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alrea:ly notified of the occurrence, awaits his arrival in the operating room, which is always ready for patients.

“This brief description of this interesting and important feature of the World's Fair will show what is the outcome when private initiative has free course and when an able man is allowed to put into execution his own ideas unembarrassed by routine.

“If America has some faults she has some great qualities also. It must be confessed that often by a single stroke she goes far toward solving the most difficult ques tions. These brief remarks upon the hospital of the World's Fair may furnish some information to those who are charged to organize medical science at the exposition of 1900.”

The following general observations introduce the reader to M. Baudouin's account of Western universities :

"The universities of the East and center of North America, it is bardly necessary to repeat, are the most interesting to visit. Those on the Atlantic border give the impression of indisputable power, and an intensity of physical and intellectual life really astonishing: ' It must also be admitted that their actual value is sufficient to justify to the foreigner the renown of this new country.”

SCHOOLS OF THE WESTERN STATES.

“ The colleges of the Central States," says Dr. Baudouin, “which have neither the age nor the distinction of the Eastern colleges, are, nevertheless, worthy to be compared with our provincial schools and faculties, and whoever has visited America has seen or, at least, heard of them. It is not so with the others, which, situated in the West or 'Far West,' have had a development as rapid as that of the cities where they have been established. It has, therefore, seemed to me important to visit these schools so young but already so prosperous, and to study their effects in the places where they are located-to see their buildings and appointments, alınost as magnificent for those at the foot of the Rocky Mountains as for those on the borders of the Great Lakes, and to devote some pages to their schools of medicine in spite of their extremo youth and small renown.

It is impossible even to name here all the foundations which are described or mentioned in the remaining pages of the report. We can note only a few typical institutions.

The University of Minnesota is described somewhat in detail. As to its rapid growth the author says: “This university, situated on the left bank of the Mississippi River, in the city of Minneapolis, comprises many large buildings. It was founded in 1857, and had hardly commenced to receive students in 1860. It has at this time (1893) more than 1,000 students, male and female.” The report presents views of the college of piedicine and surgery and the medical laboratory, and also the course of study for each year at the homeopathic college. An official statement as to the cost of living at Minneapolis is quoted, which gives $323.54 as the expenses for a young man and $240.05

for a young woman. University of Colorado.—“The development of the University of Colorado is still more astonishing than that of the schools of Minneapolis. The place where the city of Denver now stands was in 1858 only a vast prairie extending to the foot of the Rocky Mountains. At this time (1893) the Queen of the Prairies possesses more than 150,000 inhabitants. Its university, which, though established in 1860 can hardly be said to have developed before 1876, comprises several important buildings at Boulder, a little city situated 29 miles from the capital in the Rocky Mountains, at the entrance to the celebrated Boulder Canyon. About 300 students are here congregated.

“The school of medicine which belongs to the university is situated not at Boulder but at Denver itself, in the center of the city, at Seventeenth and Stout streets. The first year students study at Boulder, the boys living at Kent Hall with the law students and the young girls in buildings reserved especially for them. When a brother and sister attend the university at the same time they may live in the same house. All students are obliged to register at Boulder. In the second year they attend the school of medicine at Denver in order to take advantage of the hospital work. Tbis arrangement reduces expenses, as living in Denver is much dearer than in the neighboring towns. The course of study lasts three years, nine months each year.

“The clinical instruction is given in the hospitals of the city, which accommodate more than 400 patients, and are open to the students. The Arapahoe County Hospital, where many of the professors of the school teach, contains 150 beds and is increasing in importance every year. There are four clinic lectures at this hospital each week. The dispensary of the school is also here and is open every day except Sunday. Here also clinic lessons are given every day during the scholastic year. In these lessons the student is obliged to give a diagnosis, a prognosis, and a treatment of a case.

" The school is open to all graduates of recognized colleges or high schools. Other candidates for admission are obliged to submit to an examination in English grammar, arithmetic, geography, history of the United States, and the elements of physics. Some students come to the University of Colorado for the sake of the climate, just as certain students go to the Lycées of Pan and of Nice.

