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of those in whom she placed implicit confidence. Sho has bestowed an inheritance during life upon her chosen heirs, and they have repaid her with base ingrati. tude.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. San Francisco Theological Seminary, California. This institution is not located, as one would infer from the title, at San Francisco, but near one of the suburban towns, San Rafael, abont 16 miles from San Francisco, and regarded by many as one of the most beautiful places in the world. The grounds of the seminary comprise about 14 acres on the north side of San Francisco Bay, the generous gift of Mr. A. W. Foster. The seminary is under the care of the Synod of the Pacific, subject to the act of the general assembly of 1870 relating to theological seminaries.

Montgomery Hall, the residence of the students, is a three-story building arranged to accommodate 50 students, giving each student a separate room fully furnished and with a fireplace or grate.

Scott Library is a large, well-arranged, circular building, 50 feet in internal diameter and 44 feet in height. The library contains over 18,000 volumes.

Montgomery Memorial Hall honors the name of the donor of $50,000 to be used for building and maintaining a chapel on the seminary grounds. This building will be entirely of stone, and circular in form.

UcCormick Theological Seminary:--The seminary buildings are (1) Ewing Hall, crected in 1863, containing thirty-five rooms for students and a reading room; (2) the chapel, erected in 1875, containing chapel and two lecture rooms; (3) McCormick Hall, erected in 1881, containing seventy suites of rooms for students, the office, and the parlor; (4) Fowler Hall, erected in 1887, containing sixty-five suites of rooms for students and two lecture rooms; (5) five houses for professors. The student has no expense for furniture or linen, as every room is furnished with elegance and comfort, so that the candidates for the ministry may be trained amid surroundings appropriate to cultured living.

i now and entirely adequate library building, Virginia Hall, has been erected at an expense of $80,000, the gift of Mrs. Nettie F. McCormick and Mr. Cyrus H. McCormick. The reading room, with its spacious walls and comfortable appointments, is a favorite rallying place for the students and the professors. The library at present contains 18,000 volumes.

The buildings above described, including professors' houses, cost about $100,000, of which more than three-fourths was contributed by the late C.H. McCormick and his heirs. It should bo noted in this connection that Mr. McCormick also contributed $30,000 to Union Theological Seminary, Virginia, for the endowment of a professorship.

Garrett Biblical Institute, Eranston, II.- This is one of the oldest and best endowed seminaries of the Methodist Episcopal Church. It has an annual income of about $30,000 from its resources. Evanston is the great Methodist literary center of the Northwest.

The seminary shares in the advantages of the new and splendid Orrington Hunt Library building, so named in honor of the munificent donor of $50,000.

Danville Theological Seminary, Kentucky.—This institution has taken on new vigor. A new and commodious brick building has been erected and completed, Breckinridge Hall. It is 161 feet long, and contains excellent accommodations for 42 students, two recitation rooms, lecturo hall, and library.

Bangor Theological Seminary, Maine. This institution was chartered in 1814 by the Stat. of Massachusetts, as Maine formed a part of that State at that time. In 1820 the Province of Maine was separated from Massachusetts and became an independent State. It was larger than all the rest of New England, and contained a population of 300,000 souls. It was in order to supply this widely scattered population with ministers that Bangor Seminary was opened. “The relations between tho seminary and the Maino churches have always been most intimato. To the great majority of them it has furnished ministers, and to-day more than half of the pastors of the Congregational churches in the Stato aro graduates of the seminary, whilo many from the other denominations also havo studied there.".. “ During the nearly eighty years of its existence this seminary has sent out more than 700 graduates, and has cdncated for one or more years without graduation 200 more."

Tho alumni of the seminary havo raised an endowment of $10,000 for the Bond lectureshin, named from Rev. Elias Bond, D. D., of the llawaiian Islands, who gavo the larger part of the fund.

Cobb Dirinity School, Leviston, Ve.-Fonnded September 1, 1810, it was the first established by the Free Baptist denomination. In 1888 it first took its present name, in recognition of the liberal contributions to its funds by Hon. J. L. H. Cobb, a resident of Lewiston,

Roger Williams IIall, now in process of erection, the gift of Deacon L. W. Anthony, of Providence, R. I., will enablo the institution for the first timo to occupy a building of its own, distinctly for its own purposes. It is a three-story brick building, with basement and attic.

St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, MI.-This is the oldest Catholic seminary in the United States, established in 1791, and was only preceded by one seminary of any denomination, the Dutch Reformed, at New Brunswick, N. J., in 1785. It was founded by members of the Society of St. Sulpice, who upon the outbreak of the French Revolution “thought it advisable to provide for its safety by founding a community of Sulpicians in the United States.” The four priests selected for this mission sailed from St. Malo in the month of March and reached Baltimore July 10, 1791. They bought a house then known as The One-Mile Tavern, and the spot is still occupied by their successors, now in the center of the city. The scholastic year 1894-95 was marked by the largest concourse of students ever in attendance, and fully justified the enlargement and improvement of the buildings which had just been completed.

