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for a mission to tho Eskimos. The result of their exploration was the locating of a mission station named Bethel, 150 miles up tho Kuskokwim River.

On the 18th of May, 1885, á party consisting of Rev. William H. Weinland and Rev. J. H. Killbuck (Delawaro Indian) and their wives, with Mr. John Torgerson, the mechanic and lay assistant, sailed from San Francisco, reaching the mouth of tho Kuskokwim on the 19th of June. Being on the ground I appointed Mr. J. H. Killbuck teacher at Bethel.

At Killisnoo, 80 miles northeast of Sitka, a school was opened in January, 1886, with George B. Johnston as teacher. The same winter Mr. Louis Paul, a native, was sent to open a school at Port Tongass.

Having given the entire school year for 1885-86 to the organization of public schools in southeastern Alaska, I commenced early arrangements to make a trip to western Alaska during 1886–87.

The work of education in Alaska for 1886–87 was greatly hindered by the delay of Congress in making the appropriation. Until it was definitely known how much would be appropriated for education no plan of work could be arranged. Until the appropriation was actually made the office was left in doubt whether it would be able to enlarge the work, or merely continue existing schools, or disband them.

The appropriation was not made until August, 1886. In the meantime the trading vessels that sail from San Francisco to Bering Sea in the spring and return in the fall had all sailed, and with them the only regular opportunity of sending teachers and school supplies to western Alaska. To wait until the following spring would involve the delay of another year in establishing the schools. Under the circumstances there was no alternative but to charter a vessel for the work of the Bureau. This, in addition to meeting a necessity, enabled the Commissioner to secure reliablo information concerning tho educational needs of the principal centers of population · among the civilized Russians, Aleuts, and Eskimos of southern and southwestern Alaska.

With the commencement of the public agitation, which resulted in securing schools for Alaska, the Commissioner had sought diligently for reliable and explicit information concerning that unknown region. When, in 1885, the responsibility of establishing schools in that section was placed upon him he more than ever felt

the need of the information that was necessary for intelligent action in the school work. An application was then made to the honorable Secretary of the Navy, and he issued instructions to the commanding officer of the U. S. S. Pinta, then in Alaskan waters, to take the general agent of education in Alaska on a tour of inspection along tho coast. A combination of circumstances prevented the ship from making the trip.

The necessity which arose in the fall of 1886 of sending the teachers furnished the long-desired opportunity of securing the needed information.

The schooner Leo, of Sitka, was chartered, because the terms were lowest, and because the vessel bad auxiliary steam power, which enabled it to get in and out of harbors and through the narrow channels between the islands, where, without this auxiliary power, we would have been delayed weeks.

The cruise proved a stormy one, consuming one hundred and four days. Passing through the equinoctial storms, we encountered the early winter gales of that high latitude. We lost 2 sails, were stranded on a reef of rocks, nearly lost a sailor overboard, while repeatedly great seas washed completely over us.

Taking on board of the Leo Mr. John H. Carr and wife; Mr. W. E. Roscoe, wife and child; Rev. and Mrs. James A. Wirth, and Rev. and Mrs. L. W. Currie and child, together with their household effects aud provisions, also necessary school supplies, I sailed from Puget Sound September 3. Visits were made to Kadiak, Wood Island, Spruce Island, Afognak, Karluk, Akhiok, Ayakharalik, Kaguiak, Unga, Belskofsky, Unalaska, Jackson, Klawak, Tuxikan, Sitka, Killisnoo, Hoonah, Juneau, Douglas, Wrangell, Loring, and Port Tongass. At Unga, on the Shumagin Island, I landed Mr. and Mrs. John H. Carr with school books, desks, etc., for the establishment of a school. Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Roscoe were similarly landed at Kadiak; Rev. and Mrs. James A. Wirth were landed through the breakers at Afognak, and the Rev. L. W. Currie and family were landed at Tuzikan, at all of which places schools were established.

