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he was touched and gratified by tho honor which camo to him in connection with his great gift to benevolence, he did nothing to invoke it or to stimulato it. He remained amidst it all the samo quiet, reserved, unostentatious citizen. Ile was to thoso who knew him well a most delightful and resourceful conversationalist. His breadth of view, his versatility, his familiar acquaintance with affairs and men, with questions of finance, politics, and religion, his taste for art, his knowledge of the worle gained from travel, made his companionship delightful to those who shared it.

His interest in and gifts to benevolence antedated his later beneficence. Great gifts are never a bit of pure extemporization. Great things are not done on the spur of the moment. Those who dovelop unexpected resources on great occasions or show themselves capable of conspicuous sacrifices or services have had in advance their rehearsals. The noblest philanthropies are not extemporized or wrung forcibly from their authors by the stern importunity of death. Even legacies have generally a background of practical benevolence. Mr. Slater has given wisely and generously to objects that commended themselves to him. Many of these gifts were in the public eye, but it the testimony of his nearest friends that he gavo with larger liberality than the public could be aware of, with simplicity, and without ostentation, responding to cases of distress and suffering generously, but in such fashion as to conceal the giving hand.

But the conspicuous act of his life with which the public had most concern is of course the creation of the foundation for industrial education among the freedmen. Much that had gone before in bis life had been leading up to this princely gift. lle had always manifested a profonud interest in education, had given largely, and had projected generous measures for educational work in the community, which, however, were yielded in the interest of his larger purpose. His interest in local education has been most worthily commemorated by the splendid memorial building erected in his honor by his son in connection with the Norwich Free Academy. Mr. Slater realized, and as liis fortune grew was oppressed with, the sense of the responsibility of wealth, and plannel long in advance to give in bulk to some worthy objeet of benevolence; and he resolved to execute this purposo in lifo rather than by bequest. The issues of the great civil war which unloosed the fetters of the slave, but which did not quality lim for the responsible duties of citizenship, gavo Mr. Slater his great opportunity. Ho thouglit this problem through. Ile ball been loyal, patriotic, and generous in his gifts when the struggle was upon the nation, and he rejoiced in the successful outcome; but here was a new field and an unlimited opportunity which ho resolved to appropriate. His plan originated wholly and without suggestion from others with himself, and was claborated to its minutest detail in advance of its publicity. Standing at this distance and looking through the experimental test of more than a decade of its working, it is impossible to resist the conviction that it was statesmanlike, patriotic, and Christian in its conception and spirit. Mr. Slater was wise to see what we have been learning, that the exigent want for the emancipated race was practical and industrial education. Tlie higher eilucation has its offices to tako in exceptional instances, but for the masses of the race, so long submerged and held down to the low levels of intelligence where emancipation found it, the wisest, inost practical, and resultful plan for its elevation was that devised by the founder of this educational fund. It was the instinct of patriotism and of practical statesmanship to go to the weakest spot in the body politic to strengthen it, as it was the impulso of Christian thought to place the ladder of ascent within reach of the foot of the lowest man, who was most hopeless of self-recovery. Perhaps this is occasion for surprise. Mr. Slater might bave been patrician in his sympathies, exclusive and reserved in his associations. He had aptitudes and opportunities for aloofness from other than the privilegeal classes; ho might have been exclusive in his sympathies rather than inclusive. But his sympathies swept him around to the opposite pole from that on which he stood. IIe crossed the whole diameter of society to find the lowrest groove in our social and national life that he might do this conspicuous act of beneficence to the poorest of this nation's poor. Such examples of wise beneficence, which express the sympathy of the privileged for the unprivilegeil classes, do much to lighten the strain of selfgovernment in a nation like ours. They co much to allay the antagonisms of society and to bridge the chasm which opens between those zones of enormous wealth on the one hand and a degrading poverty which are drawn across the map of our modern life. When realth consents after this fashion to reach out helping hands toward the nation's poor and gives aid toward self-help, then many of the perplexing problems of modern socialism will be solved.

The wisdom of this foundation in its intent and aim can not easily be overstated. Not to create the conspicuous institution, that by concentration of forces focuses the public eye upon the giver, but rather and more wisely to distribute aid over a wide area, among a score or more of institutions; not to do the premature thing of providing foundations for university training for which the race has and for generations will have such scant preparation, but rather to make provision for training along those practical and industrial lines, which is the exigent need, in order to selfhelp toward the creation of the home and an ordered life in the social community. The verdict of his fellow-workers in this field of philanthropic effort, after watching tho experiment for a decade, is “Well done, good and faithful servant," and wo may well believe that in these words we hear a higher verdict than man's.

