that the tendency is in this direction. This may be seen by examining the lists of schools accredited or approved by the several institutions given on the following pages.

The two general methods of admission to the freshman class of colleges at the present time are by examination and by certificate. To these may be added another method which is in use only by institutions maintaining preparatory departments. Such institutions admit students to the freshman class who have completed a course of study in their respective preparatory departments.

Prior to the year 1871 the plan of special examination by college authorities was in almost universal use by the better class of colleges, but since that date the plan of admitting students upon certificates of public, high, and private preparatory schools has been inaugurated, and received a remarkable impetus. This movement was started by the Univorsity of Michigan, and has now been adopted by all of the State universities of the North Central and Western Divisions, as well as by some of the State institutions of the other divisions, and by a large number of the denominational and other private institutions of the country. The adoption of the certificate system by State institutions has gonerally been followed by the adoption of the same or a similar plan by other institutions in those States. The Michigan plan, adopted in 1871 and given in detail in the following pages, provides for an examination of the courses of study and methods of instruction of the schools, to be approved by a committee of the faculty of the university. In Indiana the high schools of certain grades are commissioned by the State board of education, and their graduates are admitted to the State institutions.

The purpose of the system of admission by certificate, when inaugurated by the University of Michigan, and its advantages, as stated by Dr. Charles Kendall Adams, president of the University of Wisconsin, in the Educational Review for June, 1893, are as follows:

At the time the system of admitting students on certificate was adopted at the University of Michigan, now more than twenty years ago, the purpose was to bind the university and the preparatory schools of the State into a closer alliance for the purpose of mutual helpfulness. A somewhat thorough study of the systems of admitting students in other countries to the higher institutions of learning led to the belief that a carefully guarded method by which pupils of approved schools should be admitted without examination would prove beneficial to the schools as well as to the university. The system was constructed in such a way as to throw upon the university the responsibility of examining the school, and also to throw upon the individual school the responsibility for the preparation of the students admitted.

After five years of trial an examination of the records showed that the standing of students admitted by certificate was considerably higher than the standing of those admitted by examination. There seened, moreover, to be conclusive evidence that the schools were greatly benefited by the arrangement. After the examination of a school its weak places were pointed out to the school board, and it was generally found that the boards were very willing to make any changes sug; gested.

I have been from the first an earnest believer in the system, and I believe that history has fully justified the predictions of those who had to do with its first introduction in Michigan. The advantages of it are threefold:

In the first place, it relieves the officers of the university of the labor of the preliminary examinations. This point should not receive serious consideration, if it is certain that the examinations so conducted are likely to secure a better grade of scholarship. But to suppose that that is the case would be to ignore or defy the experience of more than twenty years.

In the second place, a very great advantage is experienced by the preparatory school. The visit of the committee from the university is an event looked forward to as an affair of great importance to the teachers and pupils. The examination, when properly conducted, includes an inspection of the class work of every teacher and a careful report upon the nature of the work done. Such a visit is, and must be, of the very greatest importance to the school in question.

The third advantage is in the fact that all the pupils become accustomed to thinking that the academy or high school is not the end of a good education. A large number who would otherwise complete their school days at the end of the high school course are fired with a desire to go forward to a further term of study in a college or university.

These considerations, especially the second and third, are advantages of great importance, and I know of no disadvantages from the system that can, in any true sense, be regarded as of counterbalancing significance.

ident Northrop, of the University of Minnesota, states that the advantages of the system are: "(1) It raises the grade of the preparatory schools; (2) it gives us students better prepared for university work; (3) it does away with an immense amount of work and worry incident to examinations; (4) it gives us better results from the student when he is once in the university.”ı

No attempt has been made to obtain expressions of opinion concerning the certificate system from the various institutions of the country, but the few State institutions which publish annual reports commend the system for the close relation which is established between the universities and the common school systems of the States, as well as for the well-prepared students furnished thereby. The annual catalogues show that the system has now been adopted, in some form or other, by 42 State universities and agricultural and mechanical colleges, and by about 150 other institutions. This shows that, while some of the more conservative institutions of the country, especially in the East, still adhere strictly to the method of examination by college authorities, the certificate system is continually gaining ground. Some of the institutions surround the system with various safeguards to insure against its abuse. In nearly all of them admission by certificate is probationary—that is, the

Educational Review, February, 1893.

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