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Direction was given that within the counties I recommend liberal appropriations to carry so designated persons supposed, upon credit- out the Indian peace policy, not only because able information, to be members of such it is humane, Christian like, and economical, unlawful combinations should be arrested by but because it is right. the military forces of the United States, and I recommend to your favorable consideradelivered to the marshal, to be dealt with tion also the policy of granting a territorial according to law. In two of said counties, government to the Indians in the Indian terYork and Spartanburg, many arrests have ritory west of Arkansas and Missouri and been made. At the last account, the number south of Kansas. In doing so, every right of persons thus arrested was one hundred and guarantied to the Indian by treaty should be sixty.eight. Several hundred, whose crimi. secured. Such a course might in time be the nality was ascertained to be of an inferior means of collecting most of the Indians now degree, were released for the present. These between the Missouri and the Pacific and south have generally made confessions of their guilt. of the British possessions into one Territory

Great caution has been exercised in making or one State. The Secretary of the Interior these arrests, and, notwithstanding the large has treated upon this subject at length, and I number, it is believed that no innocent person commend to you bis suggestions. is now in custody. The prisoners will be held I renew my recommendation that the public for regular trial in the judicial tribunals of the lands be regarded as a heritage to our children, United States.

tồ be disposed of only as required for occuAs soon as it appeared that the authorities pation and to actual settlers. Those already of the United States were about to take vigor- granted have been in great part disposed of in ous measures to enforce the law, many per such a way as to secure access to the balance sons absconded, and there is good ground for by the hardy settler who may wish to avail bimsupposing that all of such persons have violated self of them, but caution should be exercised the law. A full report of what has been done even in attaining so desirable an object. under this law will be submitted to Congress Educational interests may well be served by by the Attorney General.

the grant of the proceeds of the sale of public In Utah there still remains a remnant of lands to settlers. I do not wish to be underbarbarism, repugnant to civilization, to de- stood as recommending, in the least degree, a cency, and to the laws of the United States. curtailment of what is being done by the GenTerritorial officers, however, have been found eral Government for the encouragement of who are willing to perform their duty in a education. spirit of equity and with a due sense of the More than six years having elapsed since necessity of sustaining the majesty of the law. the last hostile gun was fired between the Neither polygamy nor any other violation of armies then arrayed against each other-one existing statutes will be permitted within the for the perpetuation, the other for the destructerritory of the United States. It is not with tion of the Union—it may well be considered the religion of the self-styled Saints that we whether it is not now time that the disabiliare now dealing, but with their practices. ties imposed by the fourteenth amendment They will be protected in the worship of God should be removed. That amendment does according to the dictates of their consciences, not exclude the ballot, but only imposes the but they will not be permitted to violate the disability to hold offices upon certain classes. laws under the cloak of religion.

When the purity of the ballot is secure, maIt may be advisable for Congress to consider jorities are sure to elect officers reflecting the what, in the execution of the laws against views of the majority. I do not see the adpolygamy, is to be the status of plural wives vantage or propriety of excluding men from and their offspring. The propriety of Con- office merely because they were, before the gress passing an enabling act authorizing the rebellion, of standing and character sufficient territorial Legislature of Utah to legitimize all to be elected to positions requiring them to children born prior to a time fixed in the act take oaths to support the Constitution, and might be justified by its humanity to these admitting to eligibility those entertaining preinnocent children. This is a suggestion only, cisely the same views, but of less standing in and not a recommendation.

their communities. It may be said that the The policy pursued toward the Indians bas former violated an oath, while the latter did resulted favorably, so far as can be judged not. The latter did not have it in their power from the limited time during which it has to do so. If they had taken this oath it canbeen in operation. Through the exertions not be doubted they would have broken it as of the various societies of Christians to whom did the former class. If there are any great has been intrusted the execution of the policy, criminals, distinguished above all others for and the board of commissioners authorized by the part they took in opposition to the Gov. the law of April 10, 1869, many tribes of In- ernment, they might, in the judgment of Con. dians have been induced to settle upon reser- gress, bé excluded from such an amnesty. vations, to cultivate the soil, to perform pro- This subject is submitted for your carefu! ductive labor of various kinds, and to partially consideration. accept civilization. They are being cared for The condition of the southern States is, in such a way, it is hoped, as to induce those unhappily, not such as all true patriotic citistill pursuing their old habits of life to em- zens would like to see. Social ostracism for brace the only opportunity which is left them opinion's sake, personal violence or threats to avoid extermination.

