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cent. The comparative statistics for 1870, 1880, and 1890, showing tho illiteracy of the colored race, are given for each of the Southern States in the following table:

Illiteracy of the colored population 10 years of age and orer.

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In thirty years 40 per cent of tho illiteracy of the colored raco bad disappeared. In education and in industrial progress this raco had accomplished more than it could have achieved in centuries in a different environment without the aid of the whites. The negro bas needed the example as well as the aid of the white man. In sections where the colored population is massed and removed from contact with the whites the progress of the negro has been retarded. He is an imitativo being, and has a constant desire to attempt whatever lo sees the whito man do. He believes in educating his children because he can see that an increase of knowledge will enable them to better their condition. But segregate the colored population and you take away its object lessons. The statistics exhibited in the following table in a measure confirm the truth of this position:

Colored population and illiteracy in 1890 compared.

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Here it is shown that in the States where the colored population is greatest in proportion to the total population, or where such colored population is massed, as in the “black belt” of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, there the per cent of illiteracy is highest. In this tablo the Southern States aro

arranged with reference to their proportion of colored population, West Virginia standing first with only 4.3 per cent, and South Carolina at tho foot of the list with 59.9 per cent colored population. The per cent for each State is slown in the third column. Leaving out of the count the District of Columbia, in which there is a perfected system of city schools, the percentages of illiteracy in column 4 seem to bear a close relation to the percentages of population in column 3. The eight States having less than 30 per cent of colored population have, with a single exception, less than 55 per cent of colored illiteracy. The eight States having more than 30 per cent of colored population have, with two exceptions, more than 60 per cent of illiteracy. In the fifth column the per cent of white illiteracy is given for each State.

SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION. There are in the United States, so far as kuown to this Bureau, 162 institutions for the secondary and higher education of the colored race. Six of these schools are not located within the boundaries of the former slave States. Of the 162 institutions, 32 are of the grade of colleges, 73 are classed as normal schools, and the remaining 57 are of secondary or high school grade. While all these schools teach pupils in the elementary studies, they also carry instruction boyond the common school branches. State aid is extended to 35 of the 162 institutions, and 18 of these are wholly supported by the States in which they are established. The remaining schools are supported wholly or in part by benevolent societies and from tuition fees.

Detailed statistics of the 162 institutions will be found in this chapter. In these schools were employed 1,549 teachers, 711 males and 838 females. The total number of students was 37,102; of these, 23, 420 were in elementary grades, 11,724 in secondary grades, and 1,958 were pursuing collegiate studies. The following table shows for each State the number of schools and teachers and the number of students in elementary, secondary, and collegiate grades:

Summary of teachers and students in institutions for the colored race in 1894–95.

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Alabama..
Arbansas
Delaware
District of Columbia.
Florida
Georgia
Nlinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Louisiana (a)
Maryland..
Mississippi
Missouri.
New Jersey.
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
South Carolina.
Tenn.-ssee
Texas..
Virginia
West Virginia

92
6 26 19
1 3
4 74
6

18
66 130
1

3
7 30

5

13 9 37 5 19

2 26 102

10 11 36 69

Total. 5270-35cm Bose Female.

183 1,218 1,431 2,649 625 514 1, 169
45 279 385 604 171 135 306
3

13 2 15
103 123

279

513 781 231 276 507

156 249 1961, 518 2,332 3,850 592 732 1, 324 2

7 21 28 6 45 52 97 33 CO 93 67 485 916 1,401 186 333 519 24 161 206 367 67 82 152 30 67 156

223 70 192 202 67 631 572 1, 203 277 229 506 38 125

96

221 139 136 275
5 5 5 10 15 17 32
2011, 203 1,6992, 9021, 077 1,086 2, 163
16 77 63 140 37 77 114
11
100 1,071 1, 107 2, 178 301 500 801
165 1, 210, 1, 703 2, 913 576 641 1,217
81 556 882 1, 438 281 325

606
149 923 1, 356 2,279 424 574 998
11 45 54 99 50 61 114

72 3, 890 31 1,001

14 29 332 1, 392

756 228 5, 402

28

190 127 2,047 50 569 77 562 111

1, 820 7 503

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220 5, 285

51 305 167 167 1123, 031 156

4, 286 115 2,159 88 3, 365

213

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Total

162, 711, 838 1,519 9, 975 13, 415 23, 420 5, 272 6, 452 11, 724 1,508 3601, 958 37, 102

a Two schools not reporting.

Of the 13,682 students in secondary and higher grades there were 990 in classical courses, 811 in scientific courses, 293 in business courses, and 9,331 in English courses. The distribution of these students by States, the classification by courses of study, and the apportionment by sex can be seen by consulting the following table (p. 1335). Classification of colored students, by courses of study, 1894-95.

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There were 4,514 colored students studying to become teachers, 1,902 males and 2,612 females. Many of these students were included among thoso pursuing tho English and other courses noted in the foregoing table.

The number of students graduating from high school courses was 619, the number of males being 282 and the number of females 367. There were 814 graduates from normal courses, 357 males and 187 females. The number of college graduates was 186, the number of males being 151 and the number of females 35. The distribution of graduates by States, as well as the number of normal students, can bo found in the following table:

Vumber of normal students and graduates in 1591-97.