“ The climate of this region is indeed highly recommended for pulmonary affections or chronic malaria. The average temperature, which is 48° F., or nearly 90 C., attracts many pupils who are invalids, but who, after a year at Bonlder, are often able to continue their studies.

“From the character of the surrounding country and the frequent accidents the Americans have drawn a very legitimate conclusion and havo established hero a course of lectures relating especially to the treatment of the victims of railroad accidents. Those who have traveled in this section, and who remember that at Denver all the railroads of the far West meet and cross, will not be astonished at or fail to realize the importance of a special medical service of the first order."

The schools and hospitals of Portland.—" Oregon has two medical schools located at Portland. Althouglí not the capital of the Stato, by reason of its situation and commerce this city, which has an Euglish stamp, is the metropolis of the Northwest Pacific. Hero is a Chineso population of more than 3,000 and a house of refuge especially for Chinese women (the Chinese Woman's Home). The Good Samaritan Hospital was founded in 1875 by an old bishop of Oregon. It accommodates 125 patients and is directed by a superintendent. Only those patients are admitted who are able to pay $7 per week in the common ward or $14 per week for special rooms. Attached to the hospital is a training school for nurses' directed by Mrs. E. Loverage.

"The Portland Methodist Episcopal and Free Dispensary, which was rebuilt in 1888 and received 100 patients, is hardly less interesting.

“St. Vincent's Hospital, which contains 200 beds, is as old and more important than the Good Samaritan. It is under the supervision of the Sisters of Charity and receives abont 1,500 patients each year.

“Four medical societies, of which one is homeopathic, are established at Portland. The best known is the Oregon State Medical Society."

Medical schools of San Francisco.—"As the medical schools of San Francisco have not been visited by many physicians of Europe, I may hope that they will thank me for having pushed my university investigation into California.

“The two most important medical schools are well worthy of mention; moreover, in this distant country the French language and literature are not at all forgotten, and what is still more interesting, many of our compatriots practice here, and at this moment superintend the construction of a magnificent hospital. They certainly merit our attention.

"I may note here that in this State, quito new and still almost a desert in some parts, numbering only 1,200,000 inhabitants, there are already five schools of medicine, so that the old pioneers of San Jose Valley can scarcely lack practitioners. The oldest and certainly the most important school of medicine is the Cooper Medical College. Its organization dates back to 1858, when it constituted the medical department of the University of the Pacific. Its first diplomas were granted in 1860. The school ceased to exist from 1864 to 1869, but in 1870 was reopened under its former name. Two years later it became the medical department of the University of of San Francisco and then took the name of Medical College of the Pacific. In 1882 its former name was restored, and this is still retained. An effort is now being made to incorporate it as the school of medicine of a very rich university about to be erected at Palo Alto near the bay of San Francisco. This institution first granted diplomas in 1860.

In 1890 the college received important donations from Mr. James M. MacDonald, and also from Professor Lane, who gave land and buildings to the value of about $100,000. Mr. Lane is the nephew of Mr. Samuel Cooper, the founder of the school, who died in 1861 at the age of 41 years, and whose ambition was to found a hospital. Professor Lane's gift was intended as a memorial of Dr. Cooper. He was a distinguished surgeon (especially known by his work on the suture of the kneepan, an operation which lie was one of the first to perform on the articular resections, etc.). He should not be confounded with Astley Cooper."

In addition to a detailed description of the buildings of this college and their appointments, Dr. Baudouin notes that here, as in most of the American colleges, the dissecting room is in the top of the building. He counted, he says, 12 cadavers injected with red wax. He adds: “Mr. Gibbons told me that as they used each year only 50 cadavers, it was necessary to keep them as long as possible. One subject serves for 5 students, and costs $12. Generally a student in the course of bis study dissects five bodies, making an expense of $60. The course of study is for three years, but after 1894 it will continue for four years. It is gratifying to observe that all the good schools are in favor of this change.

"In the list of books recommended I have seen only English and American authors, with a few German, but not a single French work. This is inexcusable, at least in California where nothing French should pass unnoticed.”

