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for the criminal increases, in propor. to the king, who appeared to hesitate tion to the length of time which betwixt the desire of vengeance and elapses betwixt the delinquency and the fear of taking it. These unfavourits punishment. This is much more able impressions would have been prethe case in respect to state crimes, vented, had the king, after obtaining which, however fraught with mis- possession of Paris, found himself chief to the state, are frequently com- able to bring to instant trial and exemitted by men otherwise estimable, cution such of the principal delinfrom misguided enthusiasm or erro- quents as might be selected as the neous political principles. In such most proper objects of punishment. cases, though we may recognize the This blow having been 'struck, and justice of the punishment, there is al- a few of the most guilty persons conways, a natural disposition to sympa. demned to death or exile, the subthize with the misguided sufferers; ject should have been put to rest for and when an insurrection has been ever by a general and unconditional subdued, and the state is once more amnesty, which ought to have been settled, men forget the loss which disturbed by no further debate or the public has sustained, and justice discussion, under any pretence whathas an appearance of vindictive per

Some such measure, under secution. In another point of view, circumstances which might have this delay in closing the public prose- shown that it flowed from lenity, and cutions against the adherents of Buo- neither from timidity nor weakness, naparte was of incalculable disadvan- would have proved a healing balsam tage to the king's affairs. It prolong- to the festering and envenomed ed discussions of every kind upon a wounds which remained so long unpainful and humiliating subject, and covered and inflamed. But as the kept the attention of the French peo- great number and strength of the ple, vain and irritable as they are, im- guilty faction seems to have prevent. politically fixed on the mortifying and ed any strong measures against their feverish consideration of their late leaders, the activity and remonstrangrand fault, with its deserved punish- ces of the royalists were sufficient to

All have heard the homely prevent the adoption of an effectual story of the sailor, whom his officer act of oblivion; and the compromise had ordered for punishment, and was between the two systems adopted by at the same time admonishing on the Louis XVIII., had the fate of most nature of his offence. “Sir," said the moderate measures. l'he republicans seaman, " if you mean to flog me, and imperialists were incensed withflog me if you mean to speech me, out being intimidated; the zeal of speech me—but don't fog me and the royalists for the king's person was speech me both.” The French na- cooled, although their animosities and tion was something in the situation of violence remained unchecked and unthe poor

sailor; their feelings were se- abated. We repeat, however, that verely agitated by the prolonged dis- though a better line of policy than cussion concerning the nature and that of Louis XVIII. might be easily consequences of their grand acı of na- pointed out, we are far from alleging, tional defection, and by the state of the ihat, surrounded as he was by almost proceedings against the principal de- insuperable difficulties, it was in the linquents, whose punishment was sus. king's power to adopt that firm and pended, but not remitted. The re- steady atritude which is necessary sult of these feelings was unfavourable to give the air of justice to punish

ment.

ment, and of dignity to clemency. In Here, then, as at a great and natu. the earlier period of his restoration, ral landmark,' we interrupt our achis sole efficient force, exclusive of count of the affairs of France' for this that tendered by the royalists, or the year. The history of the proceedings constitutidnalists, and which could in her legislature and cabinet, subse. only be used on their own conditions, quent to the opening of the Chambers, was the military strength of the allies, will fall naturally under the details of a fulcrum, no doubt, capable at the the next year. And devoutly do we moment of shaking France to the cen- hope and pray, that France may at no tre, but of which Louis could not have future period occupy such'a dispro. availed himself without exciting pre- portionate space of the annals of Eujudices against him in the mind of his rope, as, for her own misfortune,' as subjects, of more lasting evil, perhaps, well as that of other nations, it has than the dangers which a frank appli. been her fate to do for the last quarcation to the allied sovereigns might ter of a century. have enabled him to remedy.

CHAP. XX.

