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of Chicago. There are 31 courses of study given by these professors. Those in pure sociology are:
22. The methodology and bibliography of social science.
31. The elements of sociology. The courses of most importance to this conference are, among others given by Professor llenderson, the following:
16. Social treatment of dependents and defectives : Lectures, discussions, visits to institutions, reports. Second term, autumn quarter.
17. Criminology: Criminal anthropology and social treatment of crime. Lectures, visits of inspection, study of living cases, reports. Winter quarter.
18. Seminar: This will continue throughout the year, and will cover topics relating to all organization for promoting social welfare. Individual needs and tastes of students will be considered, but a system of research and analysis will control the work for the year.
The seminar methods of work are of most value to specialists. There are no lectures or text-books, but each student puts the entire year on some subject worthy of publication, such as au investigation of the charities or the missions of the city. Much practical work is required in all these courses. This year, for instance, the most of the students have been visitors in charity work, have assisted Mr. Wines, and have taken censuses of the unemployed sleeping in the City Hall and of “Randall's Ariny."
CONSENSUS OF VIEWS ON SOCIOLOGY - DEFINITION.
To return to the letters on sociology sent by me. i mong the questions asked were the following:
• What is your definition of sociology (as used distinctively from the otlıer social sciences)?” “How is it related to political economy, moral philosophy, etc.?”
The main reason for asking these questions was to be suro that the figures given me really referred to sociology, and that the term was not used in the inaccurate way which is very common. It was by no means supposed that the average definition would be the true one. What sociology is can not be learned from the president of a Tennessee college, who said that "Under ethics and economics, most of tho sul;stance of sociology is already taught,” or from the Iowa president, who, when asked to name his text-books on charities and correction, the family, anthropology, and ethnology, answered, “The Bible.” It is to the few specialists in the country that we look for definitions of any value. Among these we find at least two radically different views, the old and the new, which are intimated in President Finley's answer: "I am disposed to give sociology'tko larger scope, considering it as the science of man in society, and not the science of dependency and delinquency, of the pauper and the criminal in ‘society.!" Although the older English and American workers in charities and in other social reforms had reduced the term sociology from the broad meaning given to it by its inventor, Comte, as the science of society, to the science of abnormal society, the later specialists do not fall into this error. Professor Peabody, of Harvard, w bo bas for many years been the most prominent instructor in social reforms, says: “Sociology is a much larger subject than the practical problems of charity and reform. If it can be taught at all, it may be taught quite apart from these. It is the philosophy of social evolution." Professor Henderson, the author of the best work on charities and correction, defines sociology in the larger sense as "the study which seeks to coordinate the processes and the results of the special social sciences. It aims to consider society as an organic unity; to study its movement as a whole, its purpose, the conditions of progress. It aims to show the legitimate place and dignity of each department of social investigation by considering it as a vital part of a vast and uniform movement of thought. One of the foremost professors of sociology, Giddings, of Columbia College, says: “Sociology is not an inclusive, it is the fundamental social science. It studies the elements that make up society
and the simplest forms in which they are combined or organized, (1) by composition (family, clan, tribe, uation), (2) by constitution; that is, involuntary organizations for cooperation or division of labor.” The most agree in calling it "a comprehensive science, including politics, economics, etc." Others call it “a science of sciences;” “the study of the social nexus that
underlies the various phenomena that are included in the various departments of social science;" “it is the philosophy of all;" “it treats of the evolution of society in its broadest sense."
RELATION OF CHARITIES TO SOCIOLOGY,
In answer to the question how charities and correction are “related to sociology, ethics, economics, etc.,” all the replies make a distinction between them. The general view is expressed by Professor Henderson, who says: "General sociology treats society in its normal light, social pathology studies morbid conditions, remedies, etc.” Many regard these studies as “ applications of the principles of ethics."
The general answer to the questions, “Should they be tanglit separately from sociology ?” and “Before or after the latter?” is expressed by Professor Peabody, who says: “Theso social questions should be dealt with late in liberal education. They presupposo both ethics and economics. In my own course a student is advised to take both before coming to me, and must have taken one or the other." Professor Commons, of Indiana University, alone would place them before, but says: “Tho organic nature of society should be constantly prominent.”
Of the eighteen answers to the question, “Would you put sociology before or after political economy, ethics, etc. 7 Year?” two-thirds say, "After,” two “Before," and threo mako the same distinction as Professor Giddings, who says: “Logically, sociology precedes political economy;
yet in the educational scheme political economy should be taught first, at least for the present.” Professor Henderson says: “I would havo a 'sketch' course in the sophomore year of college and in the last year of normal school work, and thien ethics, economics, political science. In graduate work the subject can be taught again in its deeper and wider forms.”
