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Scarlet fever still forms 75 per cent of the cases of in- way, to the Thames, to a point nearly in the middle of the fectious disease reported fortnightly to the medical officer river, where the water will be discharged. The old sewers, of health of Newcastle. During the fortnight ending to which the house-drains were connected, have all been May 24, 14 cases of small-pox were also reporied to that broken up, and a new sewer, 3 ft. by 2 st. 7 in., placed officer by medical practitioners in that city.

underneath the large storm-water sewer, so that all house M. Ch. Girard, in a memoir presented to the Société drainage is carried through an independent sewer to the de Médecine Publique et d'Hygiène Professionnelle, suggests low-level pumping-station at Crossness outfall. The new that the Administration should organise model stables sewer has been constructed under a very narrow street, where milch-cows would be surrounded by the best and the sides of it were in some places quite close to the hygienic conditions, and fed on carefully chosen food. houses. Owing to the care exercised by the contractors, New-born infants would thus be supplied with good milk, Messrs. Pearson and Son, of Bradford and Westminster, presenting always the same proportion of its component no damage whatever has been done to the property on parts.

either side of the street, notwithstanding that some large The Bulletin Municipal announces that sixteen of the and heavy buildings were passed. It is worth noting that Paris thoroughfares are to be paved with wood.

all the bricks used were of a standard measurement, in The Court of Common Council of the City of London order to insure the use of whole bricks only. The tunnel tave increased the salary of Dr. Collingridge, the has several curves and one double curve, and these have medical officer of health, from 5col. to 700l. per annum, been carried out with mathematical accuracy. The sewer as from Christmas last.

not only appears substantially built, but well designed for

the purpose of carrying off the vast floods of water that SEWERAGE.

fill the local sewers after a heavy rainfall. It is worthy of THE SEWERAGE AND MAIN DRAINAGE OF

notice that since 1859, when the drainage works were METROPOLIS.--The report of the proceedings of the

completed, the water-level of the soil has been reduced Metropolitan Board of Works during the past year shows

30 feet, which has had an important bearing on the ques. what has been done in connection with the sewerage and

tion of pumping. The present work is an important main drainage of the metropolis. In view of the great

addition to the sewer arrangements for South London. growth of London, a number of supplementary main

The Corporation of Sheffield are engaged in carrying out

a system of main drainage which will involve a large drainage works were found to be urgently required, and

expenditure. Fifteen firms from Sheffield, Manchester, during the past year new sewers were constructed as fol. lows : Two storm overflow sewers, one from Clapham to

Leeds, Bradford, and other towns competed for the conVauxhall Bridge and the other from Kennington Church

struction of the purification works which are to be erected

below the town, and the contract of Messrs. Bissett, a to Vauxhall Bridge, with outlets into the river, at a contract price of 65,000l.; and an overflow sewer in Church Street,

local firm, which amounted 10 23,960!., was recommended

for acceptance. The highest terder was 42,5411. Deptford, discharging into Deptford Creek, at a cost of 33,9901. (see below). The new main sewer from Roehampton

WATER SUPPLY. Lane, Putney, to the Clapham Road, with branches running into it at various points, is now in course of construc- The town of Stevenage is about to be supplied with tion. The length of the main line is about five and a pure water from the water-bearing stratum of the chalk, a quarter miles, and, including the branch sewers, the total copious and constant supply for its 3,000 inhabitants length is about eight miles. The contract for the works having been a want of long standing. Messrs. Bailey was entered into in August 1882, and the contract price is Denton, Son, & North, of Whitehall Place, are the 151,995). In addition new sewers have been planned for engineers for the scheme, and Mr. Tilley, of Walbrook, the relief of the Ranelagh and King's Scholars' Pond dis- London, has been intrusted with the well-sinking. trict. The contract for this work was entered into last April, the price for which the work was undertaken being 96,300l. The new sewer will begin by a junction with the King's Scholars' Pond sewer in Clarges Street, Piccadilly, and passing thence under Piccadilly, Knightsbridge THE HOUSING OF THE POOR. Road, Sloane Street, Sloane Square, Lower Sloane Street, and through the grounds of Chelsea Hospital, will terminate by an outlet into the River Thames in front of those

"How best to help the slender store, grounds. A length of about 1,700 ft. of sewer has been

How mend the dwellings of the poor?' constructed. Since the year 1871 the cleansing of the

Mr. PAUL KARKEEK, the health officer of Torquay, main and intercepting sewers (in all about 250 miles in length) has been done by a special staff of men employed

has of late been investigating the circumstances of the by the Board for the purpose. The number of men em

homes of the working classes of his district, and in ployed is 124, of whom 18 are foremen or gangers, and

his report on the subject he shows that, as might be ihe cost of the work during the past year was about

expected of a town situated like Torquay, there is a com.