Buonaparte's arrival at Rochefort.-His Indecision.--He Surrenders to the

British and goes on board the Bellerophon.Arrival at Torbay-Argie ments respecting the Mode of Treating him. It is resolved to send him to St Helena. He protests against the Measure, and threatens Suicide, but is safely embarked and landed on the Island. Disturbances among the North Country Seamen.-East Indies.--Nepau War.Unsuccessful attempt to storm Kalunga, and Death of General Gillespie.Kalunga evacuated. Operations of General Ochterlony-Spirited Resistance of Amur Sing His Advice to the Rajah of Nepaul-Taking of Almerah. Defeat of Åmur Sing, and his Surrender of the disputed Provinces.--Disagreements with the Chinese.-Conquest of Candy.--Reflections.

Our narrative must now return to consort, was destined by the provis the fate of Buonaparte, whom, almost sional government to escort him to forgotted by the French people, and America. The wind was favourable even by those who had done and da- for his voyage, but a British man-of: red so much for his sake, we left at war, the Bellerophon, commanded by Rochefort under the surveillance of Captain Maitland, lay in sight, and General Becker, anxious equally to that officer's complete acquaintance avoid those toils in which he was en with the station, together with the veloped on shore by his late ministers, moon being clear and at the full, renand the dangers which awaited him, in dered it impossible that the frigates case of embarkation, from the British could escape his vigilance. Napoleblockading squadron.

on's brother, Joseph, now He entered Rochefort on arrived and informed him of July 11. July 3. the day of the capitulation all the events which had ta

of Paris, and remained six ken place at Paris, he capture of days at the hotel of the maritime pre- the capital, the dissolution of the profect, Baron Bonnefoux. Pressed by visional commission, and the restora. General Becker and by Bonnefoux to tion of Louis XVII. This was a hasten his departure, the day of the death-blow to any hopes he might yet king's entry into the capital was that entertain of being recalled to power

in which he left the shore by some unexpected change of cir8. and embarked on board La cumstances, by the necessities of the

Saale, a small French fri- provisional government, or the voice gate, which, with the Medusa, her of the army. His situation at Rochefort became hourly more precarious; his own words, “ that no misunder. Count Bonnefoux had already hoisted standing might arise, explicitly and the white flag in that town, an or- clearly explained to the Count Las der for the arrest of Napoleon might Casas that he had no authority whatbe instantly apprehended, and his safe- ever for granting terms of any sort, ty, indeed, only depended on the pre- and that all he could do was to concarious protection of his late minister, vey Buonaparte and his suite to Eng. Fouché. His first idea was to land on land, to be received in such manner the small island of Aix, which is well as his Royal Highness should deem protected by batteries, and there to de- most expedient." fend himself to extremity,-his next, Napoleon's condition admitted of to effect a secret escape. For this pur- no choice. In the morning of the pose, Buonaparte at one time determi- 15th July he left the Isle of Aix unned to employ a Danish brig, with two der a flag of truce, and about eight shallops, and at another purchased a o'clock presented on the quarter-deck small French vessel, hoping she might of the Bellerophon the most mortal escape the vigilance of the cruisers in enemy of Britain, a captive to her the darkness, or if she were boarded, arms. The appearance and dress of that he might remain concealed under this remarkable person are thus desome obscure disguise. The entreat- scribed by one of the officers of the ies of Bertrand and his wife prevailed Bellerophon, in a fetter dated July on Buonaparte to abandon a scheme 24:-" He is about five feet seven which seemed hopelessly desp-rate. inches in height, very strongly made, His last resource was in negociation. and well proportioned; very broad He sent a flag of truce to the com- and deep chest; legs and thighs promodore of the British squadron, re- portioned with great symmetry and questing permission to pass to Ameri- strength; a small, round, and hand. ca. The permission, as might have some foot. His countenance is sal. been anticipated, was positively refu- low, and as it were deeply tinged sed. The dangers with which the ex. by hot climate; but the most comemperor was surrounded now pressed manding air I ever saw. him more closely. It was almost im- grey, and the most piercing that possible that an attempt to seize him you can imagine. His glance, you would not soon be made either by some fancy, searches into your inmost zealous royalist, or by the constituted thoughts. His hair dark brown, and authorities. Thus hemmed in by land no appearance of grey. His features and sea, he resolved rather to surren- are handsome now, and when young. der to the arms of England than to er he must have been a very handabide the consequences

