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summoned for having consigned milk to the same workhouse on the 22nd ult. which was adulterated with 14 per cent. of added water, and which was deficient in butter fat to the extent of 40 per cent. Mr. Ricketts, solicitor, prosecuted. Inspector Rouch stated that he attended the St. Pancras Workhouse on the evening of Sunday, the 18th inst., and awaited the arrival of the milk supplied to the institution by the defendants, who were the contractors. On four churns arriving in charge of a man witness took a pint of milk from one of the churns, placed it in a bottle, and afterwards submitted it to Dr. Stevenson, public analyst, who informed him that the milk contained 20 per cent. of added water, and was deficient in butter fat to the extent of 60 per cent. He stopped some more milk at the door of the workhouse again on May 22, ard on another pint of milk being examined it was found to have been adulterated with 14 per cent. of added water, and was deficient in butter fat to the extent of 40 per cent. The manager to the company, who said he managed the business for Mr. Arnold Goldie, made the defence that the company sold the milk as they received it from the country. Mr. Barstow said this was a very bad offence, and he should impose the highest penalty. He ordered the defendants to pay a fine of 20. on each summons, or 40/. in all, and costs.

UNWHOLESOME FOOD.

At the Newcastle Police-court, John Angus, dairyman, and Margaret Crow, shopkeeper, were charged with having exposed for sale fourteen rabbits which were unfit for human food. Mr. W. Hedley, inspector, stated that his attention was directed to the rabbits on the stall where

they were exposed for sale. He examined them, and found them putrid, and almost crawling with maggots, and totally unfit for human food. The inspector's testimony was supported by that of Mr. Armstrong, the medical officer of health, and the defendants, who had been previously convicted of similar offences, were now fined 5. and costs. At the same time and place John Roy, a butcher, was also fined 57. and costs for exposing for sale four sides and five pieces of veal in his shop in the market, the same being unfit for human food. The defendant had been fined for a similar offence in October 1880.

REVIEWS.

Legal Obligations in Respect to Dwellings of the Poor.
By HARRY DUFF, M.A.

THIS handbook is one of the series issued in connection
with the Health Exhibition, and is intended to point out
what are the provisions of the Acts of Parliament dealing
with the dwellings of the working classes. Much has been
written lately on the subject, and many speakers and
writers have advocated the necessity of sweeping legisla-
tion as the only way of getting rid of the unhealthy
dwellings which admittedly exist in many of our large
towns, Mr. Duff, in a work of ninety pages, gives an
abstract of the powers and duties existing already, and
indicates pretty clearly his opinion (which is shared by
nearly every one who has had occasion to study the
subject) that the evils which are complained of are due not
so much to the absence of legal powers for dealing with
them, as the negligence or inefficiency of those on whom
the duty of administering the law is imposed.

The powers of the Common Law as regards nuisances, and still more the powers given for their suppression by the Public Health Act for England generally, and the Nuisances Removal Acts, as regards the metropolis, are very large, and, if fully enforced would themselves be sufficient to obviate most of the evils complained of. they cannot work automatically; and, if neither parties interested, nor the local authorities choose to put the law in motion, a state of things which is forbidden may long go on unchecked. Mr. Duff points out that local

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authorities are ordered by law to appoint fit and proper persons to be medical officer of health and inspector of nuisances within their respective districts, and that it is evident that the words 'fit and proper persons' imply persons adequate in number as well as competent in experience to discharge the duties of the post. That nuisances are not detected and abated with greater readiness he attributes in great measure to the fact that these officers are too few in number for the work they have to do. Large numbers of benevolent people are voluntarily doing in the worst parts of London what the Acts define as the duty of inspectors of nuisances, going from house to house, endeavouring to discover the material causes which lead to misery and sickness, and bringing them to the notice of the medical officer of health. There is no lack of work for them to do, and the work which they do is nothing else than the work which the officers of health, or the local authority, by not appointing sufficient officers of health, have left undone.' In one respect the powers of the existing officers might perhaps be increased with advantage, viz., in the power of entering premises for the purposes of inspection and of ascertaining whether or not a nuisance exists calling for abatement. By the law as it stands at present, this can only be done between the hours of nine in the morning and six in the evening; and in case of nuisances caused by overcrowding the occupants are probably absent from the house, and the nuisance consequently less apparent than at other times. The law might perhaps be amended in this respect, but otherwise sufficient powers for dealing with nuisances already exist, and what is wanted is some means of obliging local authorities and their officers to put those powers in force wherever they are needed for the abatement of nuisances.