A somewhat extended account, historical and descriptive, is given of the Toland Medical College, which constitutes the medical department of the University of California. The author notes as a matter of special interest that in the dissecting room he saw 15 students at work. "This," he adds, “appeared strange to me considering the season of the year, as I had not before seen students working in any of the colleges I had visited. I soon learned that the course of study here is divideil into a spring, a summer, and a fall term, the vacations taking place during the winter months of December, January, and February, an arrangement best suited to the climate of San Francisco, as I can state from my own experience; this has induced the doctors to depart hero from the custom as old as old Europe. It is only in America that such changes can be made without objections, and it is really the study of these thousand little details, rather than the visits to so great a number of institutions which with few exceptions are not of a high order, that has made my tour in the United States interesting.”

A paragraph is given to the San Francisco polyclinic or post-graduate medical department of the University of California. Brief but interesting accounts are also given of the hospitals of San Francisco, including the Chinese hospital, the German, and the new French hospital. The plans of the latter are fully described and graphically illustrated. The Home for Inebriates is also mentioned in the same chapter. “There is nothing," says the writer “analogous to this in France."

With respect to the number of practicing physicians in California, Dr. Baudouin says: "For a population of about 300,000, San Francisco has 600 physicians, or 1 for every 500 persons. At Los Angeles the proportion is still greater, i. e., 1 physician for every 250 inhabitants. This is the general average for American cities, while in Europe (even in Germany, where doctors abound) the proportion in cities is generally 1 doctor for 1,000 inhabitants. Undoubtedly the high proportion at San Francisco, as in other cities of the United States, is due to the excessive number of schools and the low standard of studies. But here another cause operates also; this is the large importation of Germans; actually there are 181 German physicians in the city. To this there could be no objection if they were really doctors, but it appears that out of the 181 only 6 have really passed the State examination required in Germany; the others are only students, who have scarcely mastered their course, and whose professional attainments leave much to bo desired. A remedy for this state of things is earnestly desired here where, in truth, it is not denied that admission to the profession is far too easy. It appears, however, that the matter can not well be regulated without what would bo still more difficult, the complete reorganization of American universities,”

CHAPTER XXX.

EDUCATION IN THE SEVERAL STATES.

ALABAMA.

(Letter of Dr. J.L. M. Curry to the gubernatorial candidates of Alabama.]

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 21, 1896. To the Hon. Joseph F. Johnston and Hon. Albert T. Goodwyn.

DEAR Sirs: I address this open letter to you as the accredited representatives of the two great parties seeking to control the government of the State. I need make no apology for any interest in Alabama or the cause which I seek to bring before you.

With the issues which divide the parties I have no concern in this letter. The Bubject of this communication is higher, far more important, more paramount than all the issues, Federal and State, which divide parties, local or national. It involves vitally every county, neighborhood, family, and citizen. It is not of temporary, butof permanent interest. It affects the people individually, socially, intellectually, and materially. All patriots should combine and labor incessantly until there be permanently established and liberally sustained the best system of free schools for the whole people, for such a system would soon become the “most effective and benignant of all the forces of civilization.” Such a cause should enlist the best and most practical statesmanship, and should be lifted above and out of mere party politics, which is one of the most mischievous enemies of the public school system.

Mr. Jefferson is quoted by both parties on fiscal and currency and coustitutional questions. Let us hear what he says on the education of the people. In 1786 ho wrote to George Wythe: “I think by far the most important bill in our whole code is that for the diffusion of knowledge among the people. No surer foundation can be devised for the preservation of their freedom and happiness." To Washington he wrote: “It is an axiom in my mind that our liberty can never be safe but in the hands of the people themselves, and that, too, of the people of a certain degree of instruction. This it is the business of the State to effect and on a general plan.

The best test of a country's civilization is the condition of public instruction, said a French statesman. Tested by that standard, what is the rank of Alabama among civilized people? The total population of Alabama over 10 years of age by the last census is 1,069,545, and of these 107,355, or 18.2 per cent of the white people are illiterate, and 331,260, or 69 per cent of the negroes are illiterate. Of 510,226 children between 5 and 18 years of age 301,615, or 55 80 per cent are enrolled in schools, leaving only two States in this particular below her. In 1891-92 the percentage of school population (5 to 18 years) in attendance was 33.78 per cent with four States below. The average school term or session was seventy-three days.

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