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being in all likelihood to direct their had some advantage, and it would principal effort upon Vaugirard. have been necessary for us to have

“ T'he enemy's army was much followed it: but its retreat was sestronger than our's, yet we had rea- cured by the heights of Chatillon and son to hope, by our position, to be Meudon, and while we should have able to resist him with advantage in been engaged on that side, in endeacase of an attack on his part, but not, vouring to obtain a success which in my opinion, to attack him ourselves could decide nothing, the enemy with decisive success. In such a case, would have directed his attack on a complete victory is necessary; the Vaugirard, where we should not have enemy's army must be totally routed, been in a condition to resist him. or nothing undertaken ; otherwise, as “ Such would have been the most we would be obliged to remain after probable result of an inconsiderate the action to cover Paris against his attack; and yet it would have been fresh reinforcements and his corps of necessary to have made that attack, reserve, he would have always kept had the enemy continued longer to us in the same perplexity, deprived refuse the convention which had been by the first action of a great part of proposed to him; for we had to fear, our force. It would have been neces- above all, that, without attacking us, sary for us to have had a sufficient he would continue to close and press number of troops to form a corps of upon us more and more, to intercept observation ļo act on the enemy's the remainder of our communications, flanks with the view of harassing and and finally, by forming entrenchments, pursuing him, after having made him so to fortify himself around the city, experience a first reverse. But we as to prevent our cutting a passage to were far from being able to detach a gain the Loire.” part of our force, and it would have

Such is the reasoning of Carnot, been great imprudence in us to leave which we insert here, to shew that the point which it was above all ne- the surrender of Paris was an event cessary for us to cover. The enemy, necessary in a military point of view, as I have already said, had refused as equally important and fortunate his right, over which we might have when considered in a political light,

CHAP. XVIII,

. ,

Disturbances in the Capital.-The Army evacuates Paris. Entrance of the Al

lied Troops.Conduct of the Provisionai Government.-Dissolution of the Chambers.--Entrance

of the King. Difficulties of his Situation.He appoints a Ministry. Fouché named Minister of Police. He recommends Le. nity.-Ordinances of the 24th of July. They are not strictly executed.

Disturbances in Paris and the Provinces.-- Submission of various Corps of the Army.Catastrophe of General Ramel.- Submission and Murder of Marshal Brune.- Macdonald endeavours to re-organize the Army of the Loirc.-Their disorderly State. They are disbanded.- Disturbances in the South-And at Nismes.General de la Garde attacked and wounded.-New Commotions in Paris. --Trials and Executions of Labedoyere and the True Fauchers.--The King assembles the Chamber of Representatives.

The convention of Paris did not signal of alarm. And, in fact, at six seem to have altered the dispositions o'clock a kind of commotion took of the parties within the city. The place in different parts of the town. royalists made an effort to declare Muskets were fired on all sides, in the themselves, and take possession of the midst of the streets, on the bridges, capital for the king, whose white flag and on the boulevards ; cries of rage, was now Aying at Saint Denis, and menacing gestures, clamours, soldiers who was arrived there in person, with riding about, discharges of fire-arms the princes of his family and his house. repeated from the heights of Monthold. But the attempt was prema- martre to beyond the barriers of the ture, and was prevented by the

orders Fauxbourg St Antoine. All this apof Massena, that all persons should con- paratus of sedition, of violence, and tinue to wear the national cockade. of tumult, occasioned the greatest an

The troops and federates were out-xiety and agitation of mind among rageous upon hearing that the capi- the citizens. Some of the soldiers fulation had been signed. Vocifera. endeavoured to break off the treaty,

tions, menaces, seditious by firing on the posts of the allies, July 4. declarations, began to be who had the generosity to disdain the

