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discriminate in assessments of taxablo property, but in Georgia, where the ownership is ascertained, the negroes returned in 1892 $14,869,575 of taxable property against $118,884,959 returned by white owners. The ainount of property listed for taxation in North Carolina in 1891 was, by white citizens, $231,109,568; by colored citizens, $8,018,446. To an inquiry for official data, the auditor of the State of Virginia says: "The taxes collected in 1891 from white citizens were $2,991,616.241 and from the colored $163,175.67. The amount paid for public schools for whites, $588,561.87; for negroes, $309,361.15. Add $15,000 for colored normal and $80,000 for colored lunatic asylum. Apportioning the criminal expenses between the white and the colored peoplo in the ratio of convicts of each race received into the penitentiary in 1891, and it shows hat the criminal expenses put upon the State annually by the whites are $55,749.57 and by the negroes $204,018.99.”
of the desire of the colored people for education the proof is conclusive, and of their capacity to receive mental culture there is not the shade of a reason to support an adverse hypothesis. The Bureau of Education furnishes the following suggestive table:
Sixteen former slare States and the District of Columbia.
1876-77. 1877-78. 1878-79. 1879-80. 1883-81 1881-A2. 1882-83. 1853-84. 1881-83..
1, 827, 139 571, 506 $11, 231, 073
2, 773, 145 1,018, 659 $20, 208, 113 2, 975, 773 1, 118, 556 20, 821, 969 3, 110, 006 1, 140, 405 21, 810, 158 3, 197, 830 1, 213, 092 23, 171, 878 3, 402, 420 1, 296, 959 24, 890, 107 3,570, 624 1, 329, 549 26, 690, 310 3, 607, 549 1, 354, 316 27, 691, 488 3, 697, 899 1, 367, 515 28, 535, 738 3, 835, 593, 1, 424, 995 29, 170, 351
In 1890-91 there were 79,962 white teachers and 21,150 coloreil. To the enrollment in common schools should be added 30,000 colored children who are in normal or secondary schools. The amount expended for education of negroes is not stated separately, but Dr. W. T. Harris estimates that there must have been nearly $75,000,000 expended by the Southern States in addition to what has been contributed by missionary and philanthropic sources. In Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas annual grants are made for the support of colored normal and industrial schools.
The negroes must rely very largely upon the public schools for their education, and so they should. They are and will continue to be the most efficient factors for uplifting the race. The States, at immenso sacrifice, with impartial liberality, have taxed themselves for a population which contributes very little to the State revenues, and nothing could be done more prejudicial to the educational interests of the colored people than to indulge in any hostility or indifference to or neglect of these free schools. Denominations and individuals can do nothing more harmful to the race than to foster opposition to the public schools.
XII. A potential agency in enlightening public opinion and in working out the problem of the education of the negro has been the Jolin F. Slater fund. * In view of the apprehensions felt by all thoughtful persons," when the duties and privileges of citizenship were suddenly thrust upon millions of lately emancipated slaves, Mr. Slater conceived the purpose of giving a largo sum of money to their proper education. After deliberato reflection and much conference, lio selected a board of trust and placed in their hands $1,000,000. This unique gift, originating wholly with himself, anel elaborated in his own mind in most of its details, was for “the uplifting of the lately emancipated population of the Southern States and their posterity, by conferring on them the blessings of Christian education.” “Not only for their own sake, but also for the sake of our common country,” lie sought to provide “the means of such education as shall tend to mako them good men and good citizens," associating the instruction of the mind with training in just notions of duty toward God and man, in the light of the Holy Scriptures." Leaving to the corporation the largest discretion and liberty in the prosecution of the general object, as described in liis letter of trust, he yet indicated as “lines of operation adapted to the condition of things” the encouragement of “ institutions as are most effectually useful in promoting the training of teachers.” The trust was to be administered ' in no partisan, sectional, or sectarian spirit, but in the interest of a generous patriotism and
an enlightened Christian spirit.” Soon after organization the trustees expressed very strongly their judgment that the scholars should bo “trained in some manual occupation, simultaneously with their mental and moral instruction,” and aid was confined to such institutions as gave “instruction in trades and other manual occupations,” that the pupils might obtain an intelligent mastery of the indispensable elements of industrial success. So repeated have been similar declarations on the part of the trustees and the general agents that manual training, or education in industries, may be regarded as an unalterable policy; but only such institutions were to be aided as were, “with good reason, believed to be on a permanent basis." Mr. Slater explained “Christian education,” as used in his letter of gift, to be teaching, "leavened with a predominant and salutary Christian influence, such as was found in the common school teaching of Massachusetts and Connecticut," and that there was “no need of limiting the gifts of the fund to denominational institutions.” Since the first appropriation near fifty different institutions have been aided, in sums ranging from $500 to $5,000. As required by the founder, neither principal nor income is expended for land or buildings. For a few years aid was given in buying machinery or apparatus, but now the income is applied almost exclusively to paying the salaries of teachers engaged in the normal or industrial work. The number of aided institutions has been lessened, with the view of concentrating and making more effective the aid and of improving the instruction in normal and industrial work. The table appended presents a summary of the appropriations which have been made from year to year.
