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the attention of Congress before the approach. They are organized and armed. They ef. ing recess, I have not time to sufficiently fect their objects by personal violence, often examine the accompanying report to enable extending to murder. They terrify witnesses. me to suggest definite legislative action to They control juries in the State courts, and insure the support which may be necessary in sometimes in the courts of the United States. order to give a thorough trial to a policy long Systematic perjury is one of the means by needed.

which prosecutions of the members are deI ask for all the strength which Congress feated. From information given by officers can give me to enable me to carry out the of the State and of the United States and by reforms in the civil service recommended by credible private citizens, I am justified in afthe commissioners, and adopted, to take effect, firming that the instances of criminal violence as before stated, on January 1, 1872.

perpetrated by these combinations within the The law which provides for the convening last twelve months in the above.named counof a commission to devise rules and regula- ties could be reckoned by thousands." tions for reforming the civil service authorizes, I received information of a similar import I think, the permanent organization of a pri: from various other sources, among which were mary board, under whose general direction all the joint select Committee of Congress upon examinations of applicants for public office Southern Outrages, the officers of the State, shall be conducted. There is no appropri- the military officers of the United States on ation to continue such a board beyond the duty in South Carolina, the United States termination of its present labors. I therefore attorney and marshal, and other civil officers recommend that a proper appropriation be of the Government, repentant and abjuring made to continue the services of the present members of those unlawful organizations, perboard for another year, and in view of the fact sons specially employed by the Department that three members of the board hold positions of Justice to detect crimes against the United in the public service which precludes them from States, and from other credible persons. receiving extra compensation under existing Most, if not all, of this information, except laws, that they be authorized to receive a fair what I derived from the Attorney General, compensation for extra services rendered by came to me orally, and was to the effect that them in the performance of this duty. said counties were under the sway of powerful


combinations, properly known as “Ku Klux

Klans," the objects of which were, by force On Lawlessness in South Carolina, April and terror, to prevent all political action not 19, 1872.

in accord with the views of the members, to To the House of Representatives :

deprive colored citizens of the right to bear In answer to the resolution of the House of arms, and of the right to a free ballot; to supRepresentatives of the 25th of January last, press schools in which colored children were accompanied by the report of the Attorney these combinations were organized and armed, I have the honor to submit the following, taught, and to reduce the colored people to a

condition closely akin to that of slavery ; that General, to whom the resolution was referred.

and had rendered the local laws ineffectual Representations baving been made to me that in certain portions of South Carolina a

to protect the classes whom they desired to condition of lawlessness and terror existed, I oppress; that they had perpetrated many murrequested the then Attorney General Akerman ders, and hundreds of crimes of minor degree, to visit that State and after personal examina- all of which were unpunished; and that wittion to report to me the facts in relation to

nesses could not safely testify against them the subject. On the 16th of October last he unless the more active members were placed

under restraint. addressed me a communication from South Carolina, in which he stated that in the coun

U. S. Grant. ties of Spartanburg, York, Chester, Union, Laurens, Newberry, Fairfield, Lancaster, and On Treatment of Immigrants, May 14, 1872. Chesterfield there were combinations for the purpose of preventing the free political action To the Senate and House of Representatives of citizens who were friendly to the Constitu

of the United States : tion and the Government of the United States, and of depriving the emancipated classes of In my message to Congress at the beginning the equal protection of the laws.

of its present session, allusion was made to the “ These combinations embrace at least two hardships and privations inflicted upon poor thirds of the active white men of those coun- immigrants on shipboard and upon arrival on ties, and have the sympathy and countenance our shores ; and a suggestion was made favor. of a majority of the other third. They are ing national legislation for the purpose of connected with similar combinations in other effecting a radical cure of the evil. counties and States, and no doubt are part of

Promise was made that a special message a grand system of criminal associations per on this subject would be presented during the vading most of the southern States. The mem- present session should information be received bers are bound to obedience and secrecy by which would warrant it. I now transmit to oaths, which they are taught to regard as of the two Houses of Congress all that has been higher obligation than the lawful oaths taken officially received since that time bearing upon betore civil magistrates.

the subject, and recommend that such legisla.