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There were 1,166 colored students studying learned professions—1,028 males and 138 females. Of the protessional students 585) were studying theology, 310 meilicine, 55 law, 45 pharmacy, 25 dentistry, and 8 engineering. The 138 female students wero receiving professional training for nurses. There were 12 graduates in theology, 67 in medicine, 21 in law, 2 in dentistry, 16 in pharmacy, and 25 in nurse training. Tho following tablo (p. 1336) gives the distribution of professional students and graduates by States.

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Arkansas
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15 119
Florida.
Georgia.
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
Missouri
New Jersey
North Carolina
Ohio
l'ennsylvania
South Carolina.
Tennessee.

3 102
Texas
Virginia..
Total..

21 310 67

45 10 138 The importance of industrial training is almost universally recogpized by teachers of the colored race, and the negroes themselves are beginning to see its value. This featuro of colored education was treated at somo length in the Education Report for 1893–94. More complete statistics aro presented this year. For the first timo the number of students in cach industrial branch has been ascertained. Of the 37,102 students in the 162 colored schools nearly one-third, or 12,058, were receiving industrial training. Of these, 1,061 were learning farm and garden work, 1,786 carpentry, 235 bricklaying, 202 plastering, 259 painting, 67 tin anıt sheet-metal work, 314 forging, 200 machine-shop work, 117 shoemaking, 706 printing, 1,783 sewing, 5,460 cooking, and 1,017 were learning other industries. An exhibit of the industrial side of coloreil education is made in the following table:

Industrial training of colored students in 1894-95.

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23 94 107 201

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Colored institutions received benefactions in 1891-95 amounting to $304,822. They received State and municipal aid amounting to $188,936; from productive fupds, $98,278; from tuition fees, $101,146, and from other sourées and unclassified sums amounting to $534,272. The latter tigure includes the sums received by colored agricultural and mechanical colleges from the United States. The income of the colored institutions, so for as reported, amounted to $922,632. In the libraries of the 162 colored schools thero were 175,788 volumes, valued at $357,549. Tho value of grounds, buildings, furniture, and scientific apparatus was $6,475,590, and the value of other property and endowments was $2,381,748. The following table summarizes the financial reports received from tho 162 colored institutions:

Financial summary of the 162 colored schools.

Value of benefac.

tions or be. quests, 1894-95.

Volumes in li.

braries.

Value of libraries.

Value of grounds,

buildings, furni. ture, and scientific apparatus.

Amount of any

other property or endowment.

Amount of State or municipal aid.

State.

Amount received

from tuition Amount received

from productive
Amount received

from other
fees.
funds.
sources.

Total income for the year 1894-95.

Alabama.
Arkansas.
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia.
Illinois
Indiana.
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland.
Mississippi
Miss uri.
New Jersey.
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
South Carolina.
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia ..
West Virginia

$64, 903 15, 212 $11,350 $383, 269 $150, 363 $14,500 $13, 276 $9,068 $112, 769 $149, 613 2, 894 4,450 5, 125 132, 200 35,500 6,000 3, 860 2, 450 2, 594

14, 904 281

400
20, 700

4,000 4,000 0 16, 350

670, 000 200, 000 29,500 7, 987 8,500 11, 541 57.528 1, 866 1,475 74,300

2, 800 657

12, 019 15, 476 27, 888 24, 86513, 560973, 959 535, COO 2,819 13, 573 13, 304 52, 257 81, 953

125 250

250 500 10,000
15, 145 8, 556 6, 2015 193, 220 103, 825 3, 000

6,356 4,264

4, 176 11, 344 10,227

17, 796 5, 854 474, 422 98,750

7,500
7, 120

32, 475 47. 095 9,055 2, 200

300 61,000 4,500 6,500 3,966 1. 117 22, 190 33, 773 2,500 11, 200

10, 205
315.000 163,575 4,321 3, 941 5, 679

50, 179

36, 238 200 631 925

162, 125

05, 000 1,367 1,284 50 7, 427

67, 701 500 150 10, 000 5,000 3, 000

500 3,500 23, 568 12, 670 6, 490 444, 995 39, 500 7,618

8, 496

920 22, 644 39, 678 8, COO 5, 000 2,000 200, 000 25, 000 12, 500

3, 500
300

27,000

8, 700
13,000
212,000 394, 800

22, 469

11, 271 33, 740 1,600 6,050 4, 730 180, 300 41, 350 2, 150 7,958 1,000 36, 668 25, 347 13, 482 240, 990

47, 776 629, 100

30,000

3, 430 11, 644 1,227 39, 309 55, 610 5, 428 5, 023 33, 330 273, 000 500 298 2, 681

4, 300

7, 279 95, 122 14, 150 10, 150 938, 000 504, 083 15,000 3, 276 22, 603 117, 301 158, 180 4, 401 5,500

3, 500
85, 000

30,000
3, 000 1,488 2,093 3, 270

9, 851

Total

301, 822175, 788 357, 549 6, 475, 590/2, 381,748 188, 930 101, 146 98, 278 534, 272 922, 632

Beginning on the next page is a table giving in detail the statistics of the 162 colored schools so far as reported to this Bureau.

In the concluiling pages of this chapter are printed two addresses in which are presented two views of the elucation of the colored race. Tho first was delivered at Brooklyn, N. Y., in January, 1896, at the dinner in honor of Alexander Hamilton by Booker T. Washington, principal of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. The second was clelivered before the American Baptist Homo Mission Society, at Asbury Park, N. J., May 26, 1896, by Edward C. Mitchell, D. D., president of Leland University, New Orleans, La. Mr. Washington pleads for the industrial as well as the intellectual training of the negro, while Dr. Mitchell advocates the higher education.

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