The reflex influence of Mr. Slater's beneficence, we are persuaded, has been great. Wo can not estimate the good we do when we do good. The effect of this splendid beneficence in stimulating philanthropic enterprise, passing as it has into the currency of popular thought as a quickening inspiration, its impetus to the noble army of workers for the uplifting of the race, has been enormous. Its inspiration and influence upon this greatest decade of giving in all the history of the world has been immense we are confident. Other millions have gotten into the wake of this one; and we believe other men to whom God has given great wealth, and into whoso hearts the passion of the cross has been poured, are to be moved by it to the breaking of their costly boxes of alabaster in the presence of the world's Christ. Such men are and are to bo the saving and tho enduring forces of the world. They may disappear from the eye; they cease to be seen as visible personalities, but they become immortal in the world as quickening influences. They walk in uncrowned regality through the ages. Their gifts, their lives, will be reduplicated as they spread by contagion the spirit of philanthropy among men; passing for a sort of fresh incarnation into the minds and hearts of others, who catch their spirit, and go to spread it and give it fresh forms and embodiments. Over such lives even death can havo no power.

Mr. Slater only lived to see the genesis of the work ho did, and of the forces lie started in the world. His great gift, at that time almost an unprecedented one, a wakened wide-spread interest. The news spread over the land and was borne across the sea. liundreds of letters congratulatory and appreciative poured in upon him. His friends gave expression to their admiration. His city, to whose name his beneficence had imparted a fresh eminence and fame, made him aware of her appreciation of the honor he had bestowed upon her; but amid it all he remained the samo unostentations, quiet citizen-grateful and appreciative of the honor which had come to him, but accepting it rather as an unreckoned-upon accompaniment of his unselfish act. He remained in the routine of his accustomed business, and in the fellowship of friends and neighbors, as if he had only done a duty or accepted a privilege which lay in the path of his accustomed living. Two years later the fatal diseaso laid its land upon him, when in the faith of a Christian he girded himself to go unto his Father's house. To many of us it was the summons to the presence of Him who was and is ever the Supreme Friend of the poor and the lowly, to hear His cominendation: “In as much as ye have done these things unto the least of these, my brethren, ye have done them unto me. Enter into the joy of thy Lord.”

VI.

DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE ORIGIN AND WORK OF THE SLATER

TRUSTEES, 1882 TO 1894.
Charter from the State of New York, approred April 28, 1882.

AN ACT to incorporate the trustees of the John F. Slater fund. Whereas Messrs. Rutherford B. Ilayes, of Ohio, Morrison R. Waite, of the District of Columbia, William E. Dodge, of New York, Phillips Brooks, of Massachusetts, Daniel C. Gilman, of Maryland, John A. Stewart, of New York, Alfred II. Colquitt, of Georgia, Morris K. Jesup, of New York, James P. Boyce, of Kentucky, and William A. Slater, of Connecticut, have, by their memorial, represented to the senate and assembly of this state that a letter has been received by them from John F. Slater, of Norwich, in the State of Connecticut, of which the following is a copy:

[Hero the letter printed below is inserted.]

And whereas said memorialists have further represented that they are ready to accept said trust and receive and alminister said fund, provided a charter of incorporation is granted by this State, as indicated in said letter; now, therefore, for the purpose of giving full effect to the charitable intentions declared in said letter;

The people of the State of New York, represented in senate and assembly, do enact as follows:

SEC. 1. Rutherford B. Hayes, Morrison R. Waite, William E. Dodge, Phillips Brooks, Daniel C. Gilman, Jobn A. Stewart, Alfred H. Colquitt, Norris K. Jesup, James P. Boyce, and William A. Slater are hereby created a body politic and corporate by tho name of The Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund, and by that naine shall havo perpetual succession; said original corporators electing their associates and successors, from time to time, so that the whole number of corporators may be kept at not less than nine nor more than twelve.

Said corporation may hold and manage, invest and reinvest, all property which may be given or transferred to it for the charitable purposes indicated in said letter, and shall, in so doing, and in appropriating the income accruing therefrom, conform to and be governed by the directions in said letter contained; and such property and all investments and reinvestments thereof, excepting real estate, shall, while owned by said corperation and held for the purposes of said trust, be exempt from taxation of any and every nature.

SEC. 2. Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, shall be the first president of the corporation, and it may elect such other officers and hold such meetings, whether within or without this State, from time to time, as its by-laws may authorize or prescribe.

Sec. 3. Said corporation shall annually file with the librarian of this state a printed report of its doings during the preceding year.

SEC. 4. This act shall take effect immediately.

Letter of the founder.

