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(c) Accurate record in memory or in written form.

(d) Training the memory; and practice in holding in the mind the record of observations, groupings, and comparisons.

(e) Training in the power of expression, in clear, concise exposition; logical setting forth of a process of reasoning.

(f) Inculcation of the supremo ideals through which the human race is uplifted and ennobled. Before the pupil should be put the loftiest ideals of beauty, honor, patriotism, duty, obedience, love.

Teachers are greatly helped by teachers' institutes, when those who assemble get the wisdom and experience of many minds on the difficult problems of the profession. The work should be practical, systematic, logica', continuous from year to year, and a course of professional reading should be prescribed, so as to increase the intelligence and culture of the profession.

We very often lose sight of the true end of education-it is, or should be, effectivo power in action, doing what tho uneducated can not do, putting acquisition into practice, developing and strengthening faculties for real everyday life. The only sure test is the ability to do inoro and better work than could bo done without it. The average man or woman with it should be stronger, more successful, more useful, than the average man or woman without it. It is the human being with an increase of power which makes one more than equal to a mere man. It is not so much what is imparted, but what is in wrought; not what is putin, but what is got out. It is not so much what we know as what we are and can do for productivo ends. The object of Christianity is to mako good men and good women here on earth. The object of education is to mako useful men and women, good citizens. And here comes in the need of manual training, which is not to fit for special trades, but to teach tho rudiments of mechanics, those common principles which underlie all work. The pupil can acquire manual dexterity, familiarizo himself with tools and materials, be instructed in the scienco without a knowledge of which good work can not be done. Tho object of this industrial instruction is to develop the executive side of nature, so that the pupil shall do as well as think. This introduction of manual training into schools has been found to be very helpful to intellectual progress. Gentlemen need not reject it as something chimerical and utopian; it is not an innovation; the experiment is not doubtful; it has been tried repeatedly; it is comparatively inexpensive, and has been and is now in very successful operation. It is not wiso statemanship, nor even good common sense, to forego for many years what other peoples are now enjoying the advantages of. In a quarter of a century trade schools, techni. cal schools, manual training, the kindergarten, will have nearly universal adoption. Why, during this period, should a State rob her children of theso iinmense benefits?

As population increases the struggle to maintain wages becomes more severo, tho pressure being the hardest upon the unskilled, and less severe on each higher rank of laborers. Every possible facility for education should be put within the reach of laboring men, to increase their efficiency, to raise the standard of life, and to augment tho proportion between the skilled and the unskilled. Dr. Harris, our wisest and most philosophical educator, says: “Education emancipates the laborer from the deadening effects of repetition and habit, the monotony of mere mechanical toil, and opens to him a vista of new inventions and more useful combinations." Our industrial age increases the demand for educated, directive power. Business combinations, companies for trade, transportation, insurance, banking, manufacturing, and mining, demand, as essential conditions of success, intelligent directive power. Production is augmented by skill. An indispensable condition of economic prosperity is a large per capita production of wealth. Socialism, as taught by some extremists, would sacrifice production to accomplish distribution, and means annihilation of private capital, management by the State of all industries, of production and distribution, when Government would be the sole farmer, common carrier, banker, manufacturer, storekeeper, and all these would be turned into civil servants, and be under the control and in the pay of the State, or of a party.

States may have ideals as well as individuals, and embody the noblest elements of advanced civilization, Agriculture, manufactures, mining, mechanical arts, give prosperity when allied with and controlled by thrift, skill, intelligence, and honesty; but what is imperishable is the growth and product of developed mind. Greece and Rome live in their buildings, statuary, history, orators, and poems. Pliny said: “To enlarge the bounds of Roman thought is nobler than to extend the limits of Roman power.” The founders of the great English universities centuries ago builded wiser than they knew, and opened perennial fountains of knowledge and truth from which have unceasingly flowed frnctifying streams. All modern material improvements are the outgrowth of scientific principles applied to practical life. If you would legislato for the increased prosperity and glory of South Carolina, be sure not to forget that this is the outcome of the infinito capacities of chililren. Hamilton said there was notbing great in the universo but man, and nothing great in man but mind. “No serious thinker," says Drummond,“can succeed in lessening to his own mind the infinite distance between the mind of man and everything in nature.” Fisk says: “On carth there will never be a higher creation than man." Evolutionists say that the series of animals comes to an end in man, that he is at once the crown and master and the rationale of creation. What you know and admiro in South Carolina is what has been done by cultivated men and women. What other country can show such a roll of immortal worthies as your Pinckneys and Rutledges, your Marion, Sumter, and Pickens, your Harper, Jolinson, O'Neill, your Fuller and Thornwell, your McDuffie and Hayne, Legaro and Petigru, and, towering above all contemporaries, peerless in political wisdom, metaphysical subtlety, ignited logic, the great unrivaled American Aristotle, John C. Calhoun ?



