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(1780-1847), reference may be made to a work by David Stow, a prominent Scotch Presbyterian educator before and through the second quarter of this century. This author states that the Scottish Church, in its polity, originally provided a minister and a schoolmaster and a staff of elders for every small rural parish of perhaps 1,000 Bouls. A grammar school was provided in each of the burgh towns, at that time small. In this duodecimo of 474 pages, training is emphasized as distinguished fronı teaching, and Bible lessons are everywhere made fundamental.
The Scotch were this trained in sympathy with the idea of religious instruction in elementary parish schools, though the system of parochial schools had been limited to the rural communities. Scotland has had a state church, Presbyterian in form. In 1813 a strong element withdrew and became the Free Church of Scotland, without modification of creed, on account of what were deemed encroachments of the crown in ecclesiastical matters. This Free Church has been supported by voluntary effort corresponding to conditions of church support in the United States.
In the words of Right Hon. Herbert Henry Asquith, in the debate on the second reading of the school bill pending for England and Wales (1896):
“In the ordinary schools of Scotland the elements of the Presbyterian doctrine are taught, Presbyterianism being the religion of the vast majority of the population of the country, and special provision being made for giving facilities for separato sehools for the minorities.”
Scandinaria.--- The Scandinavian countries are almost completely Lutheran. Everyone is required to attend school at a stated age, and religious instruction is a prominent feature of the work.
Europe as seen by Horace Mann.-The reports of certain men who have studied the schools of various countries give us comparative views of value in this connection. Horace Mann visited Europe (1843) before the establishment of a public-school system in England and before the revolutions that made the present Germany. He says:
“Nothing receives more attention in the Prussian schools than the Bible. It is taken up early and studied systematically.
In all the Protestant schools the Lutheran catechism is zealously taught, and in all the Roman Catholic schools the catechism of that coinmunion.
If the parents are all of one religious denomination, the teacher generally gives the religious instruction. Where a diversity of creeds exists the teacher usually instructs those of his own faith, and the Lutheran or the Catholic clergyman, as the case may be, attends at certain bours to give instruction in a separate apartment to those of his faith.
“In Holland all doctrinal religious instruction is excluded from the schools. The Bible is not read in them. Children are permitted to withdraw at certain hour to receive a lesson in religion from their pastors; but this is not required. It is optional to go or remain.
“In England, as there is neither law nor system on the subject of education, each teacher
does as he pleases. In the schools sustained by the church the views of the church, both as to religious doctrine and church government, are tanght, and sometimes, though not always, in the schools of the Dissenters their distinctive doctrines are taught. There are, however, a few other schools which are established on a neutral basis as between opposing sects. In these the cominon principles and requirements of morality and all the preceptive parts of the gospel, as contradistinguished from its doctrinal, are carefully inculcated.”
The leading German State was Prussia, and Prussian schools are those which have been most cited by travelers.
Great Britain is by law Protestant Episcopal in England and Wales, and Presbyterian in Scotland. In both ends of the island the forces of Dissenters, or Nonconformists, as all Protestants not of the Established Church are called, are strong. Catholics have a powerful organization in England. The effectiveness of schools in Scotland is closely connected with the churches.
| The Training System, the Moral Training School, and the Normal Seminary. By David Stow, eighth edition, 1850, p. 72.
England makes no claim to anything like a general public common school system prior to 1870, though public funds have been expended for education in some form for centuries.
Continental Europe as seen by Matthew Arnold, 1865.-Matthew Arnold in 1865 reported:
“The two legally established forms of religion in Prussia are tho Protestant (evangelisch) and the Catholic. All public schools must be either Protestant, Catholic, or mixed (Simultananstalten).
In general, the deed of foundation or established custom determines to what confession a school shall belong. The religious instruction and the services follow the confession of the school. The ecclesiastical authorities--the consistories for Protestant schools, the bishops for Catholic schools-must concur with the school authorities in the appointment of those who give the religious instruction in the schools.
