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Portuguese employed upon the sugar plantations, and in 1896, one year after, 2,268 were employed upon the sugar plantations. Why? They were discharged and their places were filled by Asiatic laborers, coming in under contract; and before I get through I will show what that contract is.

Of the Japanese there were 19,212 males in all the islands. In 1895, 11,584 were employed upon the sugar plantations, and in 1896, 12,893. That shows who took the places of the Europeans who had been previously employed. Of the Chinese there were 19,167 males upon the islands; and in 1895 there were employed of this number upon the sugar plantations 3,847; and the next year there were 6,289 Chinamen employed upon the sugar estates; and yet we are told about American people and American interests and American labor; and that is one of the arguments set forth by those advocating the acquisition of this "paradise of the Pacific,' inhabited by the males of the human race!

Of South Sea Islanders there were, as will be seen by the table, 321, according to the census of 1896, upon all the islands. Of those 133 were employed upon the sugar estates in 1895 and 115 in 1896; of other nationalities 720 were by the census upon all the islands, and in 1895 there were 97 employed, and in 1896 600 were employed an increase of laborers employed upon sugar plantations from 1895 to 1896 of 3,660.

This is a comment made by Mr. Joseph O. Carter; and 1

quote the figures from this same book, the Hawaiian Annual, that the American, British, and German people do not find estate work desirable, except as skilled laborers. The American farm hand would find estate work most uninviting.

The figures also prove that the sugar planters find it more profitable to import new laborers on three-years' contracts than to engage labor already on the ground, the reason being that the newcomer works for $12.50 per month, while the old hand demands a higher wage.

The smaller percentage of Chinese laborers on estates is due to the fact that the Japanese is the cheaper man. Japanese


are coming in by every steamer from the Orient, and must continue to come or higher wages must prevail.

The number of laborers on sugar estates in 1896 (the year of the census) could not be procured at the Immigration Bureau, presumably because the figures would make a worse showing. I subsequently procured the figures from Thrum's Annual, which came out after that letter was written.

I have here a table showing the percentages:

In 1878 each thousand of the population was composed of the following elements: Natives, 835; Chinese, 102; Americans, 22; English, 15; Germans, 5, and other nationalities, 21. According to the census of this year the proportions are as follows

This was in 1896– The natives have decreased to 362; the Japanese, who did not appear separately in the earlier census, are now represented by 223–

The reason the Japanese do not appear in the census previous to 1878 was because they were not there when we made the reciprocity treaty with Hawaii and agreed to admit her sugar free in 1876, which stimulated the industry which has peopled those islands with Asiatics and not with Americans the Chinese have increased to 198; the Portuguese, another new element, have 139; the Americans have 28; the English, 20, and the Germans 13. As a result of the policy of protecting the foreign planters pursued by this country, the American population has increased less rapidly than any of the others, and the classes that are not likely ever to purchase American goods have increased out of all proportion to the others.

Now, let us see what kind of a population this is. We propose to adopt or accept along with these islands its national debt of $4,000,000. One million two hundred thousand dollars of this national debt was incurred to encourage contract labor to go to the islands. Let us see what is the character of these contract laborers. This testimony which I shall read throws some light upon contract laborers:

Q. Suppose a "contract" laborer is idling in the field, what do you do?


A. We dock him; we give him only one-half or three-quarters of a day; and if he keeps it up, we resort to the law and have him arrested for refusing to work.

This is the Republic we are going to annex to our country, and this is a law under which that Republic exists! We fought one of the greatest wars of modern times to overthrow slavery. After having done that and having incurred a national debt of enormous proportions, we propose to add slavery to the great free Republic. This matter grows worse as you look into it.

Q. What do you accomplish by putting him in jail?

A. For the first offense he is ordered back to work, and he has to (eventually) pay the cost of court. If he refuses to obey orders, he is arrested again and a light fine is inflicted, which the planter can pay and take it out of his pay, or else he is put on the road to work. For the third offense he is likely to get three months imprison

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And that is a law of this so-called missionary Republic, and that will be one of the laws after our Hawaiian neighbors come into the United States, because we provide that their laws shall continue in force until we enact new laws. So we adopt slavery and all; and yet Senators are crazy to press this question in the midst of war, to take advantage of the patriotic sentiments of our people and restore slavery to this country.

