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Financial statistics for 1894-95 of institutions endowed by act of Congress in 1862 and 1890 with public lands or a part of the proceeds arising from the

sale thereof, or both--Continued.



For sup:

Federal aid
Balance State aid

by en.
July 1, dowment
From act From act

port of

of July 2, of August experi.
1662. 30, 1890. ment sta.


Fees and all other Sourco.

For col.
lego of
ture and


Experi. All other

ment departstation. ments.

on hand

Name of institution.

and ap:


$5, 153 25, 637

$34, 399

1, 992

$40, 714
50, 000)
67, 000

5, 754

$6, 106
a 18, 898
84, 006
8, 396
2, 664
11, 695


3, 735

State Agricultural College of Oregon
Pennsylvania State College.
Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts
Clemson Agricultural College..
State Agricultural College of South Dakota
University of Tennessee (agricultural and mechanical department)
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas.
Agricultural College, Utah..
University of Vermont and State Agricultural College
Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Washington Agricultural College and School of Science
West Virginia University (agricultural and mechanical department).
University of Wisconsin (agricultural and mechanical department)
University of Wyoming (agricultural and mechanical department.

23, 760
14, 280

15, 991

20, 000
20, 000
15, 000
17, 000


7, 500)
6, 000
18, 500
58, 962
20, 400
215, 700

3, 250

15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000
15, 000

8, 130
20, 569

$15, 009
15, 000
16, 753
15, 000
15, 000
19, 523
19, 966
20, 591
15, 000
19, 612
30, 733
15, 428

69, 6R6
72, 358
28, 568
40, 748
54, 280
31, 730
66, 036
95, 109

7, 609
56, 100
18, 239

8, 253

5, 569
28. 395
15, 509
2, 442
4, 016
95, 475
1, 411

2, 498
14, 235

5, 388
17, 200

39, 347 276, 492

5, 194


a For the year ending December 31, 1894.

Financial statistics for 1894-95 of institutions for colored persons endowed by act of Congress in 1862 and 1890 with public lands or a part of the proceeds

arising from the sale thereof, or both.



Namo of institution.

Federal aidBalance State aid

For col. on hand by en

For sup. Fees and

lege of
July 1, dowment

From act From act port of all other

ture and

sources. and ap- of July 2, of August experi. propria

mechanic 1862. 30, 1890. ment etation.



Experi. All other

ment departstation. ments.

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State Colored Normal and Industrial School Branch Normal College of Arkansas Industrial University. State (Delaware) College for Colored Students. Florida Stato Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students. Georgia Industrial College for Colored Youths.. State (Kentucky) Norinal School for Colored Persons. Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College.. Lincoln Institute.. Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race, North Carolina Clailin University Agricultural College and Mechanics' Institute.. Prairie View State Normal School... Hampton Normal and Agricultural Instituto West Virginia Colored Institute.

2, 800
7, 500
2, 071
2, 562

2, 000
12, 750

$8, 918 5, 455 4,000 10,000 6, 667 2, 900 10, 314 11, 693 1, 084 7, 012 10, 000 5, 000 6, 668 3, 000


11, 001
2, 078

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$19, 710 $11, 301

694 3, 102 853

4, 825 112 10,000

565 3, 739
3, 085

2, 900
2, 882 21, 778
1, 678 21, 544

3, 730
1,250 5, 075
10, 000 11, 849

121, 848 a 128, 852

1, 017 2, 998

$5, 679

200 17, 754


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6, 168 3,810


6, 658

a For all departments; but it is to be remarked that the school is founded on the idea of self-help.

The degrees given by the institutions treated of in this chapter are indicated in the following tabulation. It is a question how far these degrees may be depended upon as showing the ultimate professional aim of the students who have received them. Wherever the information received has warranted it, such, for instance, as tlo expression 10 B. S. in engineering, the degrees have been considered engincering · degrees.

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Acting Chairman, Lecturer in Social Science, University of Chicago.

About two months ago I wroto all the college presidents of the United States, intending to present my results at a different gathering from this, and on a broader subject, embracing not only “Instruction in sociology,” but in all the other social sciences, such as history and economics. Upon President Finley's request to read a paper at this conference, a second circular letter was sent out, and this paper was prepared with reference only to sociology in the strict sense and to the related studies in charities and correction in which the conference is especially interested. My material naturally falls under the following heads: (1) Statistics of this year's courses and students in sociology and philanthropy; (2) the growth of these studies during the last ten years; (3) a description of the best courses thus far developed; (4) a consensus of opinion as to definition, methods of teaching, etc.; and (5) the importance of these subjects, as testified to not only by educators but by the demands shown among students for them. It is possible that we shall be led to see in sociology a rival of the classics and physical sciences for the chief place of honor in an ideal education.

NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS TEACHING SOCIOLOGY. From the 422 colleges and universities written to, 146 replies were received. Of this number 29 lave regular courses in sociologs, using the word in the looser sense to include charities and correction, whilo 24 have sociology proper, defining the term as the study of society. In other words, one-fifth of all the colleges reporting teach what they call sociology, while one-sixth have sociology strictly speaking. These figures do not include the institutions that give instruction in charities and corrections or the science of society incidentally to ethics, economics, etc. Of this sort there are 6 more in sociology and 20 in charities and correction, some of which give quite extended instruction in these subjects. As regards the subjects of chief importance to this conference, regular courses in charities and correction are reported by 17 institutions; that is, by 12 per cent of all the institutions reporting.

The 14 leading women's colleges, as classified by the Bureau of Education, were written to also; but their replies are used only in tlie synopses of opinion that follow, not in the statistics of students and courses. It must be said, in passing, that they have had some of the best sociological work of the United States, one of the strongest men in the country undoubtedly being Professor Giddings, who goes this year from Bryn Mawr to Columbia College. Five of the 8 women's colleges reporting have courses in sociology, some of them being well equipped, whilo 4 havo courses in charities and correction.

One-half, or 11, of the colleges reporting courses in sociology give the number of students, which ranges from 3 to 250 in each course, or an average of 50. The number of students in courses in charities and correction ranges from 8 to 119, with an average of 43.

AN HISTORICAL SKETCH. That there has been an increase of remarkable rapidity in sociological instruction within the last few years will be seen by comparing these figures with the courses of study in 101 colleges and universities printed by the United States Bureau of

1 Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Twenty-first National Conference of Charities and Correction, 1895.

Education five years ago. In that year only 6 of the institutions reporting had courses in sociology; that is, one-sixteenth of the total number, as compared with one-sixth at the present time. The institutions then teaching sociology were Yale, Williamıs, Cornell, Trinity, Tulane, and the University of Pennsylvania. Harvard offered the same course as now, “Ethics of social reforin,” it being claimed that this was the earliest course in the country devoted to charities and correction.

From the fact that this was the only course in this subject in 1889 out of 101 institutions, the report that 45 courses were found three years previously in 103 institutions, as mado to the American Social Science Association, seems very questionable. My second circular letter was addressed particularly to these institutions, and I failed to find more than 8 or 10 which had either now or in the past the courses in ques. tion. The University of the State of Missouri replied, “ More of this work, I fear, was reported on paper than was done in actual fact;" while President Green writes, “ Tho subjects mentioned in the iuclosed circular have never been taught in Cumberland University.”

The evidence is clear at least as regards sociology proper. The first course entitled to that name dates back less than ten years; the number of courses has been quadrupled in the last five years, and has been perhaps doubled in the year just passed; while, as regards the immediate future, at least seven institutious liave written me that they are planving to introduce tho study soon.

The rapid increase of courses in sociology which we have found is not confined to America. The continent also which produced a Comte, 2 Spencer, a Schäffle, and a Do Greef is awakening to the supreme importance of this work in the university. The universities of Brussels, Paris, Berlin, Munich, Freiburg, Heidelberg, and many others gave courses last year in sociology proper; while anthropology, so closely related to it, has for many years held a most honorable position abroad.


As regards the history of courses in charities and correction alone, Mrs. Talbot wrote in 1886, in connection with the statistics alreaiy inentioned, as follows: “ These three topics-crime, vice, and charities--receive far less attention in our colleges and universities than the other topics of our schedule (economics, etc.). The fact is due, doubtless, to the unformulated character of this department of social science. It is still in a state of empiricism, and no fundamental principles have been as yet reached, or at least generally recognized and adopted as such."

Professor Peabody sends an interesting history of his course in charities and other social questions at Harvard. He says, “The teaching of ethics applied to social questions was begun by me in this university in 1880 in the Divinity School.” The figures given for each year show an increase from 2 students in 1881-82 to 18 in 1885–86, 100 in 1888–89, and 133 in 1892–93. This year's attendance is 119. The number of hours per week has increased from ono to three. He continues, “The present constitution of this course under our elective system is as follows: Graduate students...

7 Divinity students.

20 Senior students..

55 Junior students..

24 Sophomore students Special students.... Scientific students.

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“There is a students' department library of about 450 volumes to which each member of the class has a key. A Paide fellowship of $500 is designed for students of these subjects. Two Paine prizes.are offered at $100 each, one for a special research in some problem of charity, and one for a practical study of some aspect of the labor question.”


No adequate conception will be had of the importance sociology has reached in this country or its probable future without describing in some detail the vast variety of work going on in the department of social science and anthropology at the University of Chicago. There are already several times as many courses given there as at any other university in the world. There are in this department 10 professors and instructors who teach in no other, namely, Small, Henderson, Bemis, Talbot, Starr, West, Thomas, Zeublin, Gentles, and Fulcomer. Of these, two give mainly university extension lectures, one spending nearly his entire time outside of the city

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