Where the scholars of that confession which is not the established confession of the school are in considerable numbers, a special religious instructor is paid out of the school funils to come and give them this religious instruction at the school.
When the scholars whose confession is in the minority are very few in number, their parents have to provido by private arrangement of their own for their children's religious instruction.
“The wide acceptation which tho denomination Evangelical takes in the official language of Prussia prevents a host of difficulties which occur with us in England.
In all schools of the Evangelical confession Luther's catechism is used, and all Protestant boys of whaterer denomination learn it. Not the slightest objection is made by their parents to this. It is truo that Luther's catechism is perhaps the very happiest part of Lutheranism, and therefore recommends itself for the common a loption, while our catechism can hardly be said to be the happiest part of Anglicanism.”1
The reports of Matthew Arnold here cited were made at long intervals after that of Jorace Mann. Meantimo, Germany had been consolidated (1871). Prior to Mr. Arnold's last report (1886) Franco had secularized her schools (1882, 1886) and England had adopted something like a national school system (1870).
Matthew Arnold, special report, 1886.—The following is from Special Report on Certain Points Connected with Elementary Education in Germany, Switzerland, and Franco, by Matthew Arnold, presented to both llouses of Parliament in 1886, twentyono years after his report just cited:
“The article of tho Swiss constitution which establishes the obligatoriness and gratuitousness of the popular school goes on to say next: “The public schools shall bo capable of being attended by adherents of all confessions without injury to their freedom of faith and conscience. Whoever has seen the divisions caused in a 80-called logical nation, like the French, by this principle of the neutrality of the popular school in matter of religion might expect difficulty lere. Nono whatever has arisen. The Swiss communities, applying the principle for theniselves, and not leaving theorists and politicians to apply it for them, have done in the matter what they find suitable to their wants, and have in every popular school religious instruction in the religion of the majority, a Catholic instruction in Catholic cantons like Lucerne, a Protestant in Protestant cantons like Zurich. There is no unfair dealing, no proselyting, no complaint. In the German countries generally I have been struck with the same thing. In Germany tho schools are confessional, or, as we say, denominational; that is—for the sect ramifications of Protestantism are not regarded—they are Evangelical, Catholic, or Jewish. When there are enough children of the confession of the minority a separate school is established for them, but where there are not enough, and they are taught with the children of the confession of the majority, there is, so far as I could learn, no unfair dealing and no complaint. In Saxony, where the Catholics are a small minority-in round numbers, 73,000 to nearly 3,000,000 of Protestants—there aro confessional schools for Catholics, but of course many scattered Catholic children are attending the Protestant schools. Of these children the elder ones nust stay away from tho religious instruction; the younger ones may follow it if their parents please, and often do follow it. In the great town school of Lucerne I found about 400 Protestant children in class with 2,900 Catholics; the Catholic children receive their religious instruction at the school, the boys from the director of the institution, the girls from a priest; the Protestant children receive theirs out of school and out of school hours. But at the larve country school of Krientz, near Lucerne, I found that even in the head classes the few Protestant children were receiving religious instruction along with their Catholic schoolmates, the parents approving. The only case of religions diflicuity which came to my notice was at Zurich, where some excellent people, Evangelical Protestants, considering the Protestantism of the public training college and schools too broad and too lax, had founded by privato subscription a more strictly Evangelical college and school, which have been very successful.”
1 Schools and Universities on the Continent, p. 199.
Reports of R. Laishley.-Jr. R. Laishley spent 1883–1886 in an investigation of popular education in Europe and the United States in behalf of the Government of New Zealand. Ilis observations upon the United States show a keener perception of the situation than is obtained by ordinary visitors who land at New York, glance at the schools of Massachusetts, visit the national capital, and write their impressions of the "American system.” Mr. Laishley sees what many born in the country have yet to learn, that every State and Territory has an educational character of its own and that there is no comprehensive national system.
Mr. Laishley says: “The countries written of are Great Britain, France, Switzer. laud, Italy, Germany, Belgium, and the United States.