Cash disbursed by John F. Slater fund as appropriations for educational institutions.
[By Henry Gannett, of the United States Geological Survoy.] The statistics of occupations 1sed in this paper are from the census of 1890, and represent the status of the race on June 1 of that year. The census takes cognizance only of “gainful” occupations, cxcluding from its lists housewives, school children, men of leisure, etc. Its schedules deal only with wage earners, those directly engaged in earning their living.
In 1890, ont of a total population of 62,622,250, 22,753,884 persons, or 31.6 per cent, were engaged in gainini occupations. Of the negroes, including all of mixed negro blood, numbering 7,470,040, 3,073,123, or 41.1 per cent were engaged in gainful occupations. The proportion was much greater than with the total population, This total population, however, was composed of several diverse elements, including, besides the negroes themselves, the foreign born (of which a large proportion were adult males), and the native whites. The following table presents the proportions of each of these elements which were engaged in gainful occupations:
Per cent. Total population.
35.5 Native whites.
31.6 Foreign born
55. 2 Negroes....
41.1 The diagram No. 1 sets forth these figures in graphic form. The total area of the square represents the population. This is subdivided by horizontal lines into rectangles representing the various elements of the population, and the shaded part of each rectangle represents the proportions engaged in gainful occupations.
The proportion was greatest among the foreign born because of the large proportion of adults, and particularly of nuales, among this element. Next to that, the proportion was greatest among the negroes, being much greater than among the whites collectively, and still greater than among the native whites.
Classifying the wage earners of the country in respect to race and nativity, it appears that 64.5 per cent were native whites, 22 per cent were of foreign birth, and 13.5 per cent were negroes.
Analyzing the statistics of occupation by sex, it is discovered that the proportion of native white inales who had occupations was 53.4 and of females 9.4 per cent. The corresponding proportion of male negroes was 56.3 per cent and of femalo negroes 26 per cent. The male negroes were slightly more fully occupied than were the native whites, while among females the proportion of wage earners was much greater. The difference between native whites and negroes in the proportion of wage earners was, therefore, due mainly to the fuller occupation of women. To put it in another form: Out of every 100 native whites who pursued gainful occupations, 85 were males and 15 were females; of every 100 negroes, 69 were males and 31 were females. Indeed, a larger proportion of women pursued gainful occupations among negroes than in any other class of the population.
CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS. The primary classification of occupations made by the census recognized five great groups, as follows: (1) Professions, (2) agriculture, (3) trade and transportation, (4) manufactures, (5) personal service. These titles are self explanatory, with the possible exception of the last class, which is mainly composed of domestic servants.
The following table shows the proportion of the negro wage earners engaged in each of these groups of occupations. In juxta position, for comparison, are placed similar figures for the native white and the foreign born:
Similar facts are shown by diagram No. 2. In this the total area of the square represents the number of persons in the country pursuing gainful occupations. This is divided into rectangles by horizontal lines, the rectangles being proportioned respectively to the numbers of the native whites, the foreign born, and the negroes. The subdivision of these rectangles by vertical lines indicates the proportion in each group of wage earners.
The most striking facts brought ont by this table and diagram are that only a trifling proportion of the negroes were in the professions, that much more than onehalf were farmers, and nearly one-third were engaged in personal (mainly domestic) service. Indeed, over seven-eighths of them were either farmers or servants. The proportions engaged in trade and transportation and in mannfactures were very small. In respect to the farming class, they contrasted sharply with the foreign born. In trade and transportation and in manufactures the contrast was even greater, in the contrary direction. The foreign born contained a much larger proportion of professional men.
Comparing the negroes with the native whites, equally interesting contrasts appear. Professional men were much more numerous among whites than among negroes. The proportion of the farming class, although much smaller, was nearer that of the negroes than was the same class among the foreign born. In trade and transportation and in manufactures the native whites had much greater proportions, while in personal service the proportion was much less than that of the negroes.
MALE AND FEMALE WAGE EARNERS. It will be interesting to analyze these figures further. The following table classifies negro wage earners by occupation and by sex, giving for each sex the percentage engaged in each group of occupations :
2 2.8 52. 1
DIAGRAM No. 1.- Proportion of the population and its elements, which were engaged in
gainful occupations in 1890.
DIAGRAM No. 2.-Classification of the wage-earners by race and nativity and by oecu
These figures are also illustrated by diagram No. 3, the area of which represents all negro wage earners. The two rectangles into which it is divided represent the males and females; each of these is subdivided into rectangles representing the number in each group of occupations. Of the male negro wage earners, more than three-fifths were farmers and a little less than one-fourth were servants. The two classes jointly accounted for nearly 85 per cent of all.
DIAGRAM No. 3.-Classification of negro wage-earners by sex and occupation.
Of the females, considerably less than one-half were farmers and more than onehalf were servants—the two classes together accounting for 95 per cent of all. This large proportion of female negro farmers was doubtless made up in the main of women and female children employed in the cotton fields.