To Messrs. Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio; Morrison R. Waite, of the District of

Columbia; William E. Dodge, of New York; Phillips Brooks, of Massachusetts; Daniel C. Gilman, of Maryland; John A. Stewart, of New York; Alfred A. Col. quitt, of Georgia; Morris K. Jesup, of New York; James P. Boyce, of Kentucky, and William A. Slater, of Connecticut.

GENTLEMEN: It has pleased God to grant me prosperity in my business, and to put it into my power to apply to charitable uses a sum of money so considerable as to reqnire the counsel of wise men for the administration of it.

It is my desire at this time to appropriate to such uses the sum of $1,000,000; and I hereby invite you to procure a charter of incorporation under which a charitablo fund may be held exempt from taxation, and under which you shall organize; and I intend that the corporation, as soon as formedl, shalí receive this sum in trust to apply the income of it according to the instructions contained in this letter.

The general object which I desire to have exclusively pursued, is the uplifting of the lately emancipated population of the Southern States, and their posterity, by conferring on them the blessings of Christian education. The disabilities formerly suffered by these people, and their singular patience and fidelity in the great crisis of the nation, establish a just claim on the sympathy and good will of humane and patriotic men. I can not but feel the compassion that is due in view of their prevailing ignorance, which exists by no fault of their own.

But it is not only for their own sake, but also for the safety of our common country in which they have been invested with equal political rights, that I am desirous to aid in providing them with the means of such education as shall tend to make them good men and good citizens-education in which the instruction of the mind in the common branches of secular learning shall be associated with training in just notions of duty toward God and man, in the light of the Holy Scriptures.

The means to be used in the prosecution of the general object above described I leave to the discretion of the corporation, only indicating as lines of operation adapted to the present condition of things, the training of teachers from among the people reqniring to be taught, if, in the opinion of the corporation, by such limited selection the purposes of the trust can be best accomplished; and the encouragement of such institutions as are most effectually useful in promoting this training of teachers.

I am well aware that the work herein proposed is nothing new or untried. And it is no small part of my satisfaction in taking this share in it that I hereby associate myself with some of the noblest enterprises of charity and humanity, and may hope to encourage the prayers and toils of faithful men and women who have labored and are still laboring in this cause.

I wish the corporation wbich you are invited to constitute to consist at no time of more than twelve members, nor of less than nine members for a longer time than may be required for the convenient filling of vacancies, which I desire to be filled by the corporation, and, when found practicable, at its next meeting after the vacancy may occur.

I designate as the first president of the corporation the Hon. Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio. I desire that it may have power to provide from the income of the fund, among other things, for expenses incurred by members in the fulfillment of this trust and for the expenses of such officers and agents as it may appoint, and, generally, to do all such acts as may be necessary for carrying out the purposes of this trust. I desire, if it may be, that the corporation may have full liberty to invest ite funds according to its own best discretion, without reference to or restriction by any laws or rules, legal or equitable, of any nature, regulating the mode of investment of trust funds; only I wish that neither principal nor income be expended in land or buildings for any other purpose than that of safe and productive investment for income. And I hereby discharge the corporation and its individual members, so far as it is in my power so to do, of all responsibility, except for the faithful administration of this trust according to their own honest understanding and best judg. ment. In particular, also, I wish to relieve them of any pretended claim on the part of any person, party, sect, institution, or locality, to benefactions from this fund that may be put forward on any ground whatever, as I wish every expenditure to be determined solely by the convictions of the corporation itself as to the most useful disposition of its gifts.

I desire that the doings of the corporation each year be printed and sent to each of the State libraries in the United States, and to the Library of Congress.

In case the capital of the fund should become impaired, I desire that a part of the income, not greater tban one-half, be invested, from year to year, until the capital be restored to its original amount.

I purposely leave to the corporation the largest liberty of making such changes in the methods of applying the income of the fund as shall seem from time to time best adapted to accomplish the general object herein defined. But being warned by the history of such endowments that they sometimes tend to discourage rather than promote effort and self-reliance on the part of beneficiaries; or to inure to the advancement of learning instead of the dissemination of it; or to become a convenience to the rich instead of a help to those who need help, I solemnly charge my trustees to use their best wisdom in preventing any such defeat of the spirit of this trust, so that my gist may continue to future generations to be a blessing to the poor.

If at any time after the lapse of thirty-three years from the date of this foundation it shall appear to the judgment of three-fourtlis of the members of this corporation that, by reason of a change in social conditions, or by reason of adequate and equitable public provision for education, or by any other sufficient reason, there is no further serious need of this fund in the form in which it is at first instituted. I authorize the corporation to apply the capital of the fund to the establishment of foundations subsidiary to then already existing institutions of higher education, in such wise as to make the educational advantages of such institutions more freely accessible to poor students of the colored race.