The religious and financial aspect of national education have especially engaged my attention.
“It is most seriously questioned whether the British, a de facto religious, system tends to diminish crime, and whether a secular one is not distinctly dangerous.
“It is not for me to enter here, however, into the questions as to (1) wletler religion is the foundation of morality or conducive to it, or whether morality can be taught without it, or (2) whether by teaching no religion a creed is not as arbitrarily taught as if Calvinism, or any other form of ism, were inculcated ?
“It suffices for my purpose to believe (1) that there should be on the part of a State great care that tlie utmost consideration be shown toward the religious feelings of all; (2) that no form whatever of merely secular instruction will satisfy the great majority who believe that education withont religion is impossible; (3) that thero will be, if there be not already, 'a strong reaction against allowing sectarian jealousy to cause numbers of the population to grow up without the simplest elementary knowledge,' and (1) that friction as between the State and religionists retards, if it does not prevent, the perfect working of any State educational system.
“And, if any proof were needed, surely the anticlerical agitations in Belgium in 1884 show the seriousness of the questions involved in the arbitrary exclusion of religious teaching from public schools.
“Great Britain.-Tho ordinary elementary day schools receiving State aiil are of two classes:
“(1) Voluntary, controlled by religious denominations, or other managers, but which receive an annual grant from the Government; and
“(2) Board, managed by the boards, which receive an annual grant, and also the amount derived from local rates claimed or levied by the boards in their respective districts.
“ The former class comprises nearly 76 per cent of all state-aided elementary day schools in England and Wales; but in order to obtain grants the schools must be conducted in accordance with the conditions required to be fulfilled by all elementary schools in Great Britain receiving state aid.
" It therefore rests entirely with the boards and managers to order and regulate, or prohibit, religious teaching.
“The restraining sections are (a) 'the conscience clause,' applicable to all elementary schools receiving stato aid; (b) the section prohibiting any religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination,' which affects board schools only, and (c) the proviso that no by-law can be made preventing the withdrawal of any child from any religious observance, or instruction in religious subjects, or requiring any child to attend school on any day exclusively set apart for religious observance by the religious body to which his parent belongs, which, of course, affects board schools only.
“By a return mado to the House of Lords, 1884, it appears that (a) in an overwhelming majority of board schools in England and Wales religious exercises take place, in most instances daily;
(b) the services generally consist of reading the Bible, with or without comments, prayers, and hymns;
but in some cases the Bible is not read.
“ France.—Education in all the national educational establishments is exclusively secular. And by the law passed in 1886'iu public schools of every description all instruction is to be given exclusively by lay men.' “Religious instruction must not now be given in schoolhouses;
optional in private schools. "Private schools
are subject to state supervision in respect of (a) morality, (b) sanitary arrangements, (c) the keeping a register of, and reporting, absences, and (d) so that the books used be not such as are contrary to the actual constitution or principles of government.
“ Switzerland.-Switzerland is a republic where there are no universal sympathies of race, language, or religion. The Swiss apparently have concluded (1) that the existence of such a republic, unless all its citizens are sufficiently educated, is an impossibility; and (2) that to secure such universal and sufficient education (a) compulsory-attendance laws and gratuitous instruction are necessary; (b) religion must be admitted as the basis of education, but consideration must be shown for the religious feelings of all; (c) there must be local government in all matters primarily affecting localities. “ Italy.-Italy is progressing rapidly in state education.
But state education in Italy is not, as yet, in that matured condition which warrants looking to it for profitable example.
“Its religious feature consists in the lay head masters conducting once a week, on Saturdays, a religious exercise in the great majority of schools, although there are some exceptions where this is entirely left ont of the programme. But even relig. ious instruction is only given to those children whose parents express a wish for it; and all the children may be exempt from it by going to school one hour later than orılinarily.
“In each province there is a school board uuder the presidency of the prefect, which board has the supervision of private as well as public primary and secondary schools in respect of sanitary and moral matters.