tion be had as will secure, first, such room and being unable to give it my approval, and accommodations on shipboard as are ne- return the same to the Senate, the House in cessary for health and comfort, and such pri which it originated, without my signature. vacy and protection as not to compel immi. The bill appropriates the sum of $25,000 to grants to be the unwilling witnesses to so much compensate Dr. J. Milton Best for the destrucvice and misery; and, second, legislation to tion of his dwelling house and its contents by protect them upon their arrival at our sea- order of the commanding officer of the United ports from the knaves who are ever ready to States military forces at Paducah, Kentucky, despoil them of the little all which they are on the 26th day of March, 1864. It appears able to bring with them. Such legislation will that this house was one of a considerable numbe in the interests of humanity, and seem to ber destroyed for the purpose of giving open be fully justifiable. The immigrant is not a range to the guns of a United States fort. On citizen of any State or Territory upon his the day preceding the destruction the houses arrival, but comes here to become a citizen of had been used as a cover for rebel troops a great republic, free to change his residence at attacking the fort, and apprehending a rewill, to enjoy the blessing of a protecting Gov- newal of the attack, the commanding officer ernment, where all are equal before the law, caused the destruction of the houses. This, and to add to the national wealth by his indus- then, is a claim for compensation on account try.

of the ravages of war. It cannot be denied On his arrival he does not know States or that the payment of this claim would invite corporations, but confides implicitly in the the presentation of demands for very large protecting arms of the great, free country of sums of money; and such is the supposed which he has heard so much before leaving his magnitude of the claims that may be made native land. It is a source of serious dis. against the Government for necessary and appointment and discouragement to those who unavoidable destruction of property by the start with means sufficient to support them Army that I deem it proper to return this bill comfortably until they can choose a residence for reconsideration. and begin employment for a comfortable sup- It is a general principle of both international port to find themselves subject to ill-treatment and municipal law that all property is held and every discomfort on their passage here, subject not only to be taken by the Governand at the end of their journey seized upon by ment for public uses, in which case under the professed friends, claiming legal right to take Constitution of the United States the owner is charge of them for their protection, who do entitled to just compensation, but also subject not leave them until all their resources are ex- to be temporarily occupied, or even actually hausted, when they are abandoned in a strange destroyed in times of great public danger, and land, surrounded by strangers, without em- when the public safety demands it, and in this ployment and ignorant of the means of secur- latter case Governments do not admit a legal ing it. Under the present system this is the obligation on their part to compensate the fate of thousands annually, the exposures on owner. The temporary occupation of, injuries shipboard and the treatment on landing driv. to, and destruction of property caused by ing thousands to lives of vice and shame actual and necessary military operations, is who, with proper þumane treatment, might generally considered to fall within the lastbecome useful and respectable members of mentioned principle. If a Government makes society.

compensation under such circumstances, it is I do not advise national legislation in affairs a matter of bounty rather than of strict legal that should be regulated by the States, but I right. see no subject more national in its character If it be deemed proper to make compensathan provision for the safety and welfare of the tion for such losses, I suggest for the considthousands who leave foreign lands to become eration of Congress whether it would not be citizens of this Republic.

better, by general legislation, to provide some When their residence is chosen they may means for the ascertainment of the damage in then look to the laws of their locality for pro- all similar cases, and thus save to claimants tection and guidance.

the expense, inconvenience, and delay of atThe mass of immigrants arriving upon our tendance upon Congress, and, at the same shores, coming as they do on vessels under time, save the Government from the danger of foreign flags, makes treaties with the nations having imposed upon it fictitious or exagger. furnishing these immigrants necessary for their ated claims supported wholly by ex parte complete protection. For more than two years proof. If the claimant in this case ought to efforts have been made, on our part, to secure be paid, so ought all others similarly situated, such treaties, and there is now reasonable and that there are many such cannot be doubted. ground to hope for success.


Besides, there are strong reasons for believing that the amount of damage in this case has

been greatly over estimated. If this be true, Veto Message on J. Milton Best's Claim it furnishes an illustration of the danger of Bill, June 1, 1872.

trusting entirely to ex parte testimony in such matters.

U. S. GRANT. To the Senate of the United States :

A like bill for the relief of Thomas B. WalI have examined the bill (S. No. 105) enti- lace, of Lexington, Missouri, was also vetoed tled "An act for the relief of J. Milton Best, a day or two later.




On Appointing Commissioners to San (penter, Chandler, Cole, Conkling, Corbett, Cragin, Domingo.