plete absence of the horrors described as existing in the 14,0001.

metropolis. The few cases of overcrowding that were STORM OVERFLOW Sewer for South LONDON. – discovered were, in too many instances, co-existent with Some parts of the South of London have particularly suf- great poverty, and, consequently, must be treated sered from the overflow of water when there are floods, cautiously, especially when there are signs of the occa. therefore the Metropolitan Board of Works have made pants trying to keep the houses clean. The sanitary cir. arrangements for a new sewer to carry off storm water. cumstances of the tenement dwellings were, with the This additional sewer, which is by far the largest in the exception of uncleanliness, alike on the part of owner and metropolis, has been constructed at Deptford, where the occupier, fairly satisfactory. It should be noted in this sewers of South London carrying off the surface water connection that typhoid fever is exceedingly rare among converge, and it is destined to be a relief when necessary the poorer classes in Torquay, and this is attributed to the to the ordinary outlet at Deptford Creek. The length of absence of privies, closets, &c., within the buildings, and to the sewer is about 3, 300 ft., and it is 13 ft

. 6 in. wide and the excellent supply of drinking water, which is but seldom 11 ft. high, being quite large enough, indeed, to admit of contaminated in tenement houses. Mr. Karkeek strongly the passage of a railway train or omnibus. It is constructed advocates the adoption of a code of regulations for houses of Portland cement, faced with substantial brickwork, and let in lodgings based on the Government model

. By their it is interded to take the storm-water from the present aid the authority

will be able more strictly to define the outlet into the Deptford Creek, near the Deptford Broad-/ landlord's duty in respect to these houses, and see that, at

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all events in some instances, something more is done than feature of the society has been so much appreciated that to receive rent.

the directors attribute their success largely to it. The

chairman and manager, having answered several questions At a recent meeting of the Field Lane Refuge and

put by members, the report was adopted unanimously. On Ragged Schools, the Earl of Shaftesbury, who presided, the motion of Mr. F. H. A. Hardcastle, seconded by Mr. referring to the domiciliary condition of the people, said

Henry Rutt, the retiring directors, Mr. Mark H. Judge that that had been his hobby for many years, and he should and Miss Eliza Orme, were re-elected. harp upon it to the end of his life. He maintained that all the sanctity of domestic life depended upon the im.

The Builders' Weekly Reporter gives the following as provement of their domiciliary condition.

There was

a fact :-One of the questions asked a ragged little girl of nothing on the face of the earth so utterly abominable as

eight, at a recent school examination, was, Why were the one-room system. That evil had of late years in.

Adam and Eve turned out of Paradise ?' • Because they creased owing to the street improvements, which, however didn't pay their rent,' was the prompt reply. On inquiry beautiful they appeared, involved a great amount of misery

it appeared that the poor child's parents had been evicted and suffering on those who were displaced and driven to

several times from their paradise for the same reason. rooms already overcrowded. He had seen as many as A REMARKABLE case of overcrowding is instanced by four families residing in one room, and it was impossible Mr. W. Cameron Morris in a recent report on the rural to carry on their domestic duties in such conditions with district of Chester-le-Street. He discovered that a man, any regard to decency, morality, and health.

his wise and family-always three and sometimes five in

number-inhabited a disused summer-house,' the dimenIt is understood that Sir Charles Dilke has received a sions of which were 11 feet by 6 feet 9 inches and 6 feet report from Mr. J. T. Harrison, one of the engineering in height. The man was summoned, but eventually had inspectors of the Local Government Board, relative to the to be ejected, and the house was pulled down. working of the Artisans' and Labourers’Dwellings Improvement (Sir R. Cross's) Acts in England. The inquiries of the inspector were confined to London, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Liverpool, Norwich, Swansea, Walsall, and Nottingham, which are the only places where improvement PARKS AND OPEN SPACES. schemes under the Acts have been carried out. The report shows that the working of the Acts has been very generally

The law condemns both man and woman destructive of the dwellings of the poor, but hardly in any

Who steals the goose from off the common; degree constructive, for in only a few instances have dwell

But lets the greater selon loose, ings been erected suitable for the working classes who have