“ Roman Catholic schools.-In addition to state-aided and private schools there exist numerous primary and secondary schools established by the Roman Catholic Church which are gratuitous, well-attended, well conducted, and carried on unilor the presidency of the clergy. There, of course, religious instruction is a main feature.
"I ascertained (1) that the Roman Catholic authorities are not at all satistied with the system of state education in Italy, hence they have felt compelled to carry on their own free schools; and (2) that the principal grounds of their dissatisfaction are (a) that religious instruction is not, in state schools, the basis of education; (b) and when given, is not conducted as they approve, which defects are considered to have a most depraving effect upon the morale of the school.”
It is said, however, to be very rare that families refuse religious instruction. Nearly everywhere Jews, with a few Protestants, are the only ones to absent themselves.
Mr. Laishley also quotes a high authority on education at Rome, who thinks (a) far too many snbjects are taught in the stato schools, (6) that it would be infinitely preferable to have a few subjects taught thoroughly, and (c) that education should not be compulsory, but left to parental discretion.
Germany. -Mr. Laishley finds in Germany “(a) consideration for the feelings of virtually all in religious matters;' (b) local government, including regulation of religious instruction (subject to the protection of minorities), of direct taxation, of expenditure, and of administrative details; (c) religion (subject to certain conscience clauso provisions) considered as the basis of instruction, and therefore placed as the primary subject on elementary school programmes; (d) compulsory attendance laws; (e) thorough qualification of all teachers for private as well as for public schools, (f) and recognition of the great importance of gymnastic exercises.
“So that in Germany, as in Switzerland, we find friction between the State and the citizens in religious matters provided against.
“Belgium.-From recent changes in the Belgian educational system, and from the circumstances surrounding them, valuable lessons can be derived. It is, therefore, an opportune time for comment. It is requisite to remember that Belgium is a country where, at least nominal, Roman Catholics very largely predominate, and where the Roman Catholic clergy have great influence; that the state system in force under the law of 1st of July, 1879, was a secular one; and that the sole provision for religious instruction was that if parents wished their children to be bene. fited by the ministrations of the clergy, such ministrations could only be given (upon the application of the parents) before or after school hours—the principle adopted being that religious instruction should be left to the care of families and ministers. The result was that religious training in schoolhouses virtually amounted to nothing; and that the Roman Catholic authorities established primary schools, and added to the number of their secondary schools (écoles moyennes et colleges), all which were, and are still, largely attended. But there grew up in consequence a very bitter and deep feeling of hostility, created or fostered by the clergy, against the state system; and when the clerical party latterly obtained political ascendency, educational reform was carried out.
“It is unnecessary to detail the violent agitation, almost amounting to revolution, caused by the enacting of the new law; affording, it would seem, clear proof of the impolicy (to say nothing of the injustice, which, of course, is always impolitie) of a state identifying itself with a nonreligious or religious educational scheme, without providing that every consideration be shown toward the religious or nonreligious convictions of all its subjects.
“The recent act is strongly condemned by the Liberals, but it will certainly be maintained so long as the Conservative party are in power.
“The reform is an advance upon that of 1st of July, 1879, as more favorable to local government, especially in religious matters.
“The communes have now more power; for instance, when the inhabitants in a commune are unanimous respecting religious teaching, it is open to them to subsidize, as primary schools, clerical ones, and to thereby virtually abolish undenominational schools. Even when ratepayers are not unanimous, a minority of 20 fathers of families is entitled to claim that a school shall be established for the use of their children, where religious teaching according to the views of the parents may be conducted as a main feature in education, and under certain circumstances they can indicate one or more schools that they wish adopted; the sole conditions imposed by the state being that (a) the school must be established in a suitable place; (b) half at least of the teachers must have obtained diplomas, or have successfully passed an examination for teachers before a board organized by the Government; (c) the
1 At Berlin even the comparatively small number of Jewish pupils in primary schools are to be sup. plied with Jewish teachers for religion.