On the 1st day of July, 1886, a contract was entered into with Dr. William S. Langford, secretary of the Protestant Episcopal Mission Board of New York City, by which Rev. Octavius Parker, of Oregon, was appointed teacher, and directed to establish a school in the Yukon Valley. Being unable to reach his destination tho first season the school was opened temporarily at St. Michael on the coast. A similar contract was made with the officers of the missuonary society of the Moravian Church to establish a school at the mouth of the Nushagak River. Rev. Frank E, Wolff, of Wisconsin, accompanied by his family and Miss Mary Huber, were sent as teachers to that place. These schools, with the one at Bethel, 500 miles from each other, and central to a population of from 10,000 to 12,000 uncivilized Eskimos in western Alaska, were the entering wedges to the civilization of that whole great region-the beginning of better things. Prof. S. A. Saxman and wife were transferred from Loring, which school was abandoned, to Fort Tongass. The year 1887 was marked by the visit to southeastern Alaska of the Hon. N. H. R. Dawson, then Commissioner of Education; also the establishment by tho Secretary of the Interior of a Territorial board of education composed of the governor of the Territory, the judge of the United States district court, and the general agent of education. Under the new order of things a set of rules and regulations for governing the schools of Alaska was issued by the Secretary of the Interior on June 15, 1887. The year was also noted by the removal of some 700 civilized and christianized Tsimpshean natives, under the lead of Mr. William Duncan, from Metlakahtla, British Columbia, to Point Chester, Annette Island, Alaska; the colony was called New Metlakahtla.

Tho.school temporarily established the previous year at St. Michael on the coast of Bering Sea was removed to Anvik in the Yukon Valley. During the year a second school was established at Juneau for the use of the nativo children; considerable friction was developed by the attempt to unite the children of tho white and nativo population in the same school room. During the year a school building was erected by the Government at Killisnoo. This was the first school building crected by the Government in Alaska.

The native industrial training school, Sitka, Alaska, was established by the Woman's Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church, in 1880. In the absence of any public provision by the Government for needy orphans, they were freely received into the school. Small children whose mothers had died, and for whom there was no one to care, were also received. It becamo, a refuge for homeless and friendless waifs, for children fleeing for their lives from the tortures of witchcraft. It gave them a good home and a training that made them good citizens instead of allowing them to grow up vagabonds. It also became a reformatory to which the United States district court, not knowing what else to do with young offenders, committed them. It was the only place in Alaska where a young man could learn á trade. It also became the high school to which bright pupils in the various day schools, desiring greater advantages than their local school could afford them, were advanced. It also, to a limited extent, gave normal training to the first of the nativo teachers of the country. In 1884 it was made a contract school under the Indian Bureau of the Government, but in 1887 it was transferred to the care of the Burean of Education, with an enrollment of 186 pupils, representing 15 nationalities or tribes. During the year an English school and mission was opened at Yakutat by Rev. Adolf Lydell, representing the Swedish Evangelical Mission Union of tho United States. During the school year 1887–88, schoolhouses were erected at Sitka and Juneau, and the Government hospital at Wrangell refitted and made into a comfortable schoolroom. The school year 1887-88 was marked by the death of Rov. L. W. Currie, teacher at Klawack, the erection of a building for school No. 2 at Sitka, the transference of 2 boys and 4 girls from tho training school at Sitka to the East for education. Tho 4 girls were sent to the Ladies' Seminary at Northfield, Mass., at the expense of Mrs. Elliott F. Shepard. The 2 boys were cared for at the Indian school at Carlisle.

During the year 1888-89 the former school board of three was increased to fivo by the addition of the United States commissioner at Fort Wrangell and Mr. William Duncan, superintendent of the colony of Metlakahtla. In 1889–90, to take effect on the 1st of July, 1890, the Secretary of the Interior issued a new set of rules and regulations for the conduct of schools and education in the District of Alaska. Among the important changes made by the new rules was the discontinuance of the Territorial board of education, experience having proved that it did not work well, and a system of local unpaid school committees was inaugurated. Owing to thó growth of the work it was deemed arivisable to create the position of assistant agent. Mr. William Hamilton was appointed to this position. During the year comfortable frame schoolhouses and teachers' residences were erected at Kadiak, Karluk, and Afognak. At Douglas a substantial frame schoolhouse was erected, and at Chilcat a log schoolhouse.

of the Alaskan children in eastern schools Miss Frances Willard graduated at a young ladies seminary at Elizabeth, N. J., in June, 1890, and was the first to return to Alaska and take up teaching; she was appointed assistant teacher in the industrial school at Sitka.