Who steals the common from the goose. been displaced. A number of artisans' dwellings have been erected, but few of the working classes who have been dis. The Need of New PARKS FOR New York City. placed are occupying the new homes, for it is found that the report of the Commission appointed to select and ihey cannot afford to pay sufficient rent. When the locate lands for public parks in New York states that it occupants of condemned dwellings are turned out they go is now twenty years since Central Park was created, and to other parts of the town, carrying with them their de. since that time the population of New York has increased graded habits, and deteriorate the property in their new by a million of souls." No large city in the world is inlocality, so that the courts and alleys into which they creasing in size more rapidly than New York, which crowd together are found to be in a somewhat similar doubles its population every seventeen years. Hence, condition to the places from which they had been removed. every year the provision for more parks becomes additionAs regards the population of the metropolis, the inspector ally necessary. It is proposed to add three large parks concludes that it is of the greatest importance that the and several smaller ones to those already possessed by the displaced populations should be provided for, on account of city. The total area of these additions is 3,808 acres, the greater density of the people as compared with pro- which will make the entire park area of the city nearly vincial towns, though in less populous places the strict

5,000 acres, or about one acre to every 300 inhabitants. enforcement of the provision is not so much called for. The report points out that the main advantage in these The report concludes by saying that the generally expressed proposed parks, from a hygienic point of view, will be unwillingness of the authorities who have carried out these their effect in drawing the centre of population upward, schemes to engage in further enterprises of a similar and relieving the fatal crowding which is now the curse of character is probably the best answer that can be given to New York. In the Fourth Ward of this city the poputhe question, Whether the several schemes were justified, lation is packed in at the rate of 240,000 per square mile; considering the resources of the authorities ?

and the Sixth, Eleventh, and Seventeenth Wards are The fourth annual meeting of the Nineteenth Cen: nearly as crowded. There is nothing like this elsewhere tury Building Society was held on the 30th ult. in the world. Forty thousand persons die in New York the Cannon Street Hotel, Mr. H. Waldemar Lawrence

city during the year, and nearly one-half of these are in the chair. The annual report, which was read by young children ; while in other cities, with a smaller Mr. Frederick Long, the manager, showed a large general death-rate, the proportion of children's deaths is increase of business in every department. Since the issue only one-third. of the last report 10,000l. had been added to the share The Select Committee of the House of Commons capital during the year, and nearly 4,000l, to the deposits, appointed to consider the Ennerdale Railway Bill, have while the amount secured by mortgage was 40,4451. on thrown out the scheme. The Bill proposed to sanction a March 31, 1884. The chairman proposed the adoption of line from Frizzington to Ennerdale, going through one of the report, and congratulated the members on the present the most beautiful parts of the Lake District. The obposition of the society, which, with all the costs incidental jection to the scheme was that it would injure the scenery. io the formation of a new society, had from the first paid PUBLIC GARDENS AND RecrEATION GROUNDS IN to its members a steady dividend of 5 per cent., leaving a LAMBETH AND MILE END.-The ancient burial-ground small balance to be carried to next year's account. Mr. of Lambeth, situate in the High Street, and which is Mark H. Judge, in seconding the adoption of the report, surrounded by a poor and densely-populated neighbourreferred to the attention the directors gave to the state of hood, has been opened as a public garden and recreation the property proposed to be purchased through the society. ground for the use of the inhabitants. For many years In all cases a report in writing on the sanitary condition of this spot, about two acres in extent, has been an eyesore to the houses surveyed is supplied, setting forth such altera the district, but, under the superintendence of Mr. Hugh tions as may be necessary to remedy serious defects. This | M'Intosh, it has been cleared and planted with trees and




shrubs, ' with asphalte footpaths, provided at a cost of take place on two evenings in the week. The performance 1,000l., half of which will be borne by the Metropolitan will be given each Monday and Saturday evening until Board of Works. Owing mainly to the exertions of the further notice. There are charges for programmes and Metropolitan Fublic Garden, Boulevard, and Playground seats, out of the proceeds of which the expenses are to be Association, another playground has been freely opened to defrayed. The Sunday Band has also commenced its the poor children resident in the densely-crowded district season in Finsbury Park, so that it would seem that the of All Saints, Mile End New Town. A large space which working classes in the north of London are better pro. adjoins the parish church in Buxton Street has been vided for in the matter of al.fresco music than their a sphalted, and supplied with swings, horizontal bars, and brethren at the west. other athletic apparatus for the recreation of the juvenile The Corporation of Newcastle are negotiating with the population of the locality. The entire cost incurred his

owners of the land adjoining Elwick Park with a view to not exceeded 2001. Owing to the exertions of the Metro. a purchase for further extension of the park, conformably politan Public Garden, Boulevard, and Playground with the recommendation of the Parks Committee of the Association, who have provided seats and an Corporation. caretaker, the extensive churchyarl surrounding St. Dunstan's, Stepney-some five or six acres in extenthas been thrown open to the public.