Edmunds, Flanagan, Hamilton of Texas, Hamlin,

Harlan, Howe, Howell, Morton, Nye, Osborn, PomeIn SENATE.

roy, Pool, Ramsey, Revels. Ross, Sawyer, Scott,

Sherman, Stewart, Thayer, Warner, Willey, Wil1870, December 21—This resolution passed liams—32. the Senate:

NAYS — Messrs. Casserly, McCreery, Morrill of JOINT RESOLUTION authorizing the appoint- Thurman, Tipton—9.

Vermont, Patterson, Schurz, Stockton, Sumner, ment of commissioners in relation to the Republic of Dominica.

In House. Resolved, &c., That the President of the United States be authorized to appoint three 1871, January 10-Mr. AMBLER submitted commissioners, and also a secretary, the latter the following addition : to be versed in the English and Spanish lan

Provided, That nothing in these resolutions guages, to proceed to the island of San Do: contained shall be held, understood, or conmingo and to inquire into, ascertain, and report strued as committing Congress to the policy the political state and condition of the republic of annexing the territory of said republic of of Dominica, the desire and disposition of the Dominica." people of the said republic to become annexed

Which was agreed to-yeas 108, nays 76: to, and to form part of, the people of the United States ; the physical, mental, and moral con; Axtell, Barnum, Beaman, Beatty, Beck Biggs,

Yeas-Messrs. Adams, Ambler, Archer, Asper, dition of the said people, and their general Bird, 'Booker, Boyd, G. M. Brooks, J. Brooks, Burchcondition as to material wealth and industrial ard, Burr, Calkin, Coburn, Conger, Conner. Cook, capacity; the resources of the country ; its Cox, Crebs, Dawes, Dickey, Dickinson, Dox, Dike;

Ela, Eldredge, Farnsworth, Ferriss, Finkeinburg, mineral and agricultural products; the pro- Fox, Garfield, Getz, Gibson, Griswold, Haight, Halducts of its waters and forests ; the general deman, Hale, Hamill, Hawkins, Hawley. Hay, character of the soil; the extent and propor- sey, Kerr, Lewis, Manning, Marshall, Mayham, Mction thereof capable of cultivation ; tne cli- Cormick, ' McCrary. Morgan, Morrell, Morrissey. mate and health of the country ; its bays, Mungen, Niblack, Palmer, Peters, Pomeroy, Potter, barbors, and rivers; its general meteoro- ker, Shanks, L. Á. Sheldon, Sherrod, Shober, Slocum, logical character, and the existence and fre- J. A. Smith, J. J. Smith, Starkweather. A. F. Stequency of remarkable meteorological phenom- vens, Stone, Strong, Swann, Sweeney, Tanner, Tillena; the debt of the Government and its obli- man, w. Townsend, Trimble, Tyner, Upson, Vun

Auken, Van Trump, Voorhees, Washburn, Welker, gations, whether funded and ascertained and Wells, Wheeler, Willard, Williams, E. M. Wilson, admitted, or unadjusted and under discussion ; J.T. Wilson, Winchester, Wolt, Wood—108. treaties or engagements with other Powers ; Bailey, Banks, Barry, Benjamin, Bennett, Bingham extent of boundaries and territory-wbat pro Bowen, Buck, Buffinton, Burdett, B. F. Butler, R. portion is covered by grants or concessions, R. Butler, Churchill, W. T. Clark, A. Cobb, C. L. and generally what concessions or franchises Cobo. Degener, Donley, Duval, Fisher, Fitch, Gil

fillan, Hamilton, Harris, Heflin, Hogo, Jenckes, A. bave been granted; the terms and conditions H. Jones, Kelley, Kellogg, Ketoham, Knapp, Laflin, on which the Dominican Government may Lawrence, Loughridge, Maynard, McCarthy, Mcdesire to be annexed to and become part of Grew, McKee, McKenzie, Mercur, J. H. Moore, W. the United States as one of the Territories Packard, H. E. Paine. Peck, Perce, Platt, Poland. thereof; such other information with respect Porter, Prosser, Rainey, Sawyer, Scofield, P. Shelto the said Government, or its territories, as Taylor, Twichell, Van Horn, Van Wyck, Wallace, to the said commissioners shall seem desirable Whitmore, Winans, Witcher-76. or important with reference to the future in