toward persons entertaining political views



cpposed to those entertained by the majority which would enforce this principle against all of the old citizens, prevents immigration and indorsers of persons for public place would the flow of much-needed capital into the States insure great caution in making recommendalately in rebellion. It will be a happy condi: tions. A salutary lesson has been taught the tion of the country when the old citizens of careless and the dishonest public servant in these States will take an interest in public the great number of prosecutions and convicaffairs, promulgate ideas honestly entertained, tions of the last two years. vote for men representing their views, and It is gratifying to notice the favorable change tolerate the same freedom of expression and which is taking place throughout the country in ballot in those entertaining, different political bringing to punishment those who have proven convictions.

recreant to the trusts confided to them, and in The number of immigrants ignorant of our elevating to public office none but those who laws, habits, &c., coming into our country possess the confidence of the honest and the vir. annually has become so great, and the impo- tuous, who, it will always be found, comprise the sitions practiced upon them so numerous and majority of the community in which they live. flagrant, that I suggest congressional action In my message to Congress one year ago I for their protection. It seems to me a fair urgently recommended a reform in the civil subject of legislation by Congress. I cannot service of the country. In conformity with now state as fully as I desire the nature of the that recommendation, Congress, in the ninth complaints made by immigrants of the treat- section of " An act making appropriations for ment they receive, but will endeavor to do so sundry civil expenses of the Government, and during the session of Congress, particularly if for other purposes," approved March 3, 1871, the subject should receive your attention. gave the necessary authority to the Executive

It has been the aim of the Administration to inaugurate a civil service reform, and placed to enforce honesty and efficiency in all public upon him the responsibility of doing so. Under offices. Every public servant who has violated the authority of said act I convened a board the trust placed in him has been proceeded of gentlemen, eminently qualified for the work, against with all the rigor of the law. If bad to devise rules and regulations to effect the men have secured places it has been the fault needed reform. Their labors are not yet com. of the system established by law and custom plete, but it is believed that they will succeed for making appointments, or the fault of those in devising a plan that can be adopted to the who recommend for Government positions great relief of the Executive, the heads of persons not sufficiently well known to them Departments, and members of Congress, and personally, or who give letters indorsing the which will redound to the true interest of the characters of office-seekers without a proper public service. At all events, the experiment sense of the grave responsibility which such a shall have a fair trial. course devolves upon them. A civil service I have thus hastily summed up the operareform which can correct this abuse is much tions of the Government during the last year, desired. In mercantile pursuits, the business and made such suggestions as occur to me to man who gives a letter of recommendation to be proper for your consideration. I submit a friend, to enable him to obtain credit from them with a confidence that your combined a stranger, is regarded as morally responsible action will be wise, statesmanlike, and in the for the integrity of his friend, and his ability best interests of the whole country. to meet his obligations. A reformatory law


V. PRESIDENT GRANT'S SPECIAL MESSAGES. (For President Grant's special messages on held at Ocmulgee, in December last, which

increasing, American commerce, the ratifi: resulted in the adoption of a declaration of cation of the treaty with San Domingo, and rights and a constitution for their government, respecting Cuban affairs, and for his pro- together with a copy of the report of the Comclamation against the Fenian invasion of missioner of Indian Affairs, and the views of Canada, see McPherson's History of Recon- the Secretary of the Interior thereon. struction, page 540 to 544. For his special It would seem highly desirable that the message on the ratification of the fifteenth civilized Indians of the country should be enamendment, see same volume, page 545. couraged in establishing for themselves forms For his order respecting wages and hours of territorial government compatible with the of lahor, see same volume, page 421.] Constitution of the United States and with the

previous custom toward communities lying

outside of State limits. Relative to a Territorial Government for I concur in the views expressed by the Sec. the Indians, January 30, 1871.

retary of the Interior, that it would not be

advisable to receive the new territory with the To the Senate and House of Representatives : constitution precisely as it is now framed.