CREMATION NOTES. The Health Fournal, for May 1, presents its readers with a coloured lithograph giving the perspective and plan of the playground in Orchard Street, Pendleton. It CREMATION IN CHINA.-In the last issue of the belongs to the firm of Sir Elkanah Armitage and Sons, Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Medical Reports, and is a little less than an acre in extent, being 120 yards | Dr. A. Henry contributes some remarks upon cremation long by 30 yards wide. Some three years ago, being in that country. Marco Polo repeatedly asserts that the still unoccupied, it was determined by the owners to try Chinese wherever he travelled were in the habit of and utilise it temporarily for the benefit of those who lived burning their dead ; on the other hand, Chinese historical in the crowded neighbourhood adjoining. The land was works make no mention of the practice, and burial is the accordingly levelled, drained, gravelled, and surrounded by almost universal custom at present. The books in which wooden palisadings. The walls are frequently limewashed, the subject of cremation in China is treated only speak of and have their appearance relieved by ivy and other it as being practised upon the bodies of Buddhist priests creeping plants. To add to the general cheerfulness of and lepers. In only one, however, of the many Buddhist the place, a broad bank of grass runs entirely around it, temples at the town where Dr. Henry is stationed are the and in the centre of the ground, and dividing it into two bodies of the inmates burned after death. The method of parts, is a handsome wooden pavilion or shelter, surround: incineration is commendable as efficient, ästhetic, and ing which are also grass banks with flower beds. One half inexpensive ; but it is too slow except for Buddhist priests of the playground is devoted to a gymnasium, consisting in China. In the grounds of the temple is a small dome. of seesaws for children, swings for boys and girls, hori- like edifice, the interior of which communicates with the zontal bars for youths and men, parallel bars, &c., and in

open air by a small door only—a charcoal kiln, in fact. this part is also a large heap of sand, digging in which

The dead priest is placed in a sitting posture inside the affords great enjoyment to the very young children. The dome, and charcoal and firewood are piled around him; other half of the ground is devoted to quoits, skittle alley,

fire is applied, and the door is shut until combustion is spring boards for high and long jump, and in the centre of complete. Children are sometimes cremated, but for this part is a raised platform, around which are grass and superstitious reasons only. When several young children flower beds. A local band voluntarily plays here one of a family have died in succession, the body of one of evening weekly during the summer months. The cost of them is burned under the belief that this ceremony will the ground is stated by Mr. G. A. Southam, of the firm

insure the survival of the next child born to the family. of Sir Elkanah Armitage and Sons, to be a little under

In these cases the body is simply brought to an open field 1,000l., and the annual cost of maintenance (keeper's in a box and placed upon firewood, which is ignited. wages, repairs, &c.), exclusive of rent, 831. Mr. Southam

China and India are pre-eminently countries in which a on a recent occasion said in relation to this playground : rational system of cremation might be encouraged with •On the evening the band played, there were often 1,200 much advantage. to 1,500 people present. The playground was open to

MAINLY through the efforts of Dr. Felix Formento, the every one ; all sorts and conditions of men, women, and

citizens of New Orleans have organised a cremation society children frequented it, and though the rough element was strongly represented in the neighbourhood, the caretaker, city, needs a safe method of disposing of her dead, to

of forty members. New Orleans, more than any other who was always present, had no difficulty in preserving take the place of the present system of entombment. order, and it was gratifying to state that never had any wilful damage been done to this property-not a shrub

The New York Cremation Society, notwithstanding the had been injured or a flower plucked.'

prejudice which exists in America against the burning of

human bodies, is determined to promote and popularise The Duke of Westminster has thrown open the whole of the charming grounds and gardens of Eaton Hall on

this manner of disposing of the dead. The repugnance to Sundays to the labourers on the estate on production of with time, which works much greater wonders, people will

incineration, it is thought, is gradually decreasing, and tickets. The public during the week already enjoy the

grow quite accustomed to cremation ovens. Therefore, privilege of access to a great portion of the park and

land has been purchased on the highest and most grounds alongside the Dee, while admittance can be picturesque grounds on Manhattan Island, where a obtained to the hall during the greater part of the year on

furnace is to be erected to reduce departed friends and payment of Is., which his Grace afterwards contributes

relatives to ashes. The cemetery will be, if present plans towards the fund of the Chester Infirmary. By permission of the Benchers, the Inner Temple in the world. "It is expressly wished to deprive it of the

are carried out, more complete than anything of the kind Gardens will be open to the public on and after Monday mournful aspect usually associated with burial-grounds, next during the months of June, July, and August, from six to nine o'clock every evening.

and to this end there are to be no yew or willow trees

planted, nor any emblems of mourning. A handsome The Metropolitan Board of Works have recently sanc- chapel for memorial services is to be built, and the grounds tioned band performances in an allotted portion are to be tastefully laid out, and adorned with flowers. of Finsbury Park, and it is proposed by those who have -Nor will there be, we gather from the American papers, taken the matter in hand that these performances shall | any wasting or burning of the bodies, but human remains THE SANITARY RECORD.