The resolution then passed-yeas 122, nays corporation of the said Dominican republic 63. The negative vote was exclusively Dem. into the United States as one of it3 Territories. ocratic, except Messrs. Beatty, Boyd, Fink

Sec. 2. That the said commissioners shall, elnburg, Hoar, Peters, and Willard. The as soon as conveniently may be, report to the affirmative vote was exclusively Republican. President of the United States, who shall lay their report before Congress. Sec. 3. That the said commissioners shall

IN SENATE. serve without compensation except the pay. ment of expenses, and the compensation of 1871, January 11 – Various amendments the secretary shall be determined by the were proposed and rejected, when the House Secretary of State, with the approval of the amendment was agreed to-yeas 57, nays none. President.

[For President Grant's Message transmitting Yeas 32, nays 9 :

the report of the commissioners appointed YEAS-Messrs. Abbott, Ames, Brownlow, Car

under this ačt, see chapter V:]

Modification of the Test-Oath. to the tenure of civil offices, passed March 2,

1867, and April 5, 1869; which passed finally

yeas 159, nays 25: 1870, April 22—The following bill passed YEAS-Messrs. Allison, Armstrong, Asper, Atwood, without a division :

Axtell, Ayer, Bailey, Banks, Barry, Beaman, Beck,

Bingham, Bird, A. Blair, Boles, Bowen, Boyd, G.M. A BILL prescribing an oath of office to be Brooks, J. Brooks, Buckley. Butlington, Burchard,

taken by persons who participated in the late Burdett, Burr, B. F. Butler, R. R. Butler, Calkin, rebellion but who were not disqualified from Cobb, Cook, Conger, Cowles, Cox, Crebs, Callom, holding office by the fourteenth amendment Darrall, Dawes, Dickinson, J. Dixon, N. F. Dixon, to the Constitution of the United States.

Dockery, Donley, Dox, Duke, Duval, Eldredge,

Ferry, Fisher, Fitch, fox, Garfield, Getz, Gibson, Be it enacted, &c., That when any person, Gilfillan, Haldeman, Hale, Hamill, Hamilton, Harris, who is not rendered ineligible to office by the Hawkins, Hay, Heflin, Hoar, Holmes, Hooper, provisions of the fourteenth amendment to the Kelley, Kellogg, Kelsey, Ketcham, Knapp, Knott, Constitution, shall be elected or appointed to Lawrence, Logan, Loughridge, Manning, Mayham, any office of honor or trust under the Govern- McCormick, McCrary, McGrew, McKee, McKenzie, ment of the United States, and shall not be Morphis, Morrell, Morrill, Morrissey, Mungen, L.

McNeely, J. H. Moore, W. Moore, Morey, Morgan, able on account of his participation in the late Myers, Negley, Niblack, O'Neill, Orth, Packard, rebellion to take the oath prescribed in the act Packer, H. E. Paine, Palmer, Peck, Peters, Platt, of Congress approved July 2, 1862, said per. Roots, Sargent, Sawyer, Scofield, L. A. Sheldon. P. son sball, in lieu of said oath, before entering Sheldon, Shober, Slocum, John A. Smith, Joseph S. upon the duties of said office, take and sub-Smith, W.J. Smith, Starkweather, Stevenson, Stiles, scribe the oath prescribed in an act of Con Tanner, Taylor, w. Townsend, Trimble, Twichell

Stokes, Stone, Strickland, Strong, Swann, Sypher, gress entitled "An act prescribing an oath Tyner, Upson, Van Horn, Van Trump, Voorhees of office to be taken by persons from whom Wells, Williams, E. M. Wilson, J. T. Wilson, Winlegal disabilities shall have been removed," chester, Witcher, Wolf, Wood—159. approved July 11, 1868.

Nays-Messrs. Ambler, Arnell, Beatty, Benjamin, Benton, Cuburn, Degener, Farnsworth, Ferriss, Finkelnburg, Hawley, Jenckes, Laflin, Lynch,

Maynard, Mercer, E. H. Moore, Poland, Shanks, IN HOUSE.