Mr. Duff devotes comparatively little space to the regulations as to cellar dwellings, new buildings, lodgings, and common lodging-houses; but he points out that under the regulations which have for some time past been generally enforced with regard to common lodging-houses, they have for the most part become healthy and comparatively respectable dwellings, instead of being the pestilential slums which they formerly were. Local authorities in the metropolis have now power to make by-laws for the regu lation of lodging-houses which are not common, and outside the metropolis may have the same powers if they choose to apply to the Local Government Board for them; and thus may, if they choose, apply to houses let in tenements regulations similar to those which have been found to work well in the case of common lodging-houses.

A great proportion of the book is occupied with an analysis of the powers given by the Labouring Classes Lodging Houses Acts, the Artisans' Dwellings Acts (Torrens' Acts), and the Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Acts (Cross's). Mr. Duff points out pretty clearly the scope of these different groups of Acts, and of what may be done under them. He shows how a good many of the evils dealt with by Torrens' Acts may often be more easily dealt with as nuisances, without having recourse to those Acts at all; and like most writers who have dealt with the subject he attributes the comparatively small results which have been achieved to the fear local authorities have of incurring the necessary expenditure.

We cannot point out further the scope of this work. It promises to be a useful publication as giving the lay reader a means of obtaining some knowledge of the law affecting unsanitary dwellings, and of calling the attention of the proper authorities to defects which require to be remedied. But the work does not pretend to be, and should not be considered, as in any way a digest of or an index to the various statutes and reported decisions which deal with the subject. Some references are given, but we think the work would be much more useful if there were more of them, so as to enable the reader to turn readily to the books which contain the laws in question. Besides the bulk of the work, which has been compiled by Mr. Duff, there is a preface by Mr. Cohen, Q.C.,

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AMONGST the numerous family of popular handbooks about health that have appeared of late, and the growth and multiplication of which the International Health Exhibition apparently fosters, we know of none that is so practically useful, so readable as the little book with the gay cover which Mr. Ernest Turner has issued through the agency of Mr. Batsford. Mr. Turner tells us in his preface that it was written somewhat hurriedly for a particular reason, and this may, perhaps, excuse amongst other things the absence of an index. But as the plea of haste is seldom of any avail to an author, and, in fact, sets him and his readers by the ears at the very beginning of their communion with each other, we trust that Mr. Turner, in the new edition which we are glad to hear has been called for, will take care to rectify the appearances of haste that crop up throughout the book.

Having said so much by way of blame, we have for the rest nothing but praise for the book. It is bright, chatty, readable, and complete. Mr. Turner is, as befits his reputation as a sanitary architect, perpetually on the alert to tell the intending householder what to do and what to avoid in every conceivable set of circumstances. We are only afraid that the searcher for the perfect house which Mr. Turner describes, with the proper aspect, the proper site, the proper construction, the proper disposition of rooms, the proper ventilation, and the rest of it, will have to give up his quest in vain in this London of ours, and will have to build a sanitary paradise of his own. Mr. Turner is not, however, destructive only; he is also constructive. He tells us, what few sanitarians deign to do, how to make the best of the circumstances in which we find ourselves, and from which only those who are indifferent as to the length of their builder's and plumber's bill can readily escape. He has a number of hints and suggestions, begotten of much contact with suburban houses and jerrybuilders, which bring back hope to the householder, racked with the torment that his drains have not two openings for ventilation, that there is something suspicious about the connection of his cistern with the water-closet, and that perhaps that patent ventilating contrivance in which he has invested may have after all a certain degree of merit in it, even if its perpetual irritating noise does jar sadly upon his ears. Novelty of matter was hardly to be expected in the book; novelty in treatment it most certainly possesses; and even if the householder who buys this book obstinately maintains a healthy scepticism about bacteria and ground air and traps, and the like, and takes what is given to him in the way of drainage and water supply, and ventilation, without a sigh for the practically unattainable, he will still be grateful to Mr. Turner, and have more than his money's worth in the two final chapters of the book, which deal respectively with 'House Hunters,' and 'Lessors, Lessees, and their Liabilities.' Mr. Turner's words of wisdom on this last most significant and pregnant subject deserve to be engraved in enduring brass, for the instruction and warning of those unhappy mortals who periodically come within ear-shot of the syren promises of the house agent of civilisation.

