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at any session shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of busi


SEC. 3. Scientific sessions of the academy, unless otherwise ordered by a majority of the members present, shall be open to the public; sessions for the transaction of business shall be closed.

SEC. 4. Stated meetings of the council shall be held during the stated or special meetings of the academy. Special meetings of the council may be convened at the call of the president and two members of the council, or of four members of the council.

SEC. 5. No member who has not paid his dues shall take part in the business of the academy.


SECTION 1. All elections shall be by ballot, and each election shall be held separately unless otherwise ordered by this constitution. SEC. 2. The time for holding an election of officers shall be fixed by the academy at least one day before the election is held.

SEC. 3. The election of the six members of the council shall be as follows:

At the annual meeting in April, 1907, six members of the council to be elected, of whom two shall serve for three years, two for two years, and two for one year, their respective terms to be determined by lot. Each year thereafter the terms of two members shall expire, and their successors, to serve for three years, shall be elected at the annual meeting in each year.

SEC. 4. The academy shall be divided by the council into standing committees representing the principal branches of scientific research. A member may be assigned to more than one of these committees. The president of the academy shall appoint, subject to the approval of the council, a member of each committee as its chairman, who shall be responsible for the work of the committee.

Nominations to membership in the academy shall be made in writing, approved by a majority of the members of the committee on the branch of research in which the person nominated is eminent, or by a majority of the council in case there is no committee on the subject. The nominations shall be sent to the home secretary by the chairman of the committee before January 1 of the year in which the election is to be held, and each nomination shall be accompanied by a list of the principal contributions of the nominee to science. This list shall be printed by the home secretary for distribution among the members of the academy.

SEC. 5. Election of members shall be held at the annual meeting in Washington in the following manner: There shall be two ballots-a preference ballot, which may be prepared either before or at the annual meeting and must be transmitted to the home secretary, and a final ballot to be taken at the meeting.

Preference ballot.-Each member may inscribe on a ballot not more than 10 names of nominees selected from the submitted list. A list of the nominees shall then be prepared, on which the names shall be entered in the order of the number of votes received by each. In case two or more nominees should have the same number of votes on this preference list, the order in which they shall be placed on the list shall be determined by a majority vote of those present.

Final ballot.-A vote shall first be taken on the nominee who appears first on the preference list, and he shall be declared elected if he receive two-thirds of the votes cast and not less than 20 votes in all, provided that the number of members of the academy be not 150 or over, in which case to be declared elected he must receive fourfifths of the votes cast and not less than 25 votes in all. A vote shall then be taken in similar manner on the nominee standing second on the preference list, and so on until all the nominees on the preference list shall have been acted on, or until 10 nominees shall have been elected.

Not more than 10 members shall be elected at one annual meeting. Before and during elections a discussion of the merits of nominees will be in order.

The election of members may be suspended at any time by a majority vote of the members present.

SEC. 6. Every member elect shall accept his membership, personally or in writing, before the close of the next stated meeting after the date of his election. Otherwise, on proof that the secretary has formally notified him of his election, his name shall not be entered on the roll of members.

SEC. 7. The election of foreign associates shall be in the following


Foreign associates may be nominated by the council and may be elected at the annual meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present. Each member shall indicate on a ballot those names for which he votes, and those nominees whose names appear on twothirds of the votes cast shall be declared elected. A list of those nominated shall be sent to all members of the academy with the notice of the meeting at which the election is to be held.

SEC. 8. A diploma, with the corporate seal of the academy and the signatures of the officers, shall be sent by the appropriate secretary to each member on his acceptance of his membership, and to foreign associates on their election.

SEC. 9. Resignations shall be addressed to the president and acted on by the academy.

SEC. 10. Whenever a member has not paid his dues for four successive years, the treasurer shall report the fact to the council, which may report the case to the academy with the recommendation that

the person thus in arrears be declared to have forfeited his membership. If this recommendation be approved by two-thirds of the members present, the said person shall no longer be a member of the academy and his name shall be dropped from the roll.


SECTION 1. Communications on scientific subjects shall be read at scientific sessions of the academy, and papers by any member may be read by the author or by any other member, notice of the same having been previously given to the secretary.