June 16, 1884.]

will be incinerated by an intensely hot; dry air, radiating Clark & Moscrop, Darlington: third, Mr. Alfred Darbyshire, from furnaces fifteen feet distant, which will in a short

F.R.I.B.A., Manchester. The limit of cost, exclusive of sites, was

fixed at £24,coo. space of time reduce the corpse to a heap of ashes.' The remains of the late Dr. Samuel D. Gross were

GROCER'S COMPANY RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIP. cremated at the Lemoyne Furnace, Washington, where his wife's remains were recently cremated. The ashes

At a Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Grocers,

held on May 21, 1884, the following candidates were elected to the weighed about seven pounds, were hermetically sealed in

Company's Scholarships for Research into the causes of important a tin box, and placed in the coffin in which the body was diseases, viz. :- 1. W. North (Renewal), subject - (Eriology of Ague. carried to Washington, and taken back to Philadelphia Disease, Pernicious Anæmia, and Blood Clotting: 3., Alfred Lingard,

, M.B., subject where the coffin was removed to the late residence of Dr.

M.R.C.S., subjec:- lutimate (Etiology of Entei iç Fever. Gross, and subsequently the ashes were enclosed in a marble urn about three feet high, unornamented and

HEALTH EXHIBITION PRIZES. without inscription, and placed beside the coffin of Dr. Gross's late wise in the family vault. The Rev. Dr.

MR. J. SARGEANT STACEY has placed the sum of £20 at the disposal

of the Council of the Society of Arts for a prize to be offered in conCharles Currie read the Episcopal burial service at the nection with the International Health Exhibition, and it has been cemetery.

decided to offer the prize for the best exhibit in Class 30 (objects for

internal decoration and use in the dwelling; fittings and furniture). A CORRESPONDENT of the Glasgow Herall relates the following anecdote in relation to cremation. An Englishman, holding forth in a Scotch hotel on the subject of the cremation of bodies in place of the present mode of burial,

NOTICES OF MEETINGS. wound up by declaring that he had made up his mind to leave directions with his executors and friends that when SANITARY INSTITUTE OF GREAT BRITAIN. he died his body should be burned. A canny old Scotch- At the annual general meeting held at the Parkes Museum of Hygiene man, who did not relish the innovation, set the table in

on May 7, Right Hon. Earl Fortescue in the chair, a report was

presented by the Council on the progress of the institute, and on the a roar' by remarking, “Ye seem in a great hurry about

work achieved at the very successful Congress and Exhibition held at that business, ma freen, A' that may possibly be ordaned Glasgow in the autumn of 1883. The Chairman of Council, Dr. A. to be dune, without ony bother to your sriends or executors,

Carpenter, gave an address, and the officers for the ensuing year were in the Lord's guid time and pleasure.'

elected, the President being His Grace the Duke of Northumberland,

and the trustees Sir John Lubbock, Bart., V.C.L., F.R.S., Thomas At the last meeting of the City Commissioners of Salt, Esq., M.P., and Dr. B. W. Richardson, F.R.S. Sewers, the Sanitary Committee reported on the reference SANITARY INSTITUTE OF GREAT BRITAIN. to consider whether it was not advisable that a proper EXAMINATION OF LOCAL SURVEYORS AND INSPECTORS OF crematorium should be erected at Ilford Cemetery in order

NUISANCES. that the public might adopt that mode of sepulture if they At an examination held June 5 and 6 twenty-three candidates preso wished. By the courtesy of Sir Henry Thompson, Sur

sented themselves. The Institute's Certificate of Competency to Spencer Wells, and other members of the Cremation

discharge the duties of Local Surveyors was awarded to W. H. Kad

ford, J. Bowman Wilson, Charles Gilby, W. Tattersall, and to disSociety of England they were enabled to observe the

charge the duties of Inspectors of Nuisances, R. Gibbs, G. W. cremation of a horse at the crematorium at Woking belong. Lubbings, Kenneth Cameron, T. S. Ainge, T. Turner, R. Jeffery, ing to that society. In the meantime a Bill was intro