Tho inauguration of schools in Arctic and subarctic Alaska among tho Eskimos was the special feature of educational work in Alaska for 1890-91. Hitherto the schools had largely been confined to the North Pacific and Bering Sea coasts of Alaska, togther with the valleys of the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak rivers. But in 1889 Commander C. H. Stockton of tho U. S. S. Thetis, who had recently returned from a cruise along the Arctic coast of Alaska, made a personal representation to me of the need of schools among the Eskimo settlements of that region. Upon reporting tho request to the Commissioner of Education I was authorized to visit the headquarters of the various missionary societies and confer with the secretaries of the same with regard to the establishment of contract schools in Arctic Alaska, with the result that the Woman's Executive Committee of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church, agreed to establish a school at Point Barrow, the northernmost point of land on the main continent of North America. Thé American Missionary Association of the Congregationalists agreed to establish a school at Cape Prince of Wales on Bering Straits, and the Episcopal Board of Missions at Point Hope, lying about midway between the other two. These comprised the three principal villages on that part of the coast. School buildings were erected at Cape Prince of Wales and Point Hope, and a room in the Government refuge station was secured for the school at Point Barrow.

In the spring of 1890, by permission of the Secretary of the Treasury and the courtesy of Capt. L. G. Shepard, chief of the Revenue-Cutter Service, and Capt. M. A. Healy, commanding the revenue-cutter Bear, I was able to visit the entire Alaska coast of Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean; also about 100 miles of the coast of Siberia, both south and north of the Arctic Circle. As the captain of the ship had been reqnested to take a census of the coast villages of that region, I had unusual facilities for reaching the larger portion of the people. My trip also enabled mo to attend in person to the locating of the teachers at Cape Prince of Wales, Point Hope, and Point Barrow, the erection of the buildings, and the providing of the necessary supplies. In visiting the various localities I found a great lack of sufficient food supply in the country. The ancestors of the present population had an abundant food supply in the whalo and walrus of the sea, and the fur-bearing animals of the land, but the destruction of the whale by the American whalers, and of fur-bearing animals by improved breech-loading firearms, had so diminished the food supply that the present inhabitants were slowly decreasing in number for want of food. Whilo coasting along the shore of Siberia I found a barbarous people similar to the Eskimo of Alaska with an abundant food supply because they had large herds of domestic reindeer. As it was impossible to restock the ocean with whale as a stream could be restocked with fish, the suggestion was very natural to introduce the domestic reindeer of Siberia into Alaska, teach the Alaskan natives the management and breeding of the deer, and thus not only produce a new supply but also lift the population a step forward in civilization, change them from hunting to herding, accumulating property, etc. Upon my return to Washington I made a report to the Commissioner of Education, which was transmitted to Congress, urging the adoption of this plan of introducing reindeer into Alaska.

During tho year a large, substantial school building was erected at Yakutat and a small school building at the Kako village on Kupreanof Island.

In 1891 I made my second annual tour to the Arctic, inspecting schools on the Alaska sido; also purchasing and transporting reindeer from Siberia.

The leading event of the year 1892 was the actual introduction of domestic reindeer into Alaska, an account of which is given in this report under the head of “Introduction of domestic reindeer into Alaska."

On January 10, 1892, Mr. C. H. Edwards, Government teacher at Kake, while endeavoring to protect the natives of the village where he lived from the landing of whisky contrary to law by some smugglers, was shot by them and a few days afterwards died. After the farce of a trial, the murderers were turned loose to continue their nefarious operations.

On the 29th of June, 1892, an industrial school for the instruction of Alaskan young men in the raising and breeding of reindeer was established at Port Clarence, near Bering Straits. This school was named the Teller Reindeer Station, and on the 4th of July the first reindeer for the herd were landed at this station from the revenue cutter Bear.