SEC. 2. Any member of the academy may read a paper from a person who is not a member, and shall not be considered responsible for the facts or opinions expressed by the author, but shall be held responsible for the propriety of the paper.

Persons who are not members may read papers on invitation of the council or of the committee of arrangements.

SEC. 3. The academy may provide for the publication, under the direction of the council, of proceedings, memoirs, and reports.

SEC. 4. Propositions for investigations or reports by the academy shall be submitted to the council for approval, except those requested by the Government of the United States, which shall be acted on by the president, who will in such cases report their results to the Government as soon as obtained and to the academy at its next following stated meeting.

SEC. 5. The advice of the academy shall be at all times at the disposition of the Government upon any matter of science or art within its scope.

SEC. 6. An annual report to be presented to Congress shall be prepared by the president, and before its presentation submitted by him, first to the council and afterwards to the academy, at one of the stated meetings.

SEC. 7. Medals and prizes may be established, and the means of bestowing them accepted by the academy upon the recommendation of the council, by whom all the necessary arrangements for their establishment and award shall be made.

Bequests and trusts having for their object the advancement of science may also be accepted and administered by the academy.


SECTION 1. All investments shall be made by the treasurer in the corporate name of the academy with the approval of a finance committee of three members, to be appointed annually by the president, of which the treasurer shall be one. Investments shall be made in bonds of the United States, in State bonds, or bonds or notes secured by first mortgages on real estate, in investments legal for savings

banks under the laws of Massachusetts or New York, or in other bonds recommended to the treasurer by the fiscal advisers of the academy.

The council shall, at its annual meeting in each year, designate one bank or trust company in Washington, D. C., and one in New York City, to act, when requested by the treasurer, as the fiscal advisers of the academy.

The treasurer shall have the authority, with the approval of the finance committee, to change any investment held by him in the corporate name of the academy.

SEC. 2. No contract shall be binding upon the academy which has not been first approved by the council.

SEC. 3. The assessments required for the support of the academy shall be fixed by the academy on the recommendation of the council.


Additions and amendments to the constitution shall be made only at a stated meeting of the academy. Notice of a proposition for such a change must be given at a stated meeting, and shall be referred to the council, which may amend the proposition, and shall report thereon to the academy. Its report shall be considered by the academy in committee of the whole for amendment.

The proposition as amended, if adopted in committee of the whole, shall be voted on at the next stated meeting, and if it receives twothirds of the votes cast it shall be declared adopted.

Absent members may send their votes on pending changes in the constitution to the home secretary in writing, and such votes shall be counted as if the members were present.



I. In the absence of any officer a member shall be chosen to perform his duties temporarily, by a plurality of viva voce votes, upon open nominations.

II. On the first day of each stated session, immediately after calling the roll of members, a recording secretary shall be elected, by a plurality of members present, to assist the home secretary in keeping the records of the session.

III. The accounts of the treasurer shall, between January 1 and January 15 of each year, be audited by a committee of three members to be appointed by the president at the autumn meeting of the academy. The auditing committee may employ an expert accountant to examine the books of the treasurer. This committee shall inspect and verify the bonds, securities, and other property in the custody of the treasurer and shall compare the expenditures with the vouchers therefor. The annual report of the treasurer shall be published with that of the president to Congress. The reports of the treasurer and auditing committee shall be presented to the academy at the annual meeting.

IV. A committee of arrangements, consisting of five members, shall be appointed by the president for each stated session of the academy. This committee shall meet not less than two weeks previous to each session. It shall be in session during the meetings to make arrangements for the reception of the members, to arrange the business of each day, and, in general, to attend to all business and scientific arrangements.

It shall be the duty of the committee of arrangements to ascertain the length of time required for reading the several memoirs presented, and, when it appears advisable, to recommend a limit of time to be occupied in their discussion.

V. At the meetings the order of business shall be as follows:

1. Chair taken by the president, or, in his absence, by the vice president.

2. Roll of members called by home secretary.

3. Minutes of the preceding meeting read and approved.

4. Stated business.

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