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and were reasonably sure of a pernianent success in the great enterprise of educating their own people. But more than one decade was to pass before either of them came in sight of their splendid achievements in popular education during the past quarter of a century.

The State of Michigan alone was an exception to this record because of the delay of its final settlement until the earlier conflict of the organization of the northwestern country had passed by. Being chiefly settled by colonists from New England, western New York, and northern Ohio, who brought with them their favorite idea of popular education and the actual common school of the earlier years; being also greatly favored by the first continuous line of transportation between the Northeast and the Northwest through the Erio Canal, and the introduction of steam navigation on the Great Lakes, Michigan was able to begin at the point where its older and more southerly neighbors had left off. There was never in this State any real struggle for the establishment of the common school such as we have recorded in its three neighbors, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Here, first, the wise policy of an effective correlation of all departments of public instruction was introduced and carried out with a vigor and public spirit that has placed Michigan high up on the roll of American States. Although, notably in Massachusetts and Virginia, and in less degree in New York and some of the later sixteen Commonwealths, State aid had been obtained for the earlier colleges; and, probably, the intention of the founders of Harvard was that it should become a State institution; and in the five new States beyond the Alleghanies a fair beginning had been made in the direction of establishing a State university founded on the land grant of Congress; yet in Michigan this policy was most fully apprehended and, from the first, carried out in an intelligent and successful manner. As a result, the University of Michigan now ranks all the State universities and maintains an enviable companionship with the most celebrated of the original foundations of the East; being in some ways the rival of them all and, in others, a model for the imitation of all establishments for the free higher education at the cost of the Commonwealth.

WISCONSIN.

The State of Wisconsin, last of this illustrious group of States organized out of the original Northwest, was, in succession, a portion of the Territories of Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. The early history of its occupation by the French missionaries and traders from Canada, and the thrilling story of its Indian vars is every way as romantic and suggestive as of either of its neighbors.

But in all this record there is little to interest the student of the American common school. Nosuch idea as is contained in this title ever seems to have entered into the head of the benevolent “Fathers," who, through almost incredible toils, perils, and sacrifices, often unto death, for more than a century, virtually held the spiritual, social, and, in large measure, the industrial and civic affairs of this immense region under their control. Many of these were men of more than ordinary culture, and all of large native endowment for the work in which they were engaged. In some degree they provided for the schooling of the small class of superior families that were content to abide in the wilderness; and they gave to the children and youth of the “common people," and even to the Indians, the benefit of the regulation church catechizing, in some cases with the addition of the most elementary instruction in letters. But in neither the original civil nor educational government of the French provinces in the Canadas or Louisiana was there any real intention or practice of educating the masses of the people up to the self-respecting and self-helping conditions of their neighbors, the British provinces along tlie southern border.

The actual settlement of Wisconsin was delayed even beyond that of Michigan, of which it was, up to 1836, the “wilderness” portion. In 1818 the two counties of Brown and Crawford included its entire area of 54,450 square miles. In 1823 the Territory was first made a separate judicial district. In 1834 there were less than 5,000 people within its borders. Milwaukee was founded in 1835 and in this year the Territory sent its first delegate, George W. Jones, to Congress, and assumed its proper condition of separate Territorial existence in 1836. In 1836 the first Territorial legislature held its session, and in that year the first public school was opened, taught by Mr. West in Milwaukee. In 1838 the legislature took up its residence in the beautiful capital city of Madison, and in 1841 J. D. Doty was appointed governor. In 1846 the people voted on the decisive change to Statehood, and in 1848 Wisconsin was admitted to the Union-seventeenth of the new and thirtieth of the entire group of American Commonwealths. There were but 10,000 people in the Territory in 1836; but twelve years later, on its admission to the Union, there were 210,000.

The beginning of the common school in Wisconsin, in 1836, was made under the Michigan Territorial law. In 1836 the State University was nominally established by the dedication of two townships of Government lands, 46,000 acres, as its endowment, and the choice of Madison as its seat. Its original organization followed that of Michigan, and included the impracticable New York and Georgia scheme of making the university the working hand, instead of the crown, of the entire public school system; including, also, the establishment of subordinate schools and a board of examiners for them. At the beginning, apparently without serious debate, tho public school system was rescued from all ecclesiastical entanglements by a declaration of absolute religious freedom in its administration.

In the first constitution of the State we read:

ARTICLE X.-Education. Sec. 1. The supervision of public instruction shall be vested in a state superintendent and such other officers as the legislature shall direct. The State superintendent shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the State, in such manner as the legislature shall provide; his powers, duties, and compensation shall be prescribed by law: Provided, That his compensation shall not exceed the sum of twelve hundred dollars annually.