I transmit herewith an official copy of the So long as a territorial form of government proceedings of the council of Indian tribeslis preserved, Congress should hold the power

of approving or disapproving of all legislative and free people under a single Government action of the Territory; and the Executive must tend to make Governments what alone should, with “ the advice and consent of the they should be, the representatives of the Senate,'' have the power to appoint the Gov. will and the organization of the power of the ernor and judicial officers (and possibly some people. others) of the Territory.

The adoption in Europe of the American This is the first indication of the aborigines system of union, under the control and direc: desiring to adopt our form of government, tion of a free people, educated to self-restraint, and it is highly desirable that they become cannot fail to extend popular institutions and self-sustaining, self-relying, christianized, and to enlarge the peaceful influence of American civilized. If successful in this their first at- ideas. tempt at territorial government, we may hope The relations of the United States with Gerfor a gradual concentration of other Indians many are intimate and cordial; the commerin the new Territory. I therefore recommend cial intercourse between the two countries is as close an adherence to their wishes as is extensive, and is increasing from year to year ; consistent with safety.

and the large number of citizens and residents It might be well to limit the appointment of in the United States of German extraction, all territorial officials appointed by the Exec- and the continued flow of emigration thence utive to native citizens of the Territory. If to this country, have produced an intimacy of any exception is made to this rule, I would personal and political intercourse approach. recommend that it should be limited to the ing, if not equal, to that with the country from judiciary.

which the founders of our Government derived It is confidently hoped that the policy now their origin. being pursued toward the Indian will fit him The extent of these interests, and the greatfor self-government, and make him desire to ness of the German union, seem to require that settle among people of his own race, where in the classification of the representatives of he can enjoy the full privileges of civil and this Government to foreign Powers there should enlightened government.

no longer be an apparent undervaluation of U. S. GRANT. the importance of the German mission, such

as is made in the difference between the comRelative to the Union of the States of pensation allowed by law to the minister to Germany, February 7, 1871.

Germany and those to Great Britain and

France. There would seem to be a great proTo the Senate and House of Representatives : priety in placing the representative of this The union of the States of Germany into a that of its representatives at London and Paris.

Government at Berlin on the same footing with form of government similar in many respects The union of the several States of Germany to that of the American Union is an event that cannot fail to touch deeply the sympa commercial and personal intercourse between

under one Government, and the increasing thies of the people of the United States. This union has been brought about by the and the responsibilities of the legation.

the two countries, will also add to the labors long.continued, persistent efforts of the peo

I therefore recommend that the salaries of ple, with the deliberate approval of the govo the minister and of the secretary of legation ernments and people of twenty-four of the German States, through their regularly.con.

at Berlin be respectively increased to the same

amounts as are allowed to those at London stituted representatives.

and at Paris.

U. S. GRANT. In it the American people see an attempt to reproduce in Europe some of the best features of our own Coustitution, with such modifica- On the Test-Oath, February 15, 1871. tions as the history and condition of Germany seem to require. The local governments of To the Senate and House of Representatives : the several members of the union are pre- I have this day transınitted to the Senate served, while the powers conferred upon the the announcement that Senate bill No. 218, chief impart strength for the purposes of self- “ An act prescribing an oath of office to defense, without authority to enter upon wars be taken by persons who participated in the of conquest and ambition.

late rebellion, but who are not disqualified The cherished aspiration for national unity, from holding office by the fourteenth amend: which for ages has inspired the many mil- ment to the Constitution of the United States,' lions of people speaking the same language, bas become a law in the manner prescribed by inhabiting a contiguous and compact terri- the Constitution, without the signature of the tory, but unnaturally separated and divided President. by dynastic jealousies and the ambition of

If this were a bill for the repeal of the short-sighted rulers, has been attained ; and “test oath” required of persons

is elected or Germany now contains a population of about appointed to offices of honor or trust,

," it thirty-four millions, united, like our own, would meet my approval. The effect of the under one Government for its relations with law, however, is to relieve from taking a preother Powers, but retaining in its several scribed oath all those persons whom it was members the right and power of control of intended to exclude from such offices, and to their local interests, habits, and instructions. require it from all others. By this law the

The bringing of great masses of thoughtful | soldier who fought and bied for his country is to swear to his loyalty before assuming official extend over the entire continent as rapidly as functions, while the general who commanded other peoples might desire to bring themselves hosts for the overthrow of his Government is under our protection. I believed further that admitted to place without it. I cannot affix we should not permit any independent Governmy name to a law which discriminates against ment within the limits of North America to the upholder of his Government.

