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the Mandatary, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatary as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population.

In every case of mandate, the Mandatary shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge.

The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by the Mandatary shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council. A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and examine the annual reports of the Mandataries and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the observance of the mandates.

ARTICLE XXIII

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of the League

(a) will endeavor to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labor for men, women and children both in their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary international organizations;

(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control;

(c) will entrust the League with the general supervision over the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs;

(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of the trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the control of this traffic is necessary in the common interest;

(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members of the League. In this connection, the special necessities of the regions devas

tated during the war of 1914-1918 shall be borne in

mind;

(f) will endeavor to take steps in matters of international concern for the prevention and control of disease.

ARTICLE XXIV

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all international bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all commissions for the regulation of matters of international interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League.

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by general conventions but which are not placed under the control of international bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any other assistance which may be necessary or desirable.

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the League.

ARTICLE XXV

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of duly authorized voluntary national Red Cross organizations having as purposes the improvement of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world.

ARTICLE XXVI

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Council and by a majority of the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Assembly.

No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a Member of the League.

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2. First Secretary General of the League of Nations

Sir James Eric Drummond

CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND

FRANCE PROVIDING FOR RECIPROCAL
MILITARY SERVICE 1

Signed at Washington, September 3, 1918;
ratifications exchanged, November 8, 1918.

The President of the United States of America and the President of the French Republic, being convinced that for the better prosecution of the present war it is desirable that American citizens in France and citizens of France in the United States shall either return to their own country to perform military service in its army or shall serve in the army of the country in which they remain, have resolved to enter into a Convention to that end and have accordingly appointed as their Plenipotentiaries the President of the United States of America, Robert Lansing, Secretary of State of the United States, and the President of the French Republic, J. J. Jusserand, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States, who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers found to be in proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles:

ARTICLE I

All male citizens of the United States in France and all male citizens of France in the United States shall, unless before the time limited by this Convention they enlist or enroll in the forces of their own country or return to the United States or France, respectively, for the purpose of military service, be subject to military service and entitled to exemption or discharge therefrom under the laws and regulations from time to time in force, of the country in which they are: Provided, that in respect to citizens of the United States in France, the ages for military service shall be the ages specified in the laws of the United States prescribing compulsory military service, and in respect to citizens of France in the United States 1 Treaty Series No. 636.

the ages for military service shall be for the time being twenty to forty-four years, both inclusive.

ARTICLE II

Citizens of the United States and citizens of France within the age limits aforesaid who desire to enter the military service of their own country must enlist or enroll or must leave France or the United States as the case may be for the purpose of military service in their own country before the expiration of sixty days after the date of the exchange of ratifications of this Convention, if liable to military service in the country in which they are at said date; or if not so liable, then before the expiration of thirty days after the time when liability shall accrue; or as to those holding certificates of exemption. under Article III of this Convention, before the expiration of thirty days after the date on which any such certificate becomes inoperative unless sooner renewed; or as to those who apply for certificates of exemption under Article III, and whose applications are refused, then before the expiration of thirty days after the date of such refusal, unless the application be sooner granted.

ARTICLE III

The Government of the United States and the Government of the French Republic may, through their respective diplomatic representatives, issue certificates of exemption from military service to citizens of the United States in France and citizens of France in the United States, respectively, upon application or otherwise, within sixty days from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this Convention or within thirty days from the date when such citizens become liable to military service in accordance with Article I: Provided, that the applications be made or the certificates be granted prior to their entry into the military service of either country. Such certificates may be special or general, temporary or conditional, and may be modified, renewed, or revoked in the discretion of the government granting them. Persons holding such certificates shall, so long as the certificates are in force, not be liable to military service in the country in which they are.

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