A SANITARY service has been organised in Servia, which consists of a general sanitary council, of medical officers appointed in different districts, and a sanitary department under the jurisdiction of the Minister for Home Affairs. The Government has recently instituted a Public Health budget.

NOTES ON BOOKS.

Sixth Annual Report of the Association for Promoting Holiday Colonies of Poor and Weakly Children at Frankfort-on-the-Main.

IN 1883 the state of the society's funds enabled them to send a larger number of children than in previous years to pass a month in the Vogelsberg, Odenwald, and Taunus mountains, famed alike for their invigorating air and picturesque scenery. Out of 647 children (272 boys and 375 girls) recommended by the managers of the several elementary schools, 203 (96 boys and 107 girls) were selected, after a searching medical examination, and distributed in fourteen colonies, six of boys, seven of girls, and one of Jewish children of both sexes, the numbers in each colony ranging from twelve to sixteen.

The heavy rains and unsettled weather of last summer seriously interfered with the hitherto unrestrained frolics and rambles of the children in the beechen glades and over the heather-covered hills of the Taunus; but several hours daily were spent in the open air, and visits paid by one colony to another. More attention was perforce given to indoor games and amusements, in which singing, with, in the case of two colonies, instrumental accompaniments, took a foremost place; while some more studious boys made collections of plants or insects, or very fair maps of the district from their own observations.

The good effects on the health of the children, even of those who returned to homes situated amid the most unfavourable surroundings, was as marked as ever-as shown by their increased weight and height. The total cost, including over 100/. spent in honoraria to the fourteen teachers, printing, and advertisements, was, as in former years, a little over two shillings per day for each child.

La Propreté de l'Individu et de la Maison. Par Dr. E. MONIN. Paris Soc. Franc. d'Hyg. 1884.

THIS pamphlet, which received the medal awarded by the Society, is a eulogy of cleanliness in the person and clothing, the houses and offices, the workshop and school; the consequences attending its neglect by the lower classes, especially agricultural labourers, are insisted on, and remarks made with reference to particular trades. But it is possible to weaken a good cause by overmuch advocacy; and though soap and water cost next to nothing, the ample wardrobes and the complete bathing arrangements recommended by Dr. Monin are beyond the means of all but the really affluent.

Cremation. By SIR H. THOMPSON. Third edition. With a paper entitled Cremation or Burial,' by SIR T. SPENCER WELLS, Bart., and the Charge of SIR JAS. STEPHEN. London: Smith & Elder. 1884. SIR H. THOMPSON very fairly discusses the whole question of burial or cremation from the points of view of utility and of sentiment, showing that whether buried or burnt every particle of the solids of the body must sooner or later become food for plants, which in their turn serve for the reconstruction of other animals. That this process, when slowly performed, is not without danger to the health of the living is denied by few; that it is perfectly free from danger when rapidly completed is even more certain; man may by coffin and vault delay the process, but he cannot defeat the designs of Providence; why, then, should he try to do so, and not rather aid them?

From the sentimental side it needs no argument to show that the religious ceremony may be made as solemn and impressive as that of earth burial; or that there are circumstances in which the funereal urn presents many advantages over the grave. The only plausible objection that has ever been brought against the practice is that it may serve, by precluding the possibility of exhumation, to conceal crime; but besides the fact that exhumation is rarely resorted to, the risk may be minimised, and, indeed,

in Italy it is already anticipated and obviated by requiring such a satisfactory explanation of the cause of death as to preclude the probability of any such necessity arising. Every exhumation is a witness to the slovenly manner in which the registration is performed, and the number of possible cases of foul play which may yet remain undis. covered under the present system.

The legality of cremation has been decided by Sir Jas. Stephen, and has been admitted by Parliament, although the latter might not think it convenient as yet to legislate on the subject.

A Dozen Papers on Disease Prevention. By CORNELIUS Fox, M.D. London Churchill. 1884. Reprints of Papers published or Lectures delivered by the Author in recent years.

THE position of the unfortunate medical officer who, if engaged in private practice may, in the performance of his duties, give umbrage to his best patients, or, if devoting himself solely to the work of his office, may find himself, like the author, turned adrift simply because the sanitary authorities were the offenders against the public health, is the subject of the first paper, which is illustrated by some amusing instances. It is extraordinary that this inducement to a mere perfunctory performance of his duties, or even worse, on the part of the medical officer, should be allowed by a Government that would not permit it in any other department.