pass from a condition of independence to one I believe, however, that it is not wise policy to of ownership or protection under a European keep from office by an oath those who are not Power. disqualified by the Constitution and who are Soon after my inauguration as President, I the choice of legal voters; but, while relieving was waited upon by an agent of President them from an oath which they cannot take, I Baez with a proposition to annex the republic recommend the release also of those to whom of San Domingo to the United States. This the oath has no application.

gentleman represented the capacity of the U. S. GRANT. island, the desire of the people, and their

character and habits, about as they have been

described by the commissioners, whose report On the Condition of the lately Insur- accompanies this message. He stated further rectionary States, March 23, 1871. that, being weak in numbers and poor in

purse, they were not capable of developing To the Senate and House of Representatives : their great resources; that the people had no

A condition of affairs now exists in some incentive to industry on account of lack of States of the Union rendering life and prop- protection for their accumulations; and that, erty insecure and the carrying of the mails if not accepted by the United States-with and the collection of the revenue dangerous. institutions which they loved above those of The proof that such a condition of affairs ex. any other nation-they would be compelled ists in some localities is now before the Sen- to seek protection elsewhere. To these stateate. That the power to correct these evils is ments I made no reply, and gave no indication beyond the control of the State authorities I of what I thought of the proposition. In the do not doubt; that the power of the Execu- coarse of time I was waited upon by a second tive of the United States, acting within the gentleman from San Domingo, who made the limits of existing laws, is sufficient for pres- same representations, and who was received ent emergencies, is not clear. Therefore, I in like manner. urgently recommend such legislation as in the

In view of the facts which had been laid be. judgment of Congress shall effectually secure fore me, and with an earnest desire to mainlife, liberty, and property, and the enforce- tain the “Monroe doctrine," I believed that ment of law in all parts of the United States. I would be derelict in my duty if I did not It may be expedient to provide that such law take measures to ascertain the exact wish of as shall be passed in pursuance of this recom- the Government and inhabitants of the repubmendation shall expire at the end of the next lic of San Domingo in regard to annexation, session of Congress. There is no other sub- and communicate the information to the peoject upon which I would recommend legisla. ple of the United States. Under the attend. tion during the present Cougress.

ing circumstances I felt that if I turned a deaf U. S. GRANT. ear to this appeal I might, in the future, be

justly charged with a flagrant neglect of the Transmitting the Report of the Commis- welfare of a downtrodden race praying for

public interests and an utter disregard of the sioners appointed to Visit San Do- the blessings of a free and strong Government, mingo, April 5, 1871.

and for protection in the enjoyment of the

fruits of their own industry. To the Senate and House of Representatives : Those opponents of annexation who have

I have the honor to submit herewith to the heretofore professed to be preëminently the two Houses of Congress the report of the com- friends of the rights of man I believed would missioners appointed in pursuance of joint res- be my most violent assailants if I neglected olution approved January 12, 1871.

so clear a duty. Accordingly, after having It will be observed that this report more appointed a commissioner to visit the island, than sustains all that I have heretofore said in who declined on account of sickness, I selected regard to the productiveness and healthfulness a second gentleman, in whose capacity, judgof the republic of San Domingo, of the una ment, and integrity I had, and have yet, the nimity of the people for annexation to the Uni. most unbounded confidence. ted States, and of their peaceable character. He visited San Domingo, not to secure or

It is due to the public, as it certainly is to hasten annexation, but, unprejudiced and un. myself, that I should here give all the circum- biased, to learn all the facts about the Governstances which first led to the negotiation of a ment, the people, and the resources of that treaty for the annexation of the republic of republic. He went certainly as well prepared San Domingo to the United States.