Princeton Theological Seminary, New Jersey:-Although one may be well acquainted with the importance and greatness of Princeton Seminary, an institution which, with Princeton University, has made famous the rural village between New York and Philadelphia, and wbich for more than three-quarters of a century has been sending out many of the best ministerial scholars in the land, yet when ho takes up the catalogue of 1891-95 and examines carefully its pages, where he finds nothing but names of trustees, faculty, and students, plates of buildings, courses of study, and brief notices of library, dormitories, and fellowships, he is surprised that such a wonderful institution has not attracted more of his attention.

Here are 263 students, gathered literally from the four corners of the earth. Not only do they come from Canada, Holland, Scotland, and Ireland (15 from the latter), but from Turkey, Persia, Japan, India, and Australia. In the United States we find them from 28 States, from Maine to California, and from Wisconsin and North Dakota to Alabama and Mississippi. Seventy-three universities and colleges are represented by the students, all of whoin except 18 had received collegiate instruction. The graduates of Davidson and Erskine College in North and South Carolina meet for the first time their brothers in black from Biddle University on the loors of Princeton. No climate, race, or condition of men will be able to keep out the elevating and educating influence of Princeton's graduates.

The sons of the original abolitionists of New England hold friendly companionship with those who treasure the memory of ixi heroes, while the sons of the forty-niners of California, appreciating rightly the actuating principles of either side, look on in admiration and hope as tho words recur

Breathes there the man, with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,

This is my own, my native land ? On the first page of the catalogue is the plate of Alexander Hall, long known as the Old Seminary, the first building erected by Presbyterians in the United States fur seminary purposes. Its primeval simplicity was accompanied by solid worth, and it serves to-day as useful a purpose as Hodge Hall, a magnificent four-story structure built by money bequeathed by Mrs. Mary Stuart, widow of Robert L. Stuart, of New York. On another page is Brown Hall, the dormitory of single rooms, another fourstory building, from Mrs. Isabella Brown, of Baltimore. In case of severe illness of any student, the Isabella McCosh Infirmary is ready to receive him.

On another page is shown the library building, erected by the late James Lenox, of New York, and now containing 56,000 bound volumes. There is also a fund of $38,000, the income of which is to be used for the maintenance and increase of the library.

Notwithstanding the great usefulness of this large collection of theological literature and of the massive structures adjacent to it, what is of more value and what is more effective in securing attendance from so many quarters is the group of theological scholars that compose the faculty.

And for all these advantages the students pay neither tuition nor room rent. An endowment of over $1,000,000 saves them from that.

General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, New York.-Rev. Dr. W. E. Eigenbrodt, who for twenty-seven years was in active service in the seminary, died November 4, 1894. By his last will he bequeathed to the seminary property to the value of abont $200,000, in addition to his valuable library.

The seminary also received from the residuary estate of Mr. George A. Jarvis, of Brooklyn, $43,492.73, the principal to be kept invested, and the interest only to be used for the benefit of the seminary.

From Trinity Church, New York, $25,000 was received for another professor's house, to be erected on the grounds, and provision was also made by other friends of the seminary, whose names are unknown, for the erection of another professor's house.

['nion Biblical Seminary, Dayton, Ohio.—This is the only seminary of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Founded in 1871, it completes its twenty-fifth anniversary in October, 1896. The board of directors, at its regular session in May, 1895, unanimously resolved that the quarter centennial of the seminary be appropriately observed, and that an effort be made to raise, as a special quarter-centennial fund, $60,000.

The seminary possesses a splendid brick building, with large, well-furnished rooms, heated by modern methods. The seminary first opened in October, 1871, with 11 students and 3 professors—Rev. Lewis Davis, D. 1., Rev. George A. Funkbouser, and Rev. J. P. Landis. Since the opening 192 students have been graduated, and abont an equal number have taken a partial course, and the assets of the institution have grown to $150,000 above all liabilities. Among those who contributed liberally toward securing the firm establishment of the seminary, special mention should be made of Rev. John Kemp, Dayton, Ohio, who contributed $10,000; Rev. H. W. and Louisa Cherry, Butler, Ind., $8,800; Robert Smith, Polo, nl., $7,500; Miss Minerva Willey, Ross, Ohio, $6,000; John and Lydia Runkle, Caroline Bever, James Hammond, and Mary A. Herr, each giving $5,000.