J. Parker, J. Mallinson, W. A. Shadrake, W. C. Beck, T. Haslam, duced into the House of Commons with a view to

F. T. Poulson, J. Whyre, A. Sutcliffe, C. J. Easton (see page 620). regulating the proceedings in the cremation of the dead, but it was rejected on a second reading. In these circum- THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. stances the committee thought it was inexpedient to erect Ar the concluding meeting of this society for the Session 1883-84 any apparatus for the purposes of cremation at Ilford until held on Tuesday, May 27, Sir J. W. Bazalgette, C.B., president, in that mode of disposal had been regulated by Parliament

the chair, it was announced that during the session there have been

elected 51 members, 214 associate members (of whom 73 were preand had its approval. The consideration of the report was viously students), and 13 associates. In the same period 45 associate deferred.

members and one associate have been transferred to the class of

members and two associates to the class of associate members, whilst A ROMAN CREMATORIUM.-Some workmen engaged 174 students have been admitted. The register and lists now conin excavations in the bail within the boundaries of the old tain the names of 21 honorary members, 1,439 members, 1,864 Roman city at Lincoln lately came across a crematory fur

associate members, 510 associates, and 778 students, making a total

of 4,612 of all classes. Ten years ago the gross numbers amounted nace and a sarcophagus. In the latter were found ten urns, to 2,468 and twelve months back to 4,403, so that the increase in the which contained dust and calcined bones. The urns were session had been at the rate of 5 per cent. of different sizes and shapes, and were all provided with saucer-shaped covers. Only one of them, however, was got out perfect. The interior of the sarcophagus was lined with long thin bricks, which perished on being exposed to



LONDON, 1884.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION. A HYGIENIC INDUSTRIAL CONGRESS will take place at Rouen on July 26 and 27. The questions discussed will relate to Hygiene for

The Executive Council of the International Health Exhibition have the working classes, in factories and at home.

determined to hold an International Conference on Education in connection with the Education Division of the Exhibition. They have appointed a Committee of Management, who have drawn up the following programme.

For convenience of discussion all papers to

be read will be printed beforehand, and they will subsequently be COMPETITIONS.

published by the Executive Council.

Persons desirous of attending the Conference are invited to send

in their names to Mr. R. Cowper, secretary to the Committee of MR. W. Picton, of Liverpool, who was appointed by the Newcastle Management, International Health Exhibition, South Kensington, to Corporation to decide upon the designs sent in for the crection of

whom any inquiries can be addressed. baths and washhouses in Scotswood Road, Byker, and Arthur's Hill,

(By order) EDWARD CUNLIFFE-Owen, Secretary. has announced his award as follows:- For the Scotswood Road site : First, Messrs. Gibson & Allen, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; second, Messrs.

COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT. Clark & Moscrop, Darlington ; third, Messrs. Tate & Popplewell

, The Lord Reay (chairman); B. St. John Ackers, Esq. ; VenerManchester. For the Byker site : First, Messrs. Gibson & Allen, able Archdeacon Emery; J. G. Fitch, Esq.; Rev. Thomas Graham, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; second, Messrs. Clark & Moscrop, Darlington ; D.D.; Philip Magnus, Esq.; Rev. James H. Rigg, D.D.; Rev. third, Mr. J. W. Dyson, Newcastle. For the Arthur's Hill"site: T. W. Sharpe ; Hon. E. Lyulph Stanley, M.P.; Francis Storr, First, Messrs. Gibson & Allen, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; second, Messrs. | Esq., Richard Cowper, Esq. (secretary).



[Juce 16, 1884.


The Conference will be opened on Monday, August 4, at 11 A.M., bury and Whorwellsdown Rural Sanitary District, Wiltshire, at
and will continue throughout the week. A complete programme will 680 for one year.
be issued shortly.

MONTGOMERY, Samuel, L.R.C.P.Edin., L.R.C.S.Edin., has been
SUBJECTS FOR Discussion.

re-appoinied Medical Officer of Health for the Ovenden Urban
1. Conditions of Healthy Education.—Under this head may be

Sanitary District, Yorkshire, at 625 for one year. included the consideration of the structure, fitting, and equipments of

Mudge, James, M.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. Lond., has been re-appointed a school; gymnastics, and other physical exercises: the right

Medical Officer of Health for the Phillack Urban Sanitary Disapportionment of time to different subjects of instruction in schools

trict, Cornwall, at £14, for one year, as from March 25, 1884. of various classes; the indirect effect of pictorial or other decoration

Palmer, Francis Craddock, L.K.Q.C.P.Irel., M.R.C.S.Eng., in improving the taste and cultivating the imagination, and in in.

