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The Erection of Greece into a Kingdom, under a Bavarian

Prince, in 1832. The Pacification of Spain and Portugal, in 1834. The Treaties for the Separation of Belgium from Holland,

and the Arrangements respecting the Duchies of Lim

burg and Luxemburg, of 1839. The Pacification of the Levant, in 1840. The Convention respecting the Straits of the Dardanelles

and Bosphorus, .of 1841. The Suppression of the Free State of Cracow, and its

Incorporation with Austria, in 1846. The Territorial Arrangements of Italy, in 1844 and 1847. The Integrity of the Danish Monarchy and the Succession

to the Danish Throne, 1850—1852. The War between Turkey and Russia, in 1853. The Crimean War, 1854–1856. The Treaty for the maintenance of the Integrity of Sweden

and Norway, in 1855. The Conferences of Paris, of 1856. The General Treaty of Peace with Russia, of 30th March,

1856. The Separate Treaties, of the same date, relating to the

Dardanelles and Bosphorus, the Black Sea, and the

Aland Islands. The Mediation Protocol and the Maritime Law Declaration

of April, 1856. The Arrangements respecting the Bessarabian Frontier, the

Isle of Serpents, and the Delta of the Danube, of 1857. The Redemption of the Sound Dues, in 1857. The Turco-Russian Frontier in Asia, in 1857. The Organization of the Principalities of Moldavia and

Wallachia, in 1858. The Boundary of Montenegro iu 1858. The War between Austria, France, and Sardinia, in 1859. The Treaties of Peace of Villafranca and Zurich, of 1859,

by which Lombardy was ceded to Sardinia.

The Annexation of Savoy and Nice to France, in 1860.
The Pacification of Syria, in 1860.
The Annexation of Tuscany, Modena, Naples, Sicily,

Romagna, Parma, &c., to Sardinia, in 1860.
The Formation of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1861.
The Cession of Mentone and Roccabruna to France, in

1861. The Withdrawal of the British Protectorate over the

Ionian Islands, in 1863. The Termination of the Bavarian Order of Succession to

the Throne of Greece, and the recognition of the Danish Order of Succession to the Throne of that

Kingdom, in 1863. The Redemption of the Scheldt Toll, and The proposed assembly of a European Congress for the

preservation of the Peace of Europe, in 1863.


PRESENT DATE, 1875, and contains the Treaties and other Documents relating


The Union of the Ionian Islands to Greece, in 1864.
The Amelioration of the condition of the Wounded, in

War, in 1864.
The Conferences in London relative to the War between

Austria, Prussia, and Denmark, in 1864. The Convention of Vienna, of 1864, and of Gastein, of

1865, relative to the Duchies of Schleswig and

Holstein. The Union of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia,

in 1864 and 1866. The War between Austria and Prussia, in 1866. The Treaty of Peace of Prague, of 23rd August, 1866, and

of Vienna, of 3rd October, 1866, by which the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom was ceded to Italy:

The Annexation of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Frank

fort, Holstein, Schleswig, Waldeck, &c., to Prussia, in

1866. The Dissolution of the Germanic Confederation, in 1866,

the formation of the North German Confederation, in

1867, and of the German Empire, in 1871. The Luxemburg Treaty of 11th May, 1867. The Declaration with regard to the non-use of Explosive

Projectiles during War, of 1868. The War between France and Germany, in 1870–71,

and the Treaties of Peace, by which Alsace and

Lorraine were reunited to Germany. The Abrogation in 1871 of the Black Sea Clauses of the

Treaty of Paris, of 1856. The Final Protocol of the Brussels Conference, of 1874;

and The Proposals for reopening the Conferences, in 1875,

which were declined by the British Government.

That these Engagements have been contracted, in many instances, with the avowed object of maintaining the BALANCE OF POWER in Europe, may be readily tested by referring to the Index under that heading.

Many of them have been preceded or followed by EUROPEAN CONFERENCES, and full descriptions are given of what passed at the deliberations of the most important of them under their respective dates, with a reference to the volumes of the “State Papers” in which the Protocols themselves will be found.

DECLARATIONS OF WAR are also inserted, as well as Treaties for the EUROPEAN GUARANTEE of the INDEPENDENCE and NEUTRALITY of certain States, also Decrees annexing Territories, and Protests of the Possessors against such Annexations. As the VIENNA CONGRESS TREATY of 1815 is not unfrequently referred to in such Protests, a réference is given in the Index, under the heading of “ Vienna Congress Treaty," to every instance in which a reference has been made to that Treaty in subsequent European Documents.

In order to add to the usefulness of the Work, and to make the Boundary Treaties really intelligible, MAPS have been prepared and inserted, showing the Boundaries between the Principal States of Europe. In cases in which such Maps have been laid before Parliament with the Treaties, they have been reduced in size, to avoid the inconvenience of unfolding, and have been inserted in the volumes after the Treaties. General Maps of the same description have also been added, showing the status of Europe in 1815 and in 1875.

The entire Work is published in English. In cases in which the Treaties and other Documents have been laid before Parliament with English Translations, those Translations have been generally adopted, but in cases in which they have not been communicated to Parliament, Translations from the original language have been carefully made, and in all cases in which the Document has been inserted in the “State Papers," in the French language, a foot note is attached, giving a reference to the volume in which a copy of it is to be found.

The Treaty of Ghent of 1814 is inserted in order to show the terms upon which Peace was concluded with the United States of America after the French Revolutionary War; but it has not been thought necessary to insert the Treaties alluded to therein, or those which have been contracted with that country since that date, and consequent thereon.

In the Appendix will be found Copies of or Extracts from Treaties which were concluded prior to 1814, but which are alluded to in the body of the Work as being still in force, as well as a reference to the volumes of “State Papers,” in which will be found extracts from and references to other Documents, which it was not thought necessary to insert in the body of the Work in their order of

The INDEX, which forms an important feature in the
Work, and is prepared upon an entirely new Plan, gives
full reference to EVERY NAME as well as to EVERY SUBJECT
mentioned in the several Treaties or other International
Documents contained in the entire Work.

In conclusion, I can only repeat that the object aimed
at in this Work has been to enable the Statesman and
the Student, but especially the English Statesman and
the English Student, to ascertain accurately the Changes
that have taken place by Treaty in Europe since 1814, and
how these Changes have been brought about. With this
view the necessary Documents are given in Three Volumes
in a complete and connected form. Hitherto, in order to
obtain this information, it has been necessary to consult
collections of Treaties in many instances published abroad
and not easily accessible in England; or to refer to Blue
Books laid before Parliament, to the “State Papers,” or to
accounts of these events contained in Treatises on Inter-
national Law or International Questions, and other Works.

I am well aware that a Work such as this must, in some
measure, be incomplete. Some Documents of little prac-
tical value have been omitted; but every important State
Paper relating to the transactions referred to, will be
found recorded in these pages.

No pains have been spared to secure accuracy, and the
willing labour of my leisure hours during many years has
been given to make “The Map of Europe by Treaty” a
complete and satisfactory Work.

For the selection of the Papers, the correctness of the
Translations, and the accuracy of the Maps and Notes, I
am solely responsible.

Foreign Office,

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