The present chairman of the faculty, Rev. G. A. Funkhouser, D. D., was born at Mount Jackson, Va., June 7, 1811. He attended the schools of his neighborhood, and at the age of 18 entered Otterbein University, but in 1862 enlisted in the Union army, serving till the close of the war, when he again entered college and graduated in 1868. After a three-years course in Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., he graduated from that institution in 1871, and the same year was elected professor in Union Biblical Seminary, where he still remains at its quarter centennial.

United Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Xenia, Ohio.-April 24, 1894, the centennial year of the seminary's existence was celebrated at Xenia with appropriate exercises. This institution, constituted by the consolidation of the Associate Reformed Seminary of the Northwest with the Associate Seminary of Xenia, disputes the claim of the Dutch Reformed Theological Seminary at New Brunswick, N. J., of being the oldest theological seminary in the United States. If it shall not be able to establish its right to the first centennial celebration it will at least prevent the statute of limitations from running against its claim. Each of these institutions for several years had only a peripatetic existence, with one professor and a few students, who followed wherever convenience called him; so the identity in either case must be traced with care. In 1794 Rev. John Anderson, D. D., was elected professor of theology by the Associate Synod, and a building was erected in Beaver County, Pa., and a library of 800 volumes collected. His instruction continued until 1819, when he resigned and Rev. John Banks was chosen professor, with headquarters at Philadelphia; but in 1821 Rev. James Ramsay, D. D., was chosen professor of the western seminary, which was moved to ('anonsburg, Pa., and afterwards to Xenia, Ohio. In 1874 it was united with the Associate Reformed Seminary.

The institution is now firmly established, with 4 professors, about 30 students, over $100,000 endowment, and a library of 5,000 volumes.

LAW Schools. There are 72 schools of law in the United States, over half of them forming departments of universities. The number of law students attending them in 1894-95 was 8,950; the number of graduates was 2,717, or 30 per cent.

Although there are so many lawyers in the United States that their name is legion, yet more than one-third of the States and Territories have no law school at all. Some of these, too, are important States, and 4 of them are among the original 13. The 15 States with no law school are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware, Florida, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, and Washington; the 3 Territories are Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Yet students in these States need not go far to obtain instruction, for other States have an abundant supply of law schools. In the confines of the District of Columbia alone there are 4 schools; Illinois has 6, and althouglı any ono can practice law in Indiana, yet the young men so appreciate advantages of regular systematic instruction that it has 4 law schools. New York has 7, Obio 5, and Tennessee 6.

While nearly all medical colleges have courses of at least three years, and many of four years, law schools still lag far behind. In 12 law schools it is possible to complete the whole course in one year. The other schools have courses of two years, except 11, which require three years.

Since the most ignorant can be admitted to the bar in some States, and few requirements are made in others, law schools are placed under the necessity not only of having short courses of study, but also of having low tuition fees. The cost of completing a course in law schools, as compared with medical, is quite noticeable, as is shown by taking departments in the same universities, cost of books, board, etc., not being included.

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An examination of the diagram showing number of law students during the fivo years 1890–91 to 1894-95 (see a preceding pago) reveals a rapid increase in number of students in law schools, and this increaso had been occurring still further back. Although the number of law students has certainly been increasing, there must be some additional explanation of such numbers as 5,258, 6,073, 6,968, 7,311, 8,950. The explanation most probable is that young men are discarding the old method of study in the office of an attorney. While theological students and students of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy are taking courses of three or four years in regular prosessional schools, lawyers are still being made in as many months. Although a full preparation for the practice of law successfully will require as much time and effort as any other profession, and possibly moro, fledgelings of a few months' study presume to undertake the most difficult cases, and their confiding clients must reap the consequences. Although many States require an examination of all candidates for admission to the bar, it is notorious that such examinations, as conducted, fail to accomplish the desired results. Full qualifications in the great majority of cases can only be reached certainly by regular and systematic training at a law school. It is true that many of tho most successful members of the legal profession never entered a law school, but they succeeded in spite of difficulties. They had to encounter and overcome many obstacles. Some of them, too, had no opportunity to attend a law school. There were also many physicians of great reputation who never attended a medical college, and it was once contended that in a physician's office was the best place to become a physician, and a dentist's office to study dentistry, Bitter war was once made on theological seminaries as being entirely unnecessary, and in some denominations the opponents are not entirely silenced yet. But the confict is no longer waged; the decision of the majority is recognized. In regard to the study of law, too, a decision has been reached by those who havo had proper opportunities for considering the question intelligently that while good legal training can be obtained elsewhere than in law schools, and that while many have become eminent lawyers by private study, just as many of our most intelligent and wisest men have obtained their knowledge without collegiate training, yet as universities and colleges are the proper places for literary training, so law schools are the proper places for acquiring legal knowledge. Although many physicians acquired most of their skill in the practice of their profession, yet medical colleges are regarded as indispensable. Whilo many evangelists have caused such awakenings in the masses as to astonish staid theologians, the seminaries of theology have continued their instruction as usual.