Papers on the worthlessness of the returns of sickness at present supposed to be made by parish surgeons, and the worse than worthlessness of any inference drawn from a statistical employment of these, with suggestions for the compulsory registration of sickness; cases illustrating the propagation of infectious disease by tradespeople, and, ergo, an advocacy of the notification of such diseases; and a paper on the duty of utilising the rain supply as a source of drinking water to cottages in rural districts where the poor are often dependent on stagnant and foul ditches, form the subjects of the next two articles. A good paper on the dangers of coke as a fuel in stoves, especially those made of cast iron and standing out in the room, from the escape into the air of carbonic oxide, is valuable and suggestive; and in others Dr. Cornelius Fox discusses the etiology of diphtheria and enteric fever, and the examination of air and water, &c.

Hints How to Avoid Catching Fevers and other Diseases. Published by the National Health Society. Price Id. THIS neat little pamphlet of sixteen pages is another of those useful domestic sanitary publications that the National Health Society issues with so much industry and success. The directions given are couched in the simplest and plainest language, and they appear to be as complete as it is possible to make them without destroying their simplicity.

Organisation of Convalescent Aid. First Annual Report of the Convalescent Committee of the Charity Organisation Society, 1884.

THE Charity Organisation Society is making a most praiseworthy attempt to systematise the admittedly defective administration of convalescent relief, and the interesting report recently issued gives a very satisfactory account of the progress made in a work peculiarly appropriate for the action of the society. While there are numbers of persons in our crowded cities to whom even a brief visit to the country would be of the utmost benefit, there are many convalescent homes and kindred institutions languishing for want of patients as well as want of funds.

The newly-formed Convalescent Committee of the Charity Organisation Society, while utilising the subscribers' letters placed at their disposal, wisely determined to make independent arrangements with the various homes, and by prepayment to reserve beds for

longer or shorter periods. From the large number of convalescent cases coming under the notice of the several district committees there is no difficulty in filling vacancies as rapidly as they occur with deserving cases, selected after the careful inquiry which is the rule of the society. Upwards of 600 patients were sent to the country during June 1883 and the four following months, and the system is capable of indefinite extension. Indeed, it is suggested that a convalescent aid' system for hospital out-patients might advantageously be established upon this basis, thus avoiding the evils of indiscriminate charity, while affording a much-needed boon to a class by which it is now rarely attainable.

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It appears that the average cost per bed is about 8s. 6d. per week, or 25. per annum, and of this sum those patients whose means allow of it are required to repay the whole or part.

The Charity Organisation Society is to be congratulated there can be little doubt that funds will not be wanting to upon the success which has so far attended its efforts, and further so worthy an object.

NEW INVENTIONS.

THE NEW PATENT CEDAR FELT.

IN the SANITARY RECORD of March 15, 1882, a description was given of a new kind of paper felt, then recently introduced by Messrs. C. Davidson & Sons, Limited, the extensive paper manufacturers, of Morgie Moss Mills, Scotland, and Queen Victoria Street, E.C., which was adapted to a variety of useful purposes. A new description of felt has just been patented by the same firm, and called 'cedar' felt, an essence of that wood being incorporated in its substance. It has a distinct odour of cedar wood, and

it is claimed by the makers that it will retain the aroma for years, owing to the peculiar arrangement carried out in the manipulation of the felt. The new production is intended for laying under carpets and floor-cloths, and will render them proof against moths and other insects. The advantages to be derived from the use of paper felt under carpets are generally known and acknowledged, but by adopting the cedar felt, the feature of protection from the ravages of moths is added to that of increasing the durability of the carpets. This felt appears to be quite as cheap as brown paper, a poor substitute, though often made use of; and the cedar felt probably only requires to become generally known to be extensively adopted.

A NEW CHIMNEY AND VENTILATING COWL. NOTWITHSTANDING the numerous cowls and ventilating appliances extant, another constructed on different lines from any existing one has been invented by Mr. Frederick Leslie, M. Inst. C. E., and is manufactured by Messrs. Henry Marlow & Co., 127 Regent Street, W. It may be said without fear of contradiction that nothing produces so much annoyance in a household as a persistently smoky chimney, and there is probably no one thing on which more money has been spent in endeavouring to find a remedy. The patentee of the Leslie' cowl was requested to use his technical knowledge in inventing something that would secure freedom from smoke in a room in St. James's Hall, Piccadilly, the chimney in question having baffled all attempts to make it behave in a decent manner. Secretary of the St. James's Hall Company states that for years it was impossible to have an open fire in the room, although different grates had been tried, including ventilating gas stoves; and various appliances from time to time had been fixed on the chimney top, but all to no purpose. The most unfortunate feature in the matter was, that the room in question was that used by the musical artists before and after appearing on the platform. The result of