It is my wish that this trust be administered in no partisan, sectional, or sectarian spirit, but in the interest of a generous patriotism and an enlightened Christian faith; and that the corporation about to be formed may continue to be constituted of men distinguished either by honorable success in business, or by services to literature, education, religion, or the State.

I am encouraged to the execution in this charitable foundation of a long-cherished purpose by the eminent wisilom and success that has marked the conduct of the Peabody education fund in a field of operation not remote from that contemplated by this trust. I shall commit it to your hands, deeply conscious how insufficient is our best forecast to provide for the future that is known only to God, but humbly hoping that the administration of it may be so guided by divine wisdom as to be in its turn an encouragement to philanthropic enterprise on the part of others, and an enduring means of good to our beloved country and to our fellow-men. I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your friend and fellow-citizen,

JOHN F. SLATER. Norwich, Conn., March 4, 1882.

Letter of the trustees accepting the gift.

New York, May 18, 1882. John F. SLATER, Esq., Norwich, Conn.:

The members of the board of trustees whom you invited to take charge of the fund which you have devoted to the education of the lately emancipated people of the Southern States and their posterity, desire, at the beginning of their work, to place on record their appreciation of your purpose, and to congratulate you on having completed this wise and generous gift at a period of your life when you may hope to observe for many years its beneficent intuence.

They wish especially to assure you of their gratification in being called upon to administer a work so noble and timely. If this trust is successfully managed, it may, like the gift of George Peabody, lead to many other benefactions. As it tends to remove the ignorance of large numbers of those who liave a vote in public affairs, it will promote the welfare of every part of our country, and your generous action will receive, as it deserves, the thanks of good men and women in this and other lands.

Your trustees unite in wishing you long life and health, that you may have the satisfaction of seeing the result of your patriotic forecast.

The thanks of Congress. JOINT RESOLUTION of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, approved

February 6, 1883. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatires of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the thanks of Congress be, and they hereby aro, presented to John F. Slater, of Connecticut, for his great beneficence in giving the largo sum of $1,000,000 for the purpose of “uplifting the lately emancipated population of the Southern States and their posterity by conferring on them the blessings of Christian education."

SEC. 2. That it shall be the duty of the President to cause a gold medal to be struck with suitable devices and inscriptions, which, together with a copy of this resolution, shall be presented to Mr. Slater in the name of the people of the United States. JOINT RESOLUTION of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, approvod

April 9, 1896. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatires of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the sum of one thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be needed, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to defray the cost of the medal ordered by public resolution numbered six, approved February sixth, eighteen hundred and oighty-three, to bo preseuted to John F. Slater, of Connecticut, then living, but now deceased.

SEC. 2. That said medal and a copy of the original resolution aforesaid shall be presented to the legal representatives of said John F. Slater, deceased.

By-laws adopted May 18, 1882, and amended from time to time. 1. The officers of the board shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary, and a treasurer, chosen from the members. These officers shall serve until death, resignation, or removal for cause, and vacancies, when they occur, shall be filled by ballot.

2. There shall be appointed at each annual meeting a finance committeo anel an executive committee. The finance committee shall consist of three, and the executivo committee of five, the president of the board being, ex officio, one of the fivo.

3. Thero shall also be an educational committee consisting of six persons, three of whom shall be appointed by the board and three of whom shall be ex ofticio members, to wit, the president, the treasurer, and the secretary of the board.

4. The annual meeting of the board shall be held at such place in the city of New York as shall bo designated by the board, or the president, on the second Wednesday in April in each year. Special meetings may be called by the president or the executive committee at such times and places as in their judgment may be necessary.

5. A majority of the members of the board shall be a quorum for the transaction of business.

6. In case of the absence or disability of the president, the vice-president shall perform his dnties.

7. The secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings of the board, which shall be annually published for general distribution.

8. The executive committee shall be charged with the duty of carrying ont the resolutions and orders of the board as the same are from time to time adopted. Threo shall constitute a quorum for business.

9. The finance committee, in connection with the treasurer, shall have chargo of the moneys and securities belonging to the fund, with authority to invest and reinvest the moneys and dispose of the securities at their discretion, subject, however, at all times to the instructions of the board.

All securities belonging to the trust shall stand in the name of "the trustees of the Jolin F. Slater fund," and be transferred only by the treasurer when authorized by a resolution of the finance committee.

10. The secretary of the board shall be, ex officio, secretary of the executive committee.

11. In caso of the absence or disability of the treasurer, the financo committee shall have power to fill the vacancy temporarily.

12. Vacancies in the board shall be filled by ballot, and a vote of two-thirds of all the members shall be necessary for an election.

13. These by-laws may be altered or amended at any annual or special meeting by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the board.

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