heard about three in the provocation. Others discharged the afternoon. Small detached groups cannon on the heights of Montmartre, of haranguers were formed at short to the great alarm of the citizens. The distances, and solitary soldiers scat. federates, upon the night of the 3d of ered about seemed to be waiting for a July, paraded the streets in frantic groups, escorting the bust of Buona. wounded pride were blended with parte. They insulted several of the disappointed ferocity, defiled through posts of the national guards, and even the city and the suburbs to their place fired on some of their centinels. In of destination. Occasionally their some instances mischief happened; wonted shouts of Vive l'Empereur, but the firmness of the national guard, burst from their ranks, no longer in their numbers, and their moderation, the tone of triumphant exultation, but easily subdued these tumultuary rab- of determined despair. In this state ble, whose principal inducement to of dejection they commenced their riot was the hope of pillage. It was

march for the Loire, many deserting equally necessary to reduce to civil their ranks and colours, and renounsubmission the students of the Poly- cing a service which seemed no longtechnic school, and other seminaries, er to promise victory or glory. who had taken up arms, and now re- On the 7th of July, the national fused to lay them down, or forego guards, at the several barriers of r'athe independence and life of adven- ris, delivered up their posts to the alture, which they attached to the cha- lies; and their various forces of caracter of soldiers. Nothing could valry, infantry, and artillery, to the more strikingly illustrate the policy of number of perhaps 50,000 men, took Buonaparte, who, in giving a military possession of the capital of France, education, and instilling military feel- defiling along the Boulevards and the ings into the youth of France, had alleys of the Champs Elysees. It was succeeded so perfectly in rendering a scene very different from the joyous them the voluntary and precipitate procession of 1814, when the foreignimplements of continuing the state of ers and Frenchmen, animated by the war and confusion to which he had same universal joy, mingled their abandoned his capital. News of in- ranks as part of the same general surrections in the suburbs, of a general procession. The appearance of the mutiny in the army, of a meditated allied military, on the present occastorm by the allies, continued to agi- sion, was strictly regular, but severely tate Paris during the whole night in- solemn; they showed no exultation, tervening betwixt the 2d and 30 days but neither did they intimate any deof July.

sire to fraternize with the inhabitants, The troops of the line perpetrated who looked on them with a mixture several disorders in the posts where of fear and humiliation, especially they were quartered, before they when it was remarked that the troops could be made sensible of the neces. were all either British or Prussians, sity of the armistice; and the garri- the nations of the contederacy whom son of St Denis failed not to pillage they least liked to acknowledge as some part of that little town. Only victors, from recollection of the wrongs one mode could be devised of render. they had inflicted upon the latter, ing them tractable, and that was an and the constant hostility in which instant distribution of pay. The bank. they had so long stood to the other. ing-house of Perigaux, Lafitte, and The victors marched with all the stern Co. furnished a large sum for this apparatus of loaded arms, lighted purpose, on receiving security in go- matches, and the other preparations vernment stock. At length the sol. for instant action, which form the awdiers were collected by their officers, ful distinction between a peaceful and slowly, bullenly, with dejected procession and the actual operations countenances, in which shame and of war. The city was occupied as a captured town, and precautions were government which should have no taken against insurrection. The Bri other titles than the acclamations and tish took possession of the heights of will of a party, or which should be imMontmartre ; the bridges, squares, posed by force; every government and principal posts of the city were which should not adopt the national occupied by military posts, and can colours, and would not guarantee, , non were planted on the Pont Neuf “ The liberty of the citizens, and Pont Royale, ready loaded, and “ The equality of civil and political attended by soldiers having their rights, matches lighted.

« The liberty of the press, The Chamber of Representatives, “ The liberty of worship, in the meanwhile, proceeded in their “ The free consent with respect to sittings, as if they had been still un- levying of men and taxes, der the protection of the French armıy. i The responsibility of ministers, They continued to labour and polish “ The irrevocability of the sale of the constitution, which they intended national property, to impose on the king who should be “ The inviolability of property, elected, and they maintained the same • The abolition of tithes, of the air of indecision as to the person of old and new hereditary nobility, and the monarch. They acted as if they of feudality, said to the allies, “ Allow us the “ The entire oblivion of all opinions task of making the constitution, and and political votes expressed up to do you take that of chusing a king for the present moment, us—from any family but that of Bour- " The rewards due to the officers bon-or even from the Bourbons, if and soldiers, you will forbear to name Louis, or his “ The succours due to their widows ihree nearest relations." The statue and children, of Buonaparte was removed from their “ The institution of juries, hall, as a prince whom a proclamation "« The non-removal of judges, of the provisional government had de- “ The payment of the public debt, clared abandoned by fortune and by" would only have an ephemeral exthe nation.” The place was supplied istence, and would never secure the by a three-coloured banner, that it tranquillity of France nor of Europe." might appear to present a symbol of By this specious declaration the national power emanating from the Chamber proposed themselves as the people.