On May 1, the Hon. James Sheakley, who had been local superintendent of schools in southeastern Alaska for the past three years, resigned, and Mr. William A. Kelly was appointed in his place.

On the 19th of Angust, 1893, Mr. Harrison R. Thornton, teacher at Cape Prince of Wales, was shot with a bomb gun in the hands of two or three hoodlum young men, who had been debarred the privileges of the school because of misbehavior. Tho young men wore immediately shot by their relatives and neighbors, as the only method the villagers had of showing their abhorrence of the deed.

On February 18 the schoolhouse at Killisuoo was discovered to be on fire, and burned to tho ground. On account of the smallness of the appropriation for schools, the building could not be rebuilt, and the school for the time being was closed.

In the spring of 1894 I secured seven families of Norway Lapps and sent them to the reindeer station, to take the places of teachers previously secured in Siberia, a fuller account of which is found under the head of "Reindeer.” During the summer and fall of 1895 school buildings were erected at Unalaska and Saxman. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours,

SHELDON JACKSON, General Agent Education for Alaska.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE SOCIAL UNIT IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF

THE UNITED STATES.1

Early inclusion of school afairs in New England as a part of the local civil affairs of the " town."Birth of the district community system as population dispersed itself in the wilderness. The form of administration this community system assumed when the boundaries of the "town" again became those of the school disirict (township system").—The form of school administration in the Southern States upon the introduction of public schools after the close of the civil war (county district system).-The members of the school community.--Its area.- Its functions.

I. THE ORIGIN OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT. At ono time or another an institution has appeared, and in tho great majority of cases still exists, in almost all of the States of the Union which is probably the most communistic as woll as democratic feature of our political institutions and is certainly the smallest minor civil division of our system. This institution may bo called generically the school community in the United States. Its communistic feature is that wealth and occupation are taxed for the support of schools irrespective of the benefit directly derived by the individual owner or laborer and its democratic feature is that the component members of this school community form or originally formed a legislature for school affairs which votes to tax itself and elects persons to manage its affairs during the intervals elapsing between its meetings. It is evident that such a community could come into existence, at least spontaneously, only in an environment marked by the absence of well defined and acknowledged shades of social standing;? for a symmetrical and homogeneous organization of public education, a very democractic process, if left to develop freely is sadly impeded in a State whoso population has in the course of timo been segregated into nobility, gentry, trades-people, yeomen, and wanderers in search of work, as in England in the times of Henry VIII and Elizabeth, or of nobility, professional persons, tradesmen, and peasantry, as in France or Germany before the French Revolution.

There is considerable probability in the assumption that the education of the peoplo first became an affair of political self-government in the Puritan or religious commonwealth of the New World. Every "township”3 of 50 householders was required to appoint a teacher who was to be paid by the parents or masters of those who received instruction, or by the inhabitants in general by way of supply as "tho major part of those who order the prudentials of the town shall appoint.” Here for practical purposes is first connected the word township with school affairs.

In 1636 the general court of Massachusetts gavo public sanction to the township, an institution which had become spontaneously the political unit of the colony. In New England, as a rule, entire communities settled down and erected at onco a township, which was not merely an aggregation of human beings nor a mere municipal organization, but a well-defined and represented political entity. It became a body corporate as well as politic, could possess and dispose of property, could sue and be sued. But it was a close corporation. Not residence but votes gave

By Mr. Wellford Addis, specialist in the Burean. ? It is noticeable how the exceptions to this remark in past times originally appeared as ono passed southward from New England. In Pennsylvania, for instance, the constitution of 1790 contained the following provision: "The legislature shall provide for the establishment of schools in such manner that the poor may bo taught gratis." This provision was repeated in the constitution of 1838. Mr. Wickersham refers to the provision as an "objectionable policy of educating the poor as a class." Hist. El. in Pennsylvania, p. 276.

"It will be observed that this old law calls the New England town a township. It was so in Eng. land, the word town and township being used interchangeably.

* Palfrey, Compendious History of New England, Vol. I, p. 172.
5 Lodge, English Colonies in America, p. 414; Palfrey, Vol. I, p. 172.
6 Palfrey, Vol. I, p. 274-276.

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