W. C. Smith, Stevens, Stoughton, Taffe, Tillman,

1871, February 1-The bill passed-yeas
118, nays 90 :

YEAS,Messrs. Adams, Archer, Asper, Axtell, Ayer,
Bailey, Banks, Barnum, Beck, Bethune, Biggs, Bing-

1871, February 18—The bill was indefi. ham, Bird, A.Blair, Booker, Buck, Buckley, Burch- nitely postponed, without a division. ard, 'Burr, Calkin, Churchill, s. Clarke, Cleveland, Conner, Cook, Cox, Crebs, Darrall, Degener, Dickin- Pherson's History of Reconstruction, pages

[For other votes on this subject, see Mcson, J. Dixon, Dockery, Dox, Duke, Dyer, Eldredge, Farnsworth, Finkelnburg, Garfield, Getz, Gibson, 173–178, 397, 413-415.] Grisvoold, Haight, Haldeman, Hale, Hambleton, Hamill, Harris, Hay, Hefin, Hill, Holman, Hotchkiss, Jenckes, Johnson, T. L. Jones, Judd, Kellogg, Kerr, Ketcham,

Laflin, Lewis, Lynch, Manning, Marshali, Grant of Land to the Texas Pacific Rail. Mayham, McCormick, McKee, McKenzie, McNeely,

road Company. Morey, Morgan, Morphis. Niblack, H. E. Paine, W. W. Paine, Perce, Peters, Platt, Poland, Potter, Price, The following are the principal provisions Randall, Reeves, Rice, Sanford, Sargent, Sheldon, of this bill, approved March 3, 1871: Sherrod, Shober. Slocum, John A. Smith, Joseph S. Smith, Stiles, Stone, Strader, Strickland, Strong,

The corporation is authorized and emSwann, Sweeney, Sypher, Taylor, Tiilman, Trimble, powered to lay out, locate, construct, furnish, Upson, Van Auken. Van Trump, Voorhees, Wallace, maintain, and enjoy a continuous railroad and Washburn, Welle, E. M. Wilson, Winans, Winchester, telegraph line, with the appurtenances, from a Beaman, Beatty, Benjamin, Bennett, Benton, G.M. State of l'exas; thence by the most direct and Nays-Messrs

. Allison, Ambler, Arnell, Atwood, point at or near Marshall, county of Harrison, ler, Cessna, W. T. Clark, A. Cobb, c. L. Cobb, Co- eligible route, to be determined by said comburn, Conger, Cowles, Cullom, Dawes. Dickey, N. F. pany, near the thirty-second parallel of north Dixon, Donley, Duval, Ela, Ferriss, Ferry, Fisher, latitude, to a point at of near El Paso; thence Kelley, Kelsey, Knapp, Lawrence, Logan, Long, by the most direct and eligible route, to be Loughridge, Maynard, McCrary, McGrew, Mercur, selected by said company, through New E. 1. Moore, J. II., Moore...W. Moore, Morrell

, Mexico and Arizona, to a point on the Rio Palmer, Peck, Phelps, Pomeroy, Porter, Prosser, Colorado, at or near the southeastern boundRainey, Roots, Sawyer, Scofield, Shanks, W.J.Smith, ary of the State of California; thence by the Starkweather. Stevens, Stokes. Stoughton, Taffe, most direct and eligible route to San Diego, Van Wyck, Ward, W. B. Washburn, Welker, California, to ship’s channel, in the bay of Wheeler, Wilkinson, Willard, Williams, J. T. Wil- San Diego, in the State of California, purson, Wolf–90.

suing in the location thereof, as near as may [For President Grant's Message on this bill, be, the thirty-second parallel of north latisee chapter V.

tude, and is vested with all the powers, privi

leges, and immunities necessary to carry into Bill to Repeal the Tenure-of-Office Act.

effect the purposes of this act.

It shall have power to purchase the stock, In House.

land grants, franchises, and appurtenances 1870, December 12—Mr. BENJAMIN F. BUT- of, and consolidate on such terms as may be LER introduced a bill to repeal the acts relating agreed upon between the parties, with any railroad company or companies heretofore term "sbip's channel," as used in this bill, chartered by congressional, State, or territorial shall not be construed as conveying any authority, on the route prescribed in the first greater right to said company to the water. section of this act; but no such consolidation front of San Diego bay than it may acquire by shall be with any competing through line of gift, grant, purchase, or otherwise, except the railroads to the Pacific ocean.