L.S. A. Lond., has been re-appointed Medical Officer of Health

for the Brig; Urban Sanitary District, Lincolnshire, at £to per
creasing the scholars' interest in their work.

2. Infant Training and Teaching.-(a) Kindergarten : (6) In-
struction generally :-Under this head may be included the righe Rose, Frederick Robert, M.R.C.S.Eng., L.S.A. Lond., has been
structure of schools and class-rooms for very young children; the

re-appointed Medical Officer of Health for the Diss Urban

Sanitary District, at £25 for one year.
apparatus needed for play and for instruction; the exercises, mental
or manual, best fitted to awaken the faculties; the distribution of

Syson, Edmund John, L. R.C.P.Edin., L.R.C.S. Edin., has been
time ; pictures, decoration, collections of objects, &c.

appointed Medical Officer of Health for the St. Ives, Hunts, 3. Technical Teaching:-(a) Science; (6) Art; (c) Handicrafts :

Rural Sanitary Di-trict, at £60 per annum, vice the Poor Law (d) Agriculture : (e) Domestic Economy :- Under this head may be

District Medical Officers, whose appointments have expired. included-(a) Methods of teaching the different branches of physical

WILSON, Stevenson Moreton Wightman, M.R.C.S.Eng,. L.S.A. and of natural science, the equipment of school laboratories, the value

Lond.. has been re-appointed Medical Officer of Health for the
of experimental work' by pupils, the organisation of evening science

Lynn Port Sanitary District, for one year.
classes and of science schools, the connection between the teaching Surveyors, CLERKS TO GUARDIANS, INSPECTORS OF
of pure and applied science. *) The teaching of drawing and of
colouring as a preparation for designing and decorative work.

(c) The value of special and general workshop instruction in ele.

ALGER, Mr. James, has been re-appointed Surveyor and Inspector
mentary, higher, and evening schools; the equipment of school
workshops. (d) 'The teaching of agricultural science in elementary,

of Nuisinces to the Diss Local Board and Urban Sanitary

Authority, Norfolk, at £40, and collector, at £20, for one year.
in intermediate, and higher schools, in evening science classes, in

Allen, Mr. Alfred H., has been re-appointed Public Analyst for the
special colleges, and in the universities; methods of teaching, experi.
mental farms. (e) Methods of teaching cookery in schools -e.g. by

Borough of Sheffield, for one year.
book lessons, by demonstrative lectures, and in school kitchens.

BARTLETT, Mr. John William, has been appointed Inspector of

Nuiances and Sanitary Inspector to the Vestry of St. Pancras,
4. Teaching of Music in Schools.
5. Museums, Libraries, and other Subsidiary Aids to Instruction

at 4.90 per annum, rising to 6100, vice Mellows. in connection with Schools.-U..der this head may be included the

Bater, Mr. Edward, has been re-appointed Inspector of Nuisances

for the Jarrow Urban Sanitary District, at £120 for one year, means of establishing and managing school libraries; the promotion, with the help of the scholars or otherwise, of museums of art and

BAYNES, Mr. James, Jun., has been re-appointed Public Analyst for science illustrative of the local fauna, fora, industry, history,

the Borough of Kingston-upon-Hull, for one year.

Bellerby, Mr. A. Thomas, District Manager, York City and County archæology, &c., &c.; school savings' banks; botanical and other field excursions, visits to picture galleries and museums, voluntary

Banking Company, has been appointed Treasurer to the Winter

ton Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, vice Goodwin. evening classes for singing, recitations, &c.; and generally the me ins Bennett, Mr. A., has been elected a Member of the Bromsgrove of connecting the influence of the school with home life and self- Local' Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, vice Humphreys, improvement.

resigned. 6. Training of Teachers.-Under this head will be considered the right professional preparation for teachers in-(a) Elementary, (6)

BURNLEY, Mr. J. J., has been appointed Accountant to the Wallasey

Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, Cheshire, at 200 Intermediate and Higher, (c) Special and Technical Schools. The relative advantages of training in special institutions and in colleges

per annum, vice Bell, resigned.

Cabbell, Mr. Benjamin Bond, has been elected Chairman of the for general education ; normal colleges-their constitution, conditions

newly-formed Cromer Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority of admission, programme of studies ; apprenticeship; model and for the ensuing year. practising schools; universities; and their relations to the training of

CHERRY, Mr. Arthur Charles, Banker, has been appointed Treasurer teachers ; professorships and lectureships on education ; examination to the Upton-on-Severn Guardians and Rural Sanitary Authority, for diplomas and certificates ; legal recognition of such diplomas and

vice Isaac, deceased. certifi ates : registration of teachers. 7. Inspection and Examination of Schools.-(a) By the State,

CLARK, Mr. J. M., has been appointed Treasurer to the Haltwhistle (6) by the universities, (c) by other public bodies.