While Benjamin Franklin obtained such an education in his room at night, by a tallow candle, and in his printing office that he became both philosopher and statesman, he was unwilling for others to depend on such efforts, but labored constantly for tho establishment and support of educational institutions, and the great University of Pennsylvania is to fulfill his ideas, from whose efforts it took its beginning.

While J. Marion Sims knew so little of medicine at the beginning of his professional career that be read up his cases from both beginning and end of the book, and finally became so discouraged that he threw his medical shingle into a well, a school of medicine in New York is left to honor his memory, as well as one of later dato in St. Louis, Mo.

While the young surveyor on the banks of the Ohio grew up to a large extent in the frontiers, his discernment of the useful was such that he cherished a plan for a great national university.

Although such examples as the above, and others like them, are constantly cited as instances of bow men can succeed without the advantages of collegiato training, little is said about the opinions of such men as to the value of educational institutions. The most eminent lawyers of the American bar are tho strongest advocates of full and thorough courses in law schools; nevertheless with strange inconsistency their examples are sometimes urged to show the uselessness of the schools they advocate.

Although the value of law-school training is forcing a recognition from many, sufficient progress has not yet been made to induce Stato legislatures to require a lawschool course before admission to the bar. In the State of New York a near approach has been made to this requirement. Several States require medical practitioners to have diplomas from medical colleges, but they do not require diplomas from law students. One prominent cause of this heretofore has been the scarcity of law schools, some States having none at all. But there are few communities at the present time where law schools can not be reached as easily as medical schools. Moreover, if all law students were required to pursue a regular course in a law school, other schools would soon spring up wherever needed. It need not be expected that there will be much elevation of the standard of legal education until the legislatures shall have adopted more stringent regulations.

It is difficult for the laity to fully appreciate the need of an educatea legal profession. As they are unable of themselves to detect the gravest mistakes in medical practice, just so in the courts they are not aware when the greatest ignorance of law is displayed. Here are some statements made at the meeting of the American Bar Association in 1894, and not a word of protest or doubt uttered by anyone present: “An inundation of incompetency, to uso no harsher term, has in recent years deluged our profession and brought it as the appointed agency for the attainment of justice into common disrepute. There is at present a "deplorable state of legal attaininent among the members of the bar in general.” “Men with rights to maintain or with wrongs to redress hesitate and often refuso to submit to the uncertainties, the tedious delays, and the wasting expense inevitable in the ordinary court processes of the day."'"And the worst feature of this condition of affairs is that this waning faith is justified by the facts.” “Judged by the results of its service in actual litigation, tho profession is to-day a monstrons charlatan.” Another member said, in speaking of applicants for admission: “I havo seen the most absoluto ignorance displayed of the rules of orthography, and several men have been able to pass a good legal examination who yet were utterly unable to write a single sentence in good English.” Another member said: “We are all united in the sentiment that there should be a higher degree of culturo in the legal profession, but the reform must come from the lawyers themselves,” because, as was suggested by Judge Dillon, the legislation of the country is largely done by lawyers. Complaint was made that the courses in law schools are too short to afford full legal training, but representatives of the law schools, while admitting this fact, stated that the fault lay not with them, but with the State legislatures which adopted no regulations requiring a full legal education for admission to the bar.


Of 60 catalogues of law schools examined, in 43 we find that there are practically no requirements for admission to the law classes. Any young man with an ordinary English education who has not the stamp of ignorance plainly visible upon his face, if lo can comply with the required financial outlay, need feel no hesitancy in entering the law-school door. And indeed he does not; and this is so well known that some of the catalogues do not even mention the subject of admission requirements, but instead dilate upon the importance of receiving instruction in a law school rather than in an attorney's office, and in such a way that it is evident no applicant will be declined. In one cataloguo it is stated that an examination will be required of all stndents who have not completed a course in a ligh school or grammar school, but "the object of this examination is merely to ascertain whether his previous training has developed in him sufficient practical ability to appreciate the doctrine of the law. It will thereforo be of a general rather than a technical character. An acquaintance with English and American history is desirable, but is not required for admission.” Of course, if no knowledge of American history is required, one need not worry about any other requirements.

Twelve other schools require an examination when the applicant expects to apply for a degree, but not otherwise. But even in the institutions which have some regulations for admission, the requirements are so lax that few applicants, if any, are kept out. Graduates from high schools are received without examination, and in those cases where an examination is required it is usually upon the branches of an ordinary English education. The University of Michigan requires some knowledge of Blackstone, and the New York law schools somo Latin and geometry from candidates for degrees.

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