some man. He is rather fat, and his tion of the throne of France. Las belly protuberant, but he appears acCasas and Lallemand were dispatch. tive notwithstanding. His step and ed to Captain Maitland with a propo- demeanour altogether commanding. sal that he should receive on board He looks about 45 or 46 years of age. of his vessel Napoleon Buonaparte, He dresses in green uniform, with red for the purpose of throwing himself facings, and edged with red, two plain on the generosity of the Prince Re- gold epaulettes, the lapels of the coat gent. They attempted to stipulate cut round and turned back, white for his living at freedom and on his waistcoat and breeches, and military parole in any part of Britain he might boots and spurs, the grand cross of chuse; but Captain Maitland, to use the Legion of Honour on his left

His eyes

of his usurpa

breast.” His address to Captain sible to this kind of admiration, or Maitland was sufficiently dignified. unwilling to gratify their curiosity, “ I am come,” he said, “to claim the and set down to his own account the protection of your prince and of your shouts of the spectators at his appearlaws.” He showed some arrogance ance, though perhaps they were ra. in exacting the punctilious respect ther designed to gratulate the tridue to his former raok, which the umph of the nation, implied in his British officer, unwilling to be defi- being in British custody. Meantime, cient in generosity towards a fallen his further destiny was the object of enemy, and having no order to the much speculation. contrary, was contented to yield to There was a diversity of sentiment him.

in Great Britain concerning the mode Delayed by contrary winds on her of disposing of this extraordinary pripassage, the Bellerophon did not ar- soner. There was one classof reasoners, rive at Torbay until the 24th of July, who, looking ratherat Buonaparte’sde80 that government had full time to serts in time past, than at his present prepare for the reception of this ex- circumstances, or the relation in which traordinary prisoner. A letter of the he stood to our government, contend. following tenor was forwarded on his ed that we should best do our duty to behalf to the Prince Regent, imme. Europe by delivering him up to the diately on the vessel's arrival: King of France, to be by him capi

“ Royal Highness,-Exposed to tally executed. This opinion was en. the factions which divide my coun- tertained and expressed by many, who try, and to the enmity of the great considered the great moral lesson powers of Europe, I have terminated which such retribution might produce, . my political career, and I come, like without sufficiently attending to cir Themistocles, to throw myself upon cumstances, which would have utterly the hospitality (m'asseoir sur les foyers) destroyed its effect, and rendered it of the British nation. I place myself an act of cruelty, if not of perfidy. under the protection of its laws, which The right of the judge to indict puI claim from your Royal Highness, as nishment is as essentially necessary the most powerful, the most constant, to legalize an execution as the demeand the most generous of my enemies. rits of the criminal ; nor has it been

16 NAPOLEON, ever doubted that a murder may be “ Rochefort, 18th July."

committed on the person of a man, The Bellerophon was immediately who, if possible, deserved to suffer ordered round to Plymouth, with strict death a thousand times. Respecting orders that no one should be allowed France, Buonaparte held by the treato go aboard as visitors, and that nei. ty of Fountainbleau the character of ther Napoleon por any of his party an independent prince. Whatever his should be permitted to land. Armed former crimes and usurpations had boats performed the service of rowing been, he had subsequently been recog. round the vessel by day and night, nized by Europe (unwisely, indeed, but and preventing all communication. still formally recognized) as Emperor But beyond their circuit, the bay was of Elba, and as such had the right absolutely crowded with small craft to make war upon, and conquer if and boats of every description, filled he could, the neighbouring realm of with those whose curiosity led them France, with the moral guilt, indeed, to gaze on this remarkable person. that attends all wars undertaken to Buonaparte seemed to be not insen- gratify unjust ambition, but without

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