Guardians and Rural Sanitary Authority, Northumberland, vice

Keen, deceased. 8. Organisation of Elementary Education.

CLARK, Mr. William, has been elected a member of the Horsforth 9. Organisation of Intermediate and Higher Education.

Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, Yorkshire, vice 10. Organisation of University Education.

Benland, resigned. II. Systems of Public Instruction in various Countries.

CLAYTON, Mr. Edward, has been appointed Inspector of Nuisances

for the Mansfield Urban Sanitary District, at 460 per annum,

vice Goodacre, deceased. APPOINTMENTS

Comen, Mr. Jennings, has been appointed Surveyor and Inspector
UNDER THE PUBLIC of Nuisances to the Portland Local Board and Urban Sanitary

Authority, at 672 per annum.

COSENS, Mr. William, has been appointed Treasurer to the Hertford

Guardians and Rural Sanitary Authority, vice Chesshyre,

resigned. BLACK, George, M.D., has been re-appointed Medical Officer of CROFT, Mr. Christopher George, M.A.. Solicitor, has been appointed

Health for the Keswick Urban Sanitary District, at £23 for one Town Clerk and Clerk to the Urban Sanitary Authority of year.

Richmond, Yorkshire, at £65 per annum, vice Tomlin, deceased.
Davies, David, M.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. Lond., has been re-appointed Davies, Mr. Edward, has been re-appointed Inspector of Nuisances

Medical Officer of Health for the Stapleton Urban Sanitary for the Ruabon Division of the Wrexham Rural Sanitary
District, at £25 for one year, and for the Bristol Port Sanitary District, at £150 for one year.
District, for one year (the salary for the latter included in that Davies, Mr. Hugh, has been re-appointed Inspector of Nuisances
for the Bristol Urban Sanitary District).

for the Wrexham Division of the Wrexham Rural Sanitary Davies, Edward, M.D.Univ. Śt. And., M.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. District, at £150 for one year.

Lond., has been re-appointed Medical Oficer of Health for the
Wrexham Division of the Wrexham Rural Sanitary District, at

Downey, Mr. Daniel, has been appointed Accountant to the West

Hartlepool Improvement Commissioners and Urban Sanitary 663, for one year.

Authority, at £165 per annum.
Davis:N, Rashell Thomas, M.D. Univ. Aberd., M.R.C.S. Eng., has Dyson, Mr. James, has been elected a Member of the Barkisland

been re-appointed Medical Officer of Health for the Battle Urban Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, vice Hanson,
Sanitary District, at £15 for one year.

resigned. Dyke, Thomas Jones, F.R.C.S. Eng., has been re-appointed Medical Officer of Health for the Merthyr Tydfil Urban Sanitary District,

GOULD, Mr. W. H., has been appointed Surveyor to the Ilfracombe

Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, at 460 per annum, at £250 per annum, for three years.

vice Pile. HARKER. John, L.R.C.P.Edin., M.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. Lond., Hall, Mr. John, has been re-appointed Inspector of Nuisances for

has been re-appointed Medical'Officer of Health for the Lancaster the Lynn Port Sanitary District, for one year. Port Sanitary District, for one year,

Hawkins, Mr. Edward Charles, Branch Manager of the London and Jones, William, L.R.C.P. Lond., M.R.C.S.Eng.. has been re- County Banking Company, has been appointed Treasurer to the

appointed Medical Officer of Health for the Ruabon Division of Urban Sanitary Authority of Sandwich, vice Cottew, resigned.

the Wrexham Rural Sanitary District, at £60, for one year. Heard, Mr. Herbert, has been elected a Member of the Shepton Joyce, William, M.R.C.S.Eng., L.S.A. Lond., has been re-appointed Mallet Local Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, vice Hickes,

Medical Officer of Health for the Ashby-de-la-Zouch® Urban resigned.

Sanitary District, at £20 for one year.
LB TALL, Frederick Tindall, M.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. Lond., has

HEARNB, Mr. William, has been appointed an Inspector of Nuisances

for the Parish of Paddington, at 6120 per annum, vice Clifford, been re-appointed Medical Officer of Health for the Handsworth resigned.

Urban Sanitary District, at 620 for one year.
Maile, Charles Edmund Drayson, L.R.C.P.Edin., M.R.C.S.Eng.,

Hey, Mr. John, has been elected a Member of the Thornton Local

Board and Urban Sanitary Authority, Yorkshire, vice Dobsos, has been re-appointed Medical Officer of Health for the West. deceased

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