References to preceding reports of the United States Bureau of Education, in which

this subject has been treated: In annual reports-1870, pp. 61, 337–339; 1871, pp. 6, 7, 61-70; 1872, pp. xvii, xviii; 1873, p. Ixvi; 1875, p. xxiii; '1876, p. xvi; 1877, pp. xxxiii-xxxviii; 1878, pp. xxviii-xxxiv; 1879, pp. xxxix-xlv; 1880, p. lviii; 1881, p. lxxxii; 1882-83, pp. liv, xlviii-lvi, xlix, 85; 1883–84, p. liv; 1884-85, p. lxvil;.1885–86, pp. 596, 650-656; 1886–87, pp. 790, 874-881; 1887–88; pp. 20, 21, 167, 169, 988-998; 1888–89, pp. 768, 1412–1439; 1889-90, pp. 620, 621, 624, 631, 1073-1102, 1388-1392, 1395–1485; 1890-91, pp. 620, 624, 792, 808, 915, 961-980, 1469; 1891–92, pp. 8, 686, 688, 713, 861-867, 1002, 1234-1237; 1892-93, pp. 15, 442, 1551-1572, 1976; 1893–94, pp. 1019-1061. Also in Circulars of Information-No.3, 1883, p. 63; No. 2, 1886, pp. 123–133; No. 3, 1888, p. 122; No. 5, 1888, pp. 53, 54, 59, 60, 80-86; No. 1, 1892, p. 71. Special Report on District of Columbia for 1869, pp. 193, 300, 301-400.

Special report, New Orleans Exposition, 1884-85, pp. 463-470, 775-781. This chapter and the one which follows contain a large amount of matter relating to the advancement of the colored race in the United States. The very creditable exhibit made at the Atlanta Exposition in 1895 by tho more progressivo clement among the negroes aroused new interest in all parts of the country in their educational advancement. In response to the general demand for information on this subject a special effort was made by this Bureau to collect statistics from all the colored schools of the Sonth. It was no easy task on account of the indifference manifested by many of those in charge of private schools. Of the 162 schools of secondary and higher gradle known to this offico fewer than half the number responded to the first request for information. Even after the fifth request had been sept out a few of the schools had failed to respond. Many of the reports received contained but ineager information. Such statistics as could be obtained will be given in detail in succeeding pages of this chapter.

Tho statistics of public common schools for the negroes aro giren in connection with the statistics of white schools in the beginning of the first volume of this annual report. On the next page is presented a table which contains in condensed form the more important items of information relating to the number and attendance of colored pupils in the common schools of each of the former slave States. In these sixteen States and the District of Columbia the estimated pumber of persons 5 to 18 years of age, the school population, was 8,297,160. Of this number 5,573,440 were white children and 2,723,720, or 32.9 per cent, colored. The total enrollment in the white schools was 3,815,414 and in the colored schools 1,441,282. The per cent of white school population enrolled was 69 and the per cent of colored school population enrolled was 52.92. The whites had an average daily attendance of 2,510,907, or 65.30 per cent of their enrollment, while the average attendance of tho blacks was 856,312, or 59.41 per cent of their enrollinent. There were 89,276 white teachers and 27,081 colored teachers in the public schools of the South in 1895.

An accurate statement of the amounts of money expended by each of the Southern States for the education of the colored children can not be given for the reason that in only two or three of these States are separato accounts kept of the moneys expended for colored schools. Since 1876 the Southern States have expended about $383,000,000 for public schools, and it is fair to estimate that between $75,000,000 and $80,000,000 of this sum must have been expended for the education of colored children. In 1895 the enrollment of colored pupils was a little more than 27 per cent of the public school enrollment in tho Southern States. It is not claimed that they received tho benefit of 27 per cent of the school fund and perhaps no one would say they received less than 20 per cent. It is a fact well known that almost the entire burden of educating the colored children of the South fails upon the white property owners of the former slave States. Of tho more than $75,000,000 expended in the past twenty years for tho instruction of the colored children in Southern public schools but a small per cent was contributed by the negroes themselves in the form of taxes. This vast sum has not been given grudgingly. The white people of the South believe that the State should place a common-school education within the reach of every child, and they have done thus much to give all citizens, white and black, an even start in life.

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What have the negroes themselves accomplished to justify the generosity of the white people of the South and the benevolence of the people of the North? It may be said that in 1860 the colored race was totally illiterate. In 1870 more than 85 per cent of the colored population of the South, 10 years of age and over, could not read and write. In 1880 the per cent of illiterates had been reduced to 75, and in 1890 the illiterates comprised about 60 per cent of the colored population 10 years of age and over. In several of the Southern States the percentago is even below 50 yer

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