These contracts provide for compelling the laborer to work faithfully by fines and damage suits brought by the planters against them, with the right on the part of the planter to deduct the damages and cost of suit out of the laborer's wages. They also provide for compelling the laborer to remain with the planter during the contract term. They are sanctioned by law and enforced by civil remedies and penal laws.-Blount's report.

Then this question is asked, and this is also a part of the testimony in Blount's report, which he took in investigating this subject :

Q. Those sugar planters who are declaring themselves in favor of "annexation," how do they look at the labor question in connection with "annexation"?

A. They think the United States will make a different law for the islands. If they could not get [cheap] labor, they don't want annexation.

Q. But they are satisfied they will get such legislation?

The proposition is to appoint a commission; and the same interest which was able to accomplish this reciprocity treaty, which has cost us $72,000,000, has also been able to perpetuate and continue that treaty, thus plundering the taxpayers of our country of $10,000,000 per annum, will be pretty nearly able to secure what they want.

Some one has said that the sugar trust is opposed to annexation. So far as I am concerned I should think there need be no fear of the opponents of annexation acting with the sugar trust, when the chief champions of the sugar trust in this body array themselves on that side of the question; and so long as they continue the fierce advocates of annexation I shall conclude that there is no possible danger of my acting i with the sugar trust. Here is more of this evidence:

Q. Is it your impression that the calculation of all Hawaiian sugar planters, who are in favor of "annexation,” believe the United States will modify their laws against “contract” labor, so that they can maintain a system of “contract" labor in the Hawaiian Islands?

A. I would not say contract labor. They say we may have to give up “contract” labor, but we can get all the labor we want from Japan.

Q. How?

A. They say we can send an agent there and send money, and he can send "labor" to Hawaii, and when it is here then they can make a “contract.”

Q. They think in that way the planters can evade the labor laws of the United States ?

A. Yes; they think they can get around it.

PRESIDENT Dole said to me: “I have a belief that the United States will give us a separate law, so that we can get laborers here."


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That is in the testimony taken by Mr. Blount, on page 975;

and it will be found in House Executive Document No. I, part 2, Fifty-third Congress, third session.

Labor Commissioner Fitzgerald, of California, who was down there last year, came back and made a report showing

that American laborers could live there. Here is a part of his statement:

I have seen 20,000 barefooted laborers, half of whom work under a penal contract; I have seen rewards offered for their arrest when they violated their contract and deserted the plantation, with their number printed across their photograph in convict style.

These are the people we propose to admit to this Republic, and the men who enacted those laws, the sons of the missionaries, who are the government down there to-day are the men who are lauded upon this floor as the highest types of American manhood, and the Senator from Alabama [Mr. Morgan] says they have the best government he ever saw. The Senator from Alabama fought for several years to maintain slavery in this country, and perhaps that has something to do with his opinion. In his opinion a government that is in favor of human slavery is the best government on earth.

I wish to have the Secretary read an editorial from the Honolulu Independent of Friday, November 19, 1897, headed “Slavery in Hawaii.”

The PresidiNG OFFICER (Mr. Gallinger in the chair): Without objection, the Secretary will read as requested.

The Secretary read as follows:

Hardly a week goes by without reports of serious labor troubles reaching the Honolulu papers. The unchecked and indiscriminate influx of Asiatics serving as penal contract laborers has reached a point where the sugar planters begin to realize that there are dangerous squalls ahead and that plantations eventually will go up in flames to satisfy the cry for vengeance of the ignorant coolies, who think that they are being ill-used and ill-treated by their employers, and who are justified in their belief according to all fair-minded men with experience of plantation life and methods.

As stated, a Japanese laborer shipped by the Ewa plantation claims that he was assaulted by an overseer, who fractured his arm. The Jap, who has arrived recently and does not understand English, was advised by his more experienced countrymen to call upon the district judge and appeal to the strong hand of the Hawaiian law. The poor devil was, of course, prohibited from leaving the plantation by his white "bosses." Then he got angry, and, after a palaver with his "gang, ” all decided to quit work and go to Honolulu to see the representative of

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