right of way, as herein granted ; and provided It shall have power to purchase lands, or to further, that all such lands so granted by this accept donations, or grant of lands, or other section to said company, which shall not be property, from States or individuals. The sold, or otherwise disposed of, as provided in right of way through the public lands is this act, within three years after the complegranted to the said company for the construction of the entire road, shall be subject to settion of the said railroad and telegraph line, tlement and preëmption like other lands, at a and the right is given to take, from the public price to be fixed by and paid to said comlands adjacent to the line of said road, earth, pany, not exceeding an average of $2 50 per stone, timber, and other materials for the acre for all the lands herein granted. construction thereof. Said right of way is The New Orleans, Baton Rouge, and Vicksgranted to said company to the extent of two burg Railroad Company, chartered by the State hundred feet in width on each side of said of Louisiana, shall have the right to connect railroad where it may pass over the public by the most eligible route to be selected by lands ; and there is also hereby granted to said company with the said Texas Pacific railsaid company grounds for stations, buildings, road at its eastern terminus, and shall have workshops, wharves, switches, side-tracks, the right of way through the public land to the turn-tables, water-stations, and such other same extent granted hereby to the said Texo,s structures as may be necessary for said rail. Pacific Railroad Company, and in aid of its road, not exceeding forty acres of land at any construction from New Orleans to Baton one point.

Rouge, thence by the way of Alexandria, in For the purpose of aiding in the construc- said State, to connect with the said Texas tion of the railroad and telegraph line herein Pacific Railroad Company at its eastern term. provided for, there is granted to the said Texas inus, there is hereby granted to said company, Pacific Railroad Company, its successors and its successors and assigns, the same number assigos, every alternate section of public land, of alternate sections of public lands per mile, not mineral, designated by odd numbers, to in the State of Louisiana, as are by this act the amount of twenty alternate sections per granted in the State of California to said Texas mile, on each side of said railroad line, as such Pacific Railroad Company; and said lands line may be adopted by said company, through shall be withdrawn from market, selected, and the Territories of the United States, and ten patents issued therefor, and opened for settlealternate sections of land per mile on each side ment and preëmption, upon the same terms of said railroad in California, where the same and in the same manner and time as is proshall not have been sold, reserved, or other- vided for and required from said Texas Pacific wise disposed of by the United States, and to Railroad Company within said State of Cali. which a preëmption or homestead claim may fornia ; provided that said company shall comnot have attached at the time the line of plete the whole of said road within five years said road is definitely fixed. In case any of from the passage of this act. said lands shall have been sold, reserved, och That, for the purpose of connecting the cupied, or preëmpted, or otherwise disposed Texas Pacific railroad with the city of San of, other lands shall be selected in lieu thereof, Francisco, the Southern Pacific Railroad Com. by said company, under the direction of the pany of California is hereby authorized (subSecretary of the Interior, in alternate sections, ject to the laws of California) to construct a and designated by odd numbers, not more than line of railroad from a point at or near Teta. ten miles beyond the limits of said alternate chapa Pass, by way of Los Angeles, to the sections first above named, and not including Texas Pacific railroad at or near the Colorado the reserved numbers. If

, in the too near river, with the same rights, grants, and privi. approach of the said railroad line to the bound leges, and subject to the same limitations, reary of Mexico, the number of sections of land strictions, and conditions as were granted to to which the company is entitled cannot said Southern Pacific Railroad Company of be selected immediately on the line of said California, by the act of July 27, 1866: Prorailroad, or in lieu of mineral lands excluded vided, however, That this section shall in no from this grant, a like quantity of unoccupied way affect or impair the rights, present or and unappropriated agricultural lands, in odd. prospective, of the Atlantic and Pacific Railnumbered sections nearest the line of said road Company, orany other railroad company. railroad may be selected as above provided; and the word “mineral," where it occurs in this act, shall not be held to include iron or

In House. coal; provided, however, that no public lands 1871, March 3—The bill passed the Houseare hereby granted within the State of Califor. yeas 125, nays 64: nia further than twenty miles on each side of

YEAS-Messrs. Allison, Ames, Archer, Atwood, said road, except to inake up deficiencies as Axtell, Ayer, Banks, Beainan, Beck, Bennett, aforesaid, and then not to exceed twenty Brooks, Buck, Buckley, Burdett. B. F. Butler. R. miles from the lands originally granted. The R. Butler, Calkin, Cessna, Churchhill, W. T.

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