The opinion as to the best year for teaching these subjects is best indicated by the statistics received, Of the 26 institutions teaching sociology proper in 1891, 16 designate the year. Nine of the 16 put it in the senior year. The junior year comes next, with only 2 institutions. Courses in charities and correction also are found for the most part in the senior year, both in 1886 and in 1891.
THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIOLOGY. Question 20 asked: “Would you advise or reqnire sociology as a part of a general education, deli it broadly as the study of society taken as a whole? Why?” Of the 241 who answered, not ono replied in the negative, more than one-half expressed themselves strongly in its favor, and 3 woull require it even as a common school study. The replies of the 11 presidents in this number aro of interest, they being no doubt more impartial than those in charge of special departments. Six of theso earnestly adviso the study of sociology. One, the president of a Catholic institution, thinks it should be reserved for the university, and not the college period. Tho severest denunciation is that of the president of the University of Vermont, who says: “In my judgment, the so-called 'sociology' taught in our colleges, preached in our pulpits, and disseminated in our periodicals, is crude, semicommunistic, and harmful; and, until a new race of strong thinkers take hold of tho subject in a new spirit, we shall mako no real progress in either social scienco or social life.” But the edge of his criticism is taken off when it becomes known that his institution was one of the earliest (1886) to give instruction in charities anal correction “as a department of sociology.”
Professors who teach economics are thought in some quarters to be critical of the new science; but the nine who answered this question all favor it, although one thinks the time has not yet arrived for it, and says: “Yes, when the universities havo turned out a force of educators competent to direct the work, so that it will not fritter away in worthless study.” A few would go as far in the opposite direction as Professor Cominons, who says: “I should like to see history, economics, and sociology given equal place with language and science from the beginning of high school through to the senior year of college.” This energetic young professor is on a committee of tho teachers' association of his State to investigate and promote the study of sociology and related subjects in the high schools. Professor Henderson takes the broad view that is gaining gronnd on the continent when he says: “I would advise that teachers be prepared to treat all the studies of the primary and secondary schools in the sociologic spirit, but that text-books on sociology should not come in till the sophomore year in college. In connection with all studies children and youth should be led gradually, as they are able, to take their place as members of the community. This begins in the kindergarten, and ends only with life.”
REASONS FOR ITS STUDY. A classification of the reasons assigned for the study discovers the following:
(1) It is a practical preparation for life. Professor Thomas, of Baltimore, says: "I advise that sociology be made a part of every student's education.
one is prepared for life who is ignorant of the laws that govern the social organism of which he is an integral part.' The president of the University of Wyoming also would require it for the reason that “the rising generation will not be able to correctly solve the problems now arising in society and government without this educational training.” This reason is the most common one given.
(2) “The culture possibilities of sociology, together with its immense practical importance, warrant the fullest attention to it.” (Professor Powers, of Smith College.)
(3) % The problems of sociology that are now agitating onr civilization must not only be mastered by the leaders of the social reform, but they must be understood by everyday, honest middle classes before any healthy and permanent solution can be obtained." (President Wagner, of Morgan College.) “Americans must soon meet anarchism, communism, and a score of wild theories of land, goods, and government." (Professor Ford, of Elmira College.)
(4) “Sociology is a help to economics and othics." (Professor Weaver, De Pauw University.)
(5) The professor-prophet of sociology, Herron, of Iowa College, must be put in a class by himself-the ethico-religious. Ke angwers: “Because man is a social being, because society is man, because the knowledge of how to live an associated life and how to express that lifo in actual human relations is the chief end of man, and, if one's creed be called in question, the only way to glorify God.”
TILE TIME NECESSARY FOR IT.
The question, “How much time should be given to it?” brought out answers ranging from “Very little at present” to “So much as possible.” The average amount siggested is about six months. The following expresses the minimum requirement: “I think that at least three months should be given to the study of sociology in all our undergraduate institutions. Of course, much more time should be given in postgraduate work." (President Johnson, University of Wyoming.) The number of months actually given to these studies in the institutions reporting to me this year averages as follows: Sociology, five months, 22 institutions reporting; charities and correction, five months, 14 institutious reporting: The length of the courses in the latter ranges from one and one-half to nine months, and of those in sociology from one and one-half montlıs in some institutions to a total of forty-nine and one-half in the University of Chicago.
“What other studies could best be cut down to make room for it?” The answer is, “The ancient languages," four times as frequently as any other. Among the other studies named are economics, history, and mathematics. “Any subject pursued for a longer time than two years may well have a term taken from it rather than have a student graduate with no training in sociology,” says Professor Freer, of Mount Vernon, Iowa. Professor Herron would cut down mathematics, or even omit biology. Ho says: "We can get through life without knowing much about beasts and svakes and toads, but it is becoming quite necessary that we know something about man.” Several would solve the problem, not by cutting down anything, but by making sociology elective.