SEC. 2. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to the State for educational purposes (except the lands heretofore granted for the purposes of a university), and all moneys and the clear proceeds of all property that may accrue to the State by forfeiture or escheat, and all moneys which may be paid as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws, and all moneys arising from any grant to the State where the purposes of such grant are not specified, and the five hundred thousand acres of land to which the State is entitled by the provisions of an act of Congress entitled "An act to appropriate the proceeds of the sales of the public lands and to grant preemption rights,” approved the fourth day of September, one thousand eight

hundred and forty-one, and also the five per centum of the net proceeds of the public lands to wbich the State shall become entitled on her admission into the Union (if Congress shall consent to such appropriation of the two grants last mentioned), shall be set apart as a separate fund, to be called the school fund, the interest of which, and all other revenues derived from the school lands, shall be exclusively applied to the following objects, to wit:

1. To the support and maintenance of common schools in each school district and the purchase of suitable libraries and apparatus therefor.

2. The residue shall be appropriated to the support and maintenance of academies and normal schools and suitable libraries and apparatus therefor.

3. The legislature shall provide by law for the establishment of district schools, which shall be as nearly uniform as practicable; and such schools shall be free and without charge for tuition to all children between the ages of four and twenty years, and no sectarian instruction shall be allowed therein.

4. Each town and city shall be required to raise by tax, annually, for the support of common schools therein, a sum not less than one-half the amount received by such town or city, respectively, for school purposes from the income of the school fund.

5. Provision shall be made by law for the distribution of the income of the school fund among the several towns and cities of the State, for the support of common schools therein, in some just proportion to the number of children and youth resident therein between the ages of four and twenty years, and no appropriation shall be made from the school fund to any city or town for the year in which said city or town shall fail to raise such tax, nor to any school district for the year in which a school shall not be maintained for at least three months.

6. Provision shall be made by law for the establishment of a State university at or near the seat of the State government, and for connecting with same, from time to time, such colleges, in different parts of the State, as the interests of education may require. The proceeds of all lands that have been or may hereafter be granted by the United States for the support of a university shall be and remain a perpetual fund, to be called the "university fund,” the interest of which shall be appropriated to the use of a State university, and ro sectarian instruction shall be allowed in said university.

7. The secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney-general shall constitute a board of commissioners for the sale of the school and university lands and for the investment of the funds arising therefrom. Any two of said commissioners shall be a quorum for the transaction of all business pertaining to the duties of their office.

8. Provision shall be made by law for the sale of all school and university lands after they shall have been appraised, and when any portion of such lands shall be sold, and the purchase money shall not be paid at the timo of the sale, the commissioners shall take security by mortgage upon the land sold for the sum remaining unpaid, with seven per cent interest thereon, payable annually at the office of the treasurer. The commissioners shall be authorized to execute a good and sufficient conveyance to all purchasers of such lands, and to discharge any mortgages taken as security when the sum due thereon shall have been paid. The cominissioners shall have power to withhold from sale any portion of said land when they shall deem it expedient, and shall invest all moneys arising from the sale of such lands, as well as all other university and school funds, in such manner as the legislature shall provide, and shall give such security for the faithful performance of their duties as may be required by law.

In 1850, at the second session of the State legislature, a complete system of public schools was established by law and a State superintendent of education appointed. The second report of Superintendent Root, in 1851, shows a phenomenal increase of interest during the first term of his administration. There were then 29 counties and 339 towns in the State; 1,800 entire and 700 partial school districts; 2,200 places where public school work was actually going on, with 68,000 children enrolled ; 67 per cent of the school population in some sort of attendance five months in the year; men teachers receiving $17 and women $8 per mouth. There was $173,000 invested in 1,223 schoolliouses. There were also 87 private schools in the State, in which 3,500 pupils were instructed. The Stato school fund at that early period of its development amounted to $538,000, with an income of $17,000, about half a dollar a year to each child. Ten per cent of the State fund was appropriated for school libraries. This was the first response of Wisconsin to the new departure of its earliest State legislature in abolishing all Territorial statutes and inaugurating a complete system of instruction for the Commonwealth.

With this splendid record of the fifth and last of tho original Nortlı western States admitted to the Union, we suspend the attractive task of telling the story of the great development of popular education in the Northwest.

CHAPTER XXXIX.

THE AMERICAN COMMON SCHOOL IN NEW ENGLAND

FROM 1790 TO 1810.

By Rev. A. D. MAYO, M. A., LL. D.

In a speech in the British Parliament, on the “Government plan of education," in 1847, Thomas Babington Macaulay said: “Illustrious forever in history were the founders of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; though their love of freedom of conscience was illimitable and indestructible, they could see nothing servile or degrading in the principle that tho State should take upon itself the charge of the education of the people."