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Mr. Leslie's attempts is the cowl illustrated below, and from the hour it was fixed (last November) until the present time, it is affirmed that not the slightest amount of smoke has entered the room, and from being the worst retiring-room connected with any place of entertainment in the Metropolis, it has become, in the opinion of the artists, one of the best. As will be seen by the illustrations, this cowl has, at the upper end of the pipe, a series of truncated conical shells, mounted one above the other, the lowest one being fixed as a collar round the top of the flue pipe, and the others supported from it over each other, and parallel to it by four equidistant radial partitions. Level with the top of the uppermost one, an annular metal plate is fixed, the opening in the centre of this plate being

COMPRESSED AIR POWER.

ANY description of motive power which will enable the smoke and dirt and poisonous fumes associated with the use of steam to be dispensed with, will be one of the greatest boons possible to be bestowed upon such towns as Birmingham, and will at once inaugurate a distinct era of improvement in the direction of health, comfort and cleanliness. Therefore, any practical scheme that suggests such a possibility is worthy of encouragement and support The advantages indicated are some of those claimed for the new system proposed to be utilised in Birmingham by the Birmingham Compressed Air Power Company, whose Bill for the organisation of the necessary powers has passed

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somewhat larger than that at the upper end of the uppermost truncated cone, so that a space of about a half-inch wide is left all round between the parts. Finally a few inches over the top of the upper cone and parallel to the annular plate, there is another horizontal plate or disc which, if desired, may have a domed top to throw off the rain. The wind blowing against the parallel cone arrangement, causes currents of air to be directed upwards and outward between the horizontal plates at the top, and these currents carry with them the smoke ascending by the flue pipe. The radial partitions between the cones add much to the efficiency by concentrating the blast arising from the pressure of the wind on the windward side and directing it over the top of the flue-pipe to the leeward side. The cowl acts equally well as an exhaust ventilator. When fixed upon the offending chimney in St. James's Hall, the understanding was that if ineffective it was to be removed without cost to the company; it has been made, as it were, a test cowl by the inventor, and he has deferred its general introduction until thoroughly assured of its success; but so admirable has been its performances that the company have had others erected, and it is now in contemplation to fix a monster one over the central sunlight in the large hall as an exhaust ventilator. The writer has, through the courtesy of the Secretary, had opportunities accorded to him of visiting the room, on the chimney of which the cowl was first fixed, and of watching it. An excellent fire, exceptionally free from smoke, can now be obtained in the apartment, and it is stated that during the heavy gales last winter the same uniformity was observable. In fact, had the efficiency not been so decided, the company would not have ventured upon using more of the cowls. On such unimpeachable testimony, confirmed by the observations of the writer, Mr. Leslie's invention may safely be recommended to the notice of the public.

its third reading in the House of Commons. The principle involved is to centralise the production of power, which is transmitted from the central station wherever motive power is required in much the same way as gas and water are distributed. Though this will be the first application of compressed air in the manner and to the extent to which it is proposed to apply it in Birmingham, some experience has been gained in the working of the scheme in connection with tunnel-boring at Mont Cenis, St. Gothard, and other places, and in Paris, where compressed air has been some time in use for the working of a number of the public clocks. The scheme of the Birmingham Bill includes the three wards of St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, Deritend and Bordesley, where in March last year there were as many as 164 engines. Plant is to be laid down capable of providing 5,000 indicated horsepower. The cost of the buildings, plant, &c., is esti mated at 140,000l.; and the air will be supplied at a pressure of four atmospheres. There is no doubt that if the calculations of the promoters are but realised, the new system will be productive of profit to the company, a considerably cheaper motive power for manufacturers, and much benefit to the community at large.

THOMPSON'S SMOKE-CONSUMING FIRE

GRATE.