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTION IN CHARITIES.
The answers to the question, "What place should these subjects (charities and correction) have in education ?” were all in favor of them, although some said “It depends on the institution,” or “They are of changing importance;" more called them “very important,” and “an essential part of a liberal education." President Mosher says: “I can think of but few subjects that I think would be of greater practical importance to our country than these would be if they could be taught by the laboratory method.” Professor Commons would put them “along with the elements of political economy in high schools." Their need to specialists is admirably represented by Professor Honderson, who says: “Every man or woman who intends to engage in the work of charity should study the scientific principles and methods of charity. Those who expect to deal with criminals or to writo and speak on prison reform and prevention of crime and vice should give some systematic study to this Bubject. We have arranged to give doublo time to those who wish to specialize at this point.”
The answers of Professor Small, as given below, tersely cover the main points of tho investigation, and may be taken as representing the high-water mark of sociological thought:
Definition.—“Sociology is the philosophy of human welfare. As such, it must be the synthesis of all the particular social sciences.” "Would you advise it
as part of a general education ?” Answer. “Yes, in general, in the descriptive parts, to prepare the way for history, political economy, political science, and ethics.”
“How much time should be given to it?”
Answer. “Last half of soploniore year and first half of junior. I would have a half year at the end of the senior
year devoted to philosophical sociology after a study of the special social sciences."
6 What other studies could best be cut down!”
STUDIT DEMAND THESE COURSES.
We have seen the importance of sociology demonstrated both from the united testimony of educators and from the rapidity of its adoption into colleges and universities. If any further evidence is necessary, it is forthcoming from the studeut's side. So far as statistics can be brought to this inquiry, sociology is shown to have already reached the first rank in popularity. The only place in which a fair comparison can be made is in the graduate school of the University of Chicago, where this department is put upon an equality with all orders, and where students are free to elect it. The 232 graduate students attending in the autumn quarter of 1893 would give an average of 8 or 9 to each department, while the department of social science had 20. More students have chosen it for their specialty-that is, thir major work—than have gone into any other study, with the exception of English and history; each of which excel it by only 1 student. The theological students who have chosen courses ontside of their specialties are almost exclusively in social science, there being 22 in this department, but only 4 in all other departments combined.
The showing for this department as to the number of professors and courses given during that quarter is much the same. Sociology had 8 courses as compared with an average of 6 in other departments, and 5 professors as compared with an average of 31. During the year there were 30 courses in this department, while the other humanities offered only the following: Political economy, 19; political science, 16; history, 48; philosophy, 15; comparative religion, 4; and ethics, 3.
Hardly any of the courses in social science can be taken by juniors and seniors, but the fact that 66 per cent of them in this one quarter have clected the hmani. ties, or the studies of man, of which social science is the culmination, makes no argument complete.
If we turn to courses in charities and correction alone, we find these also among the most popular courses in the institution. The attendance on them is more than twice that of the average course.
This paper has been all of fact, none of theory. There are many questions that remain to be discussed, but they must be left to other speakers, and, indeed, in part to future years. What is the relation of charities and correction to sociology! What preparation is necessary for work in this field? Are the needs properly met by training schools and by other existing institutions? What changes, if any, will the systematic study of society make in the related fields of economics, ethics, education, or government?
In view of the difficulty and the importance of the task, he is a fool who presumes to answer with authority. Wero it not that I have something more to suggest than others have said, I should not add my opinion to theirs.
But the best of my prevision for the present is this, that education will some day be considered the most important function of society, and the study of mankind the most important part of education; that the college education of the future is not to center around the ancient languages por the physical sciences, but the humanities; that they will be the keynoto of the public school as well as of the college; that all questions affecting inan, as charities and correction, will be seen to depend upon a broad and scientific conception of the whole; that the evils done in the name of charity will largely disappear with increasing knowledge of that most complex of all studies, the science of mankind; that the curing of dependency and crime will be subordinated in large part to its prevention, and that the need for specialists will be seen in all divisions of social labor as well as now in industry and commerce. Statistics of instruction in sociology, including charities and correction.
[Explanation of marks used : Course 1, punishment and reform of criminals; course 2, prevention of
vice (intemperance, prostitution, vagrancy, etc.); course 3, public and privato charities (care of the poor, insane, blind, idiotie, deaf-mute, foundlings, orphans, etc.); course 4, sociology (in the strict sense). Marks in college year colnmns: 1, 2, 3, and 4, freshman, sopliopiore, etc., year; 5, post-graduate; 6, law school; 7, medical school; a, preparatory department; i, taught incidentally; x, year not stated'; -, not taught; blank, unknown; (e.g.), freshman and senior years; 1-1 (6.9.), freshman to Benior year; p, school of political science; 4/3, senior or junior year.)
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