We have traced the New England idea of universal education from its incorporation in the earliest colonial law of 1642 till the formation of the constitution of the State of Massachusetts, in 1780, the first time the duty of tho Stato to educate the whole people was placed in the written fundamental law of a Commonwealth. Beginning now with Massachusetts, wo are to follow the working out of this original ideal through what may be called the period of conflict; for through the first half century of the Republic the great enterprise, so bravely inaugurated and persisted in for one hundred and fifty years by the foremost colonies of New England, of schooling the entire population by the aid of a people's government, found itself beset with new difficulties and somewhat arrested in its logical development. No study can be more instructive in the peculiar method by which a characteristic American State, by means direct and indirect, encounters, deals with, and finally overcomes a great public peril than the story of tho American common school during this most critical period in its career. For it must be evident to every careful student of the national history that had this fundamental institution of the New England civilization gone down in the struggle, the final establishment of any satisfactory scheme of universal education for the whole people of the United States would have either been an impossibility or have suffered an “indefinite postponement."

The victory in the war for independence and the mighty effort of organizing the new nationality of the United States were not achieved without the reaction on society, inevitable from every supreme effort of human nature. One of the most important of these results was the final breaking up of the virtual unanimity of religious belief and ecclesiastical administration which, for almost two centuries, had held the New England people in a grip of iron, and was tho central inspiration of all activities in church, stato, education, and social life. Even before the breaking out of the war the indications of this great change were apparent. Indeed, after the first forty years in the Massachusetts colony, the attempt to found a government on a theocracy of the Old Testament pattern had been abandoned with the abolition of the religious test of the suffrage. There still remained a personal tax imposed on every citizen for the support of public worship; but in time this was modified by the permission to appropriate it according to the ecclesiastical convictions of the taxpayer. But this was not felt to be a hardship in a community as completely of one mind in religious matters as has ever been seen in any intelligent portion of Christendom. It has already been explained how, because of this unanimity in theological belief and church polity, the "religious question,” which beyond the Hudson River for generations prevented the establishment of any general system of public instruction, did not appear as an obstacle in the leading New England colonies. For, while, as a matter of course, there was a good deal of religious teaching in all the schools, it did not provoke dissent, and, below the organism of the ecclesiastical congregational polity, the people had their own way in all public affairs. Until the period now considered the schools were all essentially public, being to a greater or less extent supported by State or local aid and always dependent on the legislature for their final status.

But the prodigious agitation of the Revolutionary epoch, with the intimate mingling of the New England soldiery, the majority in the field, with the people of the other colonies, brought in a loosening of the bonds of religious uniformity and filled the land with dissent and contention in the most vital concerns of the public welfare. Already, half a century before the Revolution, Harvard College, the theological barometer of Massachusetts, had been shaken by frequent outbreaks of what were regarded by the extreme religious party as “unsettled and heretical views” in matters religious. The old severe type of student discipline, imported from the British schools, had been overthrown. The offensive discrimination in social standing in classing the students had been done away with. An important official of the university had been chosen from the laity. In every struggle between the more stringent and liberal elements in the election of president and members of the faculty the victory more and more inclined to the broad-church side. It was a striking fact that even in the days of complete outward unanimity of religious sentiment and in the relentless application of a severe creed even to the affairs of social life neither Harvard University nor the grammar schools that were tributary to it were bound by any theological test. It was the inevitable development of this ideal of the freedom of education that now for a time came in, and, by its sharp collisions with the principle of denominational control of schools, greatly embarrassed the entire system of public instruction in New England for half a century.

The first result of this movement was the dissent of a considerable branch of the New England people from the dominant church and the coming up of the Baptist, Methodist, and Independent organizations. The Revolutionary epoch left a great deposit of open and secret unbelief in any form of Christianity, which the intimate connection of the American people with France and the popular sympathy with the earlier phases of the French Revolution intensified. The extreme republican views of Thomas Jefferson and the rising party in public affairs that owed allegiance to him provoked a strong reaction in the New England States, and the Puritan clergy became, in large measure, his most decided opponents.

The first educational demonstration was the effort to present Yale College in Connecticut to the people as the theological rival of Harvard, and for several years this institution contained the larger number of students. As early as 1762 the attempt to establish a rival college in Massachusetts alarmed the friends of Harvard. But it was not till 1795 that the free school, supported by the legacy of Col. Ephraim Williams, who lost his life in the French war in 1755, appeared as a challenge to Harvard in Williams College, in the north west corner of the State.

Within ten years the remarkable religious movement that was the origin of the American Foreign Missionary Society gave to this new college, on the far-off border of the State, a name and fame it has never lost. Later came the establishment of Amherst College, in the valley of the Connecticut, in the year 1818, developed also from an academy founded in that beautiful village as early as 1813. Both these new colleges, with Harvard, up to the year 1840 were to a greator or less extent the recipients of the State's bounty; and, while greatly extending the application of good culture to the people, were also powerful instrumentalities in the develop

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