assertors of privileges, which, so far They next published a declaration, from having been attacked by Louis, blending together the most sacred had been first communicated to the rights of society and of constitutional nation during his brief reign, and as freedom, all of which had been al- the righters of those erroneous meaready granted to them by the royal sures which the king had already, by charter, with other questions in which repeated proclamations, declared his their own interests were peculiarly own intentions of undoing and cor. committed.

recting. But they blended those to“ The Chamber declares, that a pics on which their interference was monarch cannot offer any real gua- unnecessary, with the demands in farantee, if he does not swear to observe vour of an insurgent and rebellious the constitution framed by the nation- army, with the requisition of an entire al representation, and accepted by the amnesty, which would have been little people: it hence follows, that every less than a ratification of all the pro

ceedings which had taken place since should be constituted, and what force the landing of Buonaparte at Cannes, they should comprize? What ought to and with the adoption of the national be their rank, their decorations, their colours, instead of the white flag and facings, and form of epaulet? After cockade. This last point was pressed the discussion of these, and other obon the king by Fouché in an interview jects equally minute, they achieved a he had with his majesty at St Denis. new scheme of constitution, " It was here," said the statesman, which it took till five o'clock July 6. “ that your majesty's great ancestor, to read over. Henry IV., swallowed a mass for the In the meanwhile, the commu. good of his people, and will not your pication between the Parisian royalmajesty consent to sacrifice a rib- ists and Louis, who still remained at band ?" His majesty is said to have St Denis, became close and constant. answered, “ that for himself, he was Arms were sent out from Paris to indifferent on the subject, but that his equip his followers, and preparations family were so much determined were made for his public entry. It against the measure, that they would would have been something equally rather he should return to Hartwell absurdandindelicate that Louis should than consent to it." If this statement enter Paris, while the men by whom be correct, the princes of the house he had been so lately dethroned and of Bourbon were, in one instance, proscribed continued to exercise the wiser than its representative. For the authority of legislators within its walls. act of renouncing the royal colours, Fouché, who was in close corresponand adopting those of the Chambers, dence with Louis, recommended that would have been an acknowledgment he should temporize with the Chamof the justice and legality of the go- bers, which he asserted might be gainvernment of Buonaparte, and the le. ed, on according to them a guarantee gislature he had convoked, -an ad- of the charters, as promised by the mission that the king only held his king. The Duke of Wellington, to crown by the gift of the Chambers,— whom this proposal was submitted by 3 ratification of the mock Senate, or Macirone, who acted as a secret agent House of Peers, elected for their de. of Fouché on this occasion, saw at votion to Buonaparte,-above all, an once the danger of recognizing as in. acknowledgment that those who had dependent legislators a Senate and so lately dethroned and banished their Chamber of Representatives, convoked sovereign, had a right to repeat the and chosen on purpose to secure the experiment so soon as ever they felt late usurpation, “I am of opinion," themselves strong enough to carry it was his reply, “that, the allies having through.

declared the government of NapoThe Chamber of Representatives, leon an usurpation, all authority which however, continued their deliberations, emanates from it ought to be consithough there appeared no chance of dered as null and of no effect. All the king subscribing to the result. that remains for the Chambers and After as much grave discussion as if commission is to give in their resigna. their resolutions could have any se- tion, and declare that they only took rious effect, upon the questions whe- on themselves their temporary authother there should be suffered to exist rity, to insure the public tranquillity a rank of nobility independent of the and the integrity of the kingdom of Chamber of Peers? Whether the pum- Louis XVIII.” ber of the peers should be limited The commission having shewn no or unlimited? How the king's guards disposition to take this stcp voluntari,

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