THIS grate, to which allusion was made in the SANITARY RECORD of March 15, has now assumed a complete form, and is being exhibited at the International Health Exhibithe prevention of smoke, and economy in coal, should be tion amongst the grates in action. Visitors interested in careful not to overlook it when walking through the Eastern Gallery. The inventor, Mr. Thompson, of Marquess Road, Canonbury, is not connected with the stove-grate trade, but, being concerned in a business in which heating and boiling appliances on a large scale are in daily use, his attention has for some time past been

turned in the direction of the economisation of fuel, and the prevention of smoke; he has thus been induced to study the question in connection with domestic grates. The grate in question does not differ in outward appearance from an ordinary open fire register, and there is nothing whatever about it of a peculiar character to offend the eye. Illustrations are appended of it in elevation and section, and by means of the latter diagram, endeavour will be made to explain its principle. The fire-basket is divided into two parts, or, in other words, has at its back part a small box or chamber marked E, communicating with the front portion of the basket at the

Thompson's Stand, only smoking when it is, opened to show visitors the arrangement; and if the coals being put in the coking box by the cook instead of on the top of the fire can only be made a matter of certainty, a desideratum will be obtained, since the kitchen-range is the worst behaved of the stove or grate families in the production of smoke. The cook, however, would soon find it to her advantage to feed the fire in the proper way, for, instead of a smoky fire, constantly requiring raking or poking to secure a clear surface, she has that necessity of good cooking always provided for her, by this invention. In fine, the success of the Thompson Grate depends upon the

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bottom, in which the fuel is placed, a cover marked being pushed back in the direction of the dotted lines. The bottom of this chamber is a grid, weighted at the lower end DD, and pivoted at d. Consequently, when the chamber is empty the balance weight at the bottom causes it to assume a nearly perpendicular form, as shown by the dotted lines DD; but as this is never the case when any fire is in the grate, there is always a portion of it standing in a position to receive coals. On lifting the lid, e, and putting the coals in the chamber, their weight sends the grid bottom down, and the weighted part up, thus forming a compensating balance. In this chamber the coals are baked or coked, the smoke or discharged gases being obliged to pass down the chamber into the ashpit, and there mixes with the oxygen and passes up and through the burning fire, producing perfect combustion and utilising all component parts of the coal, instead of allowing it to pass into the chimney and out in the atmosphere, thus effecting great economy in fuel. The balance weight in front is of course always exerting its influence in endeavouring to force up its lighter end or grid, which has the effect of sending the coals forward into the front fire. Thus its action is automatic, and it is really a bottom feeder with this advantage, that the fuel is robbed of its smoke-producing components before it is brought to the fire. The visitor who wishes to test the smokeless character of this grate can at any time do so unobserved. He has only to note its position, and enter the open avenue running parallel with the gallery, and he can watch the quantity of smoke emerging from each flue-pipe, and he will find that, go whenever he will, there is less from the Thompson Grate than from any other. The truth is gradually becoming acknowledged by practical men, that to prevent smoke in open grates the smoke-producing gases must be separated from the fuel before it is burnt in the grate, and the most effective and easiest mode of doing this, coupled with automatic action, appears to offer the best solution of the problem how to prevent smoke in open grates. That Mr. Thompson is on the right track is beyond a doubt, and the interest that is being taken in his grate by members of the trade shows that the idea finds favour with those most conversant with the subject. The principle has also been applied to a kitchen range, which is in action on Mr.

coal being put in the proper place, and as it is as easy to do right as wrong in this matter, any individual adopting this grate, and then ignoring the one only condition necessary for its working, is certainly no friend to the smokeabatement movement.

CORRESPONDENCE.

[All communications must bear the signature of the writer, not necessarily for publication.]

THE SMOKE TEST FOR DRAINS AND AIR CURRENTS.

Within the last two years the testing of drains by the application of smoke, blown into the drains by a smokeproducing machine, has become pretty general; and has been and is productive of a great deal of good to householders by showing where bad and leaking drains existed, and is forcing tradesmen to make a better job of their drainage work than has generally been the case hitherto. In many cases now, in executing new drainage work, it is part of the agreement or understanding that the drainpipes are not to be covered up until the smoke test has been applied to see that they are all right, which forces the workman to make a good job. The application of the smoke test in this case is generally quite easy. In applying the smoke test to the drains of old houses, however, or of houses already occupied, it is sometimes very difficult to get the smoke to show itself in the house, even when the drains are leaking, and allowing foul air to often blow into the house. This is especially the case when there is no disconnecting trap on the drain between the house and the sewer, in which case it sometimes happens when testing that all the smoke blown into the drain or soil-pipe is sucked back out of the house into the main drain or sewer, and unless it is discovered that this outward current of the air is going on, and something done to stop it, a house might be smoke tested and certified as being all right, although the drains may be very bad.

I had an example of this a few days ago, where I was examining a house for the tenant, who complained of

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