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Financial statistics for 1894-95 of institutions endowed by act of Congress in 1862 and 1890 with public lands or a part of the proceeds arising from the
sale thereof, or both--Continued.
of July 2, of August experi.
Fees and all other Sourco.
Experi. All other
ment departstation. ments.
Name of institution.
$5, 153 25, 637
State Agricultural College of Oregon
39, 347 276, 492
a For the year ending December 31, 1894.
Financial statistics for 1894-95 of institutions for colored persons endowed by act of Congress in 1862 and 1890 with public lands or a part of the proceeds
arising from the sale thereof, or both.
For sup. Fees and
Experi. All other
ment departstation. mente.
$70 8, 941
State Colored Normal and Industrial School
Kentucky) Normal School for Colored Persons.
$8,918 5, 455 4, 000 10,000 6, 667 2, 900 10, 314 11, 693 1, 084 7,012 10,000 5, 000 6, 668 3, 000
$19, 710 $11, 301
694 3, 102
565 3, 739
1, 017 2, 998
a For all departments; but it is to be remarked that the school is founded on the idea of self-help.
1209 The degrees given by the institutions treated of in this chapter are indicated in the following tabulation. It is a question how far these degrees may be depended upon as showing the ultimate professional aim of the students who have received them. Wherever the information received has warranted it, such, for instance, as tho expression 10 B. S. in engineering, the degrees have been considered engineering · degrees.
INSTRUCTION IN SOCIOLOGY IN INSTITUTIONS OF
By DANIEL FULCOMER,
About two months ago I wrote all the college presidents of the United States, intending to present my results at a different gathering from this, and on a broader subject, embracing not only “ Instruction in sociology,” but in all the other social sciences, such as history and economics. Upon President Finley's request to read a paper at this conference, a second circular letter was sent out, and this paper was prepared with reference only to sociology in the strict sense and to the related studies in charities and correction in which the conference is especially interested. My material naturally falls under the following headls: (1) Statistics of this year's courses and students in sociology and philanthropy; (2) the growth of these studies during the last ten years; (3) a description of the best courses thus far developed; (4) a consensus of opinion as to definition, methods of teaching, etc.; and (5) the importance of these subjects, as testified to not only by educators but by the demands shown among students for them. It is possible that we shall be led to seo in sociology a rival of the classics and physical sciences for the chief place of honor in an ideal education.
NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS TEACHING SOCIOLOGY. From the 422 colleges and universities written to, 146 replies were received. Of this number 29 have regular courses in sociology, using the word in the looser sense to include charities and correction, while 24 have sociology proper, defining the term as the study of society. In other words, one-fifth of all the colleges reporting teach what they call sociology, while one-sixth have sociology strictly speaking: These figures do not include the institutions that give instruction in charities and corrections or the science of society incidentally to ethics, economics, etc. Of this sort there are 6 more in sociology and 20 in charities and correction, some of which give quite extended instruction in theso subjects. As regards the subjects of chief importance to this conference, regular courses in charities and correction are reported by 17 institutions; that is, by 12 per cent of all the institutions reporting.
The 14 leading women's colleges, as classified by the Bureau of Education, were written to also; but their replies are used only in the synopses of opinion that follow, not in the statistics of students and courses. It must be said, in passing, that they have had some of the best sociological work of the United States, one of the strongest men in the country undoubtedly being Professor Giddings, who goes this year from Bryn Mawr to Columbia College. Five of the 8 women's colleges reporting have courses in sociology, some of them being well equipped, while 4 havo courses in charities and correction.
One-half, or 11, of the colleges reporting courses in sociology give the number of students, which ranges from 8 to 250 in each course, or an average of 50. The number of students in courses in charities and correction ranges from 8 to 119, with an average of 43.
AN HISTORICAL SKETCH, That there has been an increase of remarkable rapidity in sociological instruction within the last few years will be seen by comparing these figures with the courses of study in 101 colleges and universities printed by the United States Bureau of
Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Twenty-first National Conference of Charities and Correction, 1895.
Education five years ago. In that year only 6 of the institutions reporting had courses in sociology; that is, one-sixteenth of the total number, as compared with one-sixth at the present time. The institutions then teaching sociology were Yale, Willianıs, Cornell, Trinity, Tulane, and the University of Pennsylvania. Harvard offered the same course as now, “Ethics of social reforin," it being claimed that this was the earliest course in the country devoted to charities and correction.
From the fact that this was the only course in this subject in 1889 out of 101 institu. tions, the report that 45 courses were found three years previously in 103 institutions, as mado to the American Social Science Association, seems very questionable. My second circular letter was addressed particularly to these institutions, and I failed to find more than 8 or 10 which had either now or in the past the courses in ques. tion. The University of the State of Missouri replied, “More of this work, I fear, was reported on paper than was done in actual fact;" while President Green writes, “Tho subjects mentioned in the inclosed circular have never been taught in Cumberland University."
The evidence is clear at least as regards sociology proper. The first course enti. tled to that name dates back less than ten years; the number of courses has been quadrupled in the last five years, and has been perhaps doubled in the year just passed; while, as regards tho immediate future, at least seven institutions liave written me that they are planning to introduce tho study soon.
The rapid increase of courses in sociology which we have found is not confined to America. The continent also which produced a Comte, a Spencer, a Schäffle, and a Do Greef is awakening to the supreme importance of this work in the university. The universities of Brussels, Paris, Berlin, Munich, Freiburg, Heidelberg, and many others gave courses last year in sociology proper; while anthropology, so closely related to it, has for many years held a most honorable position abroad.
CHARITIES AND CORRECTION.
As regards the history of courses in charities and correction alone, Mrs. Talbot wrote in 1886, in connection with the statistics alreariy mentioned, as follows: “These three topics-crime, vice, and charities--receive far less attention in our colleges and universities than the other topics of our schedule (economics, etc.). The fact is due, doubtless, to the unformulated character of this department of social science. It is still in a state of empiricism, and no fundamental principles have been as yet reached, or at least generally recognized and adopted as such.”
Professor Peabody sends an interesting history of his course in charities and other social questions at Harvard. He says, “The teaching of ethics applied to social questions was begun by me in this university in 1880 in the Divinity School.” The figures given for each year show an increase from 2 students in 1881-82 to 48 in 1885–86, 100 in 1888–89, and 133 in 1892–93. This year's attendance is 119. The number of hours per week' has increased from ono to three. He continues, “The present constitution of this course under our elective system is as follows: Graduate students..
7 Divinity students.
20 Senior students..
55 Junior students.
24 Sophomore students
2 Special students....
8 Scientific students.
“There is a students' department library of about 450 volumes to which each member of the class has a key. A Paipe fellowship of $500 is designed for students of these subjects. Two Paine prizes are offered at $100 each, one for a special research in some problem of charity, and one for a practical study of some aspect of the labor question.”
SOME COURSES DESCRIBED,
No adequate conception will be had of the importanco sociology has reached in this country or its probable future without describing in some detail the vast variety of work going on in the department of social science and anthropology at the University of Chicago. There are already several times as many courses given there as at any other university in the world. There are in this department 10 professors and instructors who teach in no other, namely, Small, Henderson, Bemis, Talbot, Starr, West, Thomas, Zeublin, Gentles, and Fulcomer. Of these, two give mainly university extension lectures, one spending nearly his entire time outside of the city