to make an unfavorable report as a favorable When I accepted the arduous and respons. one, if the facts warranted it. His report ible position which I now hold, I did not fully corroborated the views of previous comdream of instituting any steps for the acquisi- missioners, and upon its receipt I felt that a tion of insular possessions. I believed, how- sense of duty and a due regard for our great ever, that ourinstitutions were broad enough to national interests required me to negotiate a treaty for the acquisition of the republic of the next session of Congress the people will San Domingo

have considered the subject and formed an As soon as it became publicly known that intelligent opinion concerning it ; to which such a treaty had been negotiated, the atten- opinion, deliberately made up, it will be the tion of the country was occupied with allega. duty of every department of the Government tions calculated to prejudice the merits of the to give heed, and no one will more cheerfully case, and with aspersions upon those whose conform to it than myself. It is not only the duty had connected them with it. Amid theory of our Constitution that the will of the the public excitement thus created the treaty people, constitutionally expressed, is the su: failed to receive the requisite two-thirds vote preme law, but I have ever believed that "all of the Senate, and was rejected; but whether men are wiser than any one man ;' and if the the action of that body was based wholly upon people, upon a full presentation of the facts, the merits of the treaty, or might not have shall decide that the annexation of the repubbeen, in some degree, influenced by such lic is not desirable, every department of the unfounded allegations, could not be known by Government ought to acquiesce in that decisthe people, because the debates of the Senate ion. in secret session are not published.

In again submitting to Congess a subject Under these circumstances I deemed it due to upon which public sentiment has been divided, the office which I hold, and due to the char. and which has been made the occasion of acacter of the agents who had been charged with rimonious debates in Congress, as well as of the investigation, that such proceedings should unjust aspersions elsewhere, I may, I trust, be had as would enable the people to know be indulged in a single remark. the truth. A commission was therefore con- No man could hope to perform duties so stituted, under authority of Congress, con delicate and responsible as pertain to the pressisting of gentlemen selected with special ref- idential office without sometimes incurring the erence to their high character and capacity for hostility of those who deem their opinions and the laborious work intrusted to them, who wishes treated with insufficient consideration ; were instructed to visit the spot and report and he who undertakes to conduct the affairs upon the facts. Other eminent citizens were of a great Government as a faithful public serrequested to accompany, the commission in vant, if sustained by the approval of his own order that the people might have the benefit conscience, may rely with confidence upon the of their views. Students of science and cor. candor and intelligence of a free people, whose respondents of the press, without regard to best interests he has striven to subserve, and political opinions, were invited to join the ex- can bear with patience the censure of disappedition, and their numbers were limited only pointed men. by the capacity of the vessel.

U. S. GRANT. The mere rejection by the Senate of a treaty negotiated by the President only indicates à difference of opinion between two coördinate Transmitting the Report of the Civil Ser. departments of the Government, without vice Commission, December 19, 1871. touching the character or wounding the pride to the Senate and House of Representatives : of either. But when such rejection takes place simultaneously with charges openly

In accordance with the act of Congress apmade of corruption on the part of the Presi- proved March 4, 1871, I convened a commisdent, or those employed by him, the case is sion of eminent gentlemen to devise rules and different. Indeed, in such case the honor of regulations for the purpose of reforming the the nation demands investigation. This has civil service. Their labors are now complete, been accomplished by the report of the com- and I transmit herewith their report, together missioners herewith transmitted, and which with the rules which they recommend for my fully vindicates the purity of the motives and action. These rules have been adopted, and action of those who represented the United will go into effect on the 1st day of January, States in the negotiation.

1872. And now my task is finished, and with it Under the law referred to, as I interpret it, ends all personal solicitude upon the subject. the authority is already invested in the ExecMy duty being done, yours begins; and I'utive to enforce these regulations, with full gladly hand over the whole matter to the judg. power to abridge, alter, or amend them at his ment of the American people, and of their option, when changes may be deemed advisarepresentatives in Congress assembled. The ble. These views, together with the report of facts will now be spread before the country, the commissioners, are submitted for your and a decision rendered by that tribunal whose careful consideration as to whether further convictions so seldom err, and against whose legislation may be necessary in order to carry will I have no policy to enforce. My opinion out an effective and beneficial civil service remains unchanged ; indeed, it is confirmed by reform. the report that the interests of our country If left to me, without further congressional and of San Domingo alike invite the annexa. action, the rules prescribed by the commistion of that republic.

sion, under the reservation already mentioned, In view of the difference of opinion upon this will be faithfully executed; but they are not subject, I suggest that no action be taken at binding, without further legislation, upon my the present session beyond the printing and successors. general dissemination of the report. Before Being desirous of bringing this subject to

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