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incurring any specific penalty by the bleau, and the purple robe of the Emcode of nations. Such is the legal peror of Elba. view of the case ; but there is one But if the King of France could more obvious and natural, which speaks not legally punish Buonaparte capito the feelings of every one. If the tally, still less could Great Britain, in French nation, or a large portion of fair and honourable interpretation of them, were so blindly devoted to his surrender to Captain Maitland, Buonaparte as to place him at their deliver him up to be so placed in dana head once more, was it to be suppo- ger of his life. It has been indeed adsed that he incurred a capital pu- judged, that where rebels surrender nishment in availing himself of their to their own government, the quarter disposition in bis favour ? Napoleon granted to them only insures them had already held the government of from being put to the sword, and by France for many years, acknowledged no means against the consequence of by the sovereigns wliom he had hum- subsequent judicial proceedings abled, and who were now, in their gainst them. But the case is diffeturn, inflicting on him a lesson of hu- rent if the surrender is made to the mility. Was it wonderful that he military force of a power different should have endeavoured to resume from that which has been offended. an authority once so generally recog. In such cases, to deliver up prisoners nized in Europe and in France, still of war to the vengeance of those who longed for by a large body of the ci- thirst for their blood, has been, in all tizens and the whole army? If, like times, accounted the act of a mean ot Murat, he had 'undertaken an entera perfidious government. It was clear prize desperate and hopeless, and that Buonaparte was entitled to claiin fallen at Cannes or at Grasse into the something by his surrender to the Brihands of the government he had ata tish officer, and the least which could tempted to unsettle, there would have be assigned to him was personal secubeen some colour for treating him as rity; but the safety of life and limb, a desperate disturber of the public implied in every unconditional surpeace. But the number of his fac render, would have been strangely tion, as it made his strength and his infringed had he been instantly transa temptation, made also his apology, ferred to the French government, to and the general error which received be by them put to death. In fact, no him as a sovereign and installed him such thing was required at our hands, in the Tuilleries, was, in a court of and the French government, far from justice, a sufficient apology for his acs desiring to have him delivered up to cepting their homage. It is only in them, would have been very much oriental revolutions that unsuccessful embarrassed by such an offer. And ambition is punished with death, nor however 'much those who keenly felt can we consider Buonaparte taking the injuries inflicted on Europe by the the advantage of a tempting opportu- last usurpation of Buonaparte may nity to resume his authority, as en- have desired to see them expiated, titling a rival who could not keep the we are certain they would rather that fieldagainst him without foreign aid, to this capital offender had survived for put bim to death as the penalty of his ages, than that a single drop of his failure. His former murders, his ty: blood should sully the fair, honour of ranny, his unbounded ambition, were their country. covered by the amnesty of Fontain. Another and far more absurd opinion was entertained by some favour. done the same honour to the wildest ers of Buonaparte in this country, lion in Africa ; but would have been who imagined that his arrival in Bri- equally surprised at an attempt to tain conferred upon him all the privi- give the devastating monster the beleges of a British subject, afforded nefit of the Habeas Corpus act. When, him the protection of her laws, entit- therefore, the said Mr Capel Lofft proled bim to claim bis Habeas Corpus, tested that “the intelligence that the to fix his own residence, and to trans- great Napoleon will not be permitted fer to England the centre of those in- to land, and is to be sent perhaps to trigues, by which he might in future St Helena, was almost overwhelming be able to distarb the peace of the to him, though long accustomed to continent. The Morning Chronicle suffer much and toexpect everything ;" published a letter upon this subject foreigners were struck mute with asfrom one Mr Capel Lofft, and stated tonishment at such extremity of folly, besides, that “ Mr Waddington was or concluded it must be backed by a desirous of bringing the question be, strong body of desperate fanatics, reafore the Common Hall; and he sent a dy to bear Buonaparte on their shoul, copy of his resolution previously, to ders into St James's or Windsor Casthe Lord Mayor, who probably con. tle. But Englishmen, who know well sidered it to be drawn up in terms how easily the most absurd sentiments too strong and violent for public dis- will find crack-brained individuals to cussion." It is probable that Buona- support, promulgate, and advocate parte reckoned upon the existence of them, from the mere humour of sin. some such wrong-headed persons in gularity, only indulged in a hearty England, when he finally resolved to laugh at the sentimental distress, the surrender himself to the captain of the sufferings, and the expectations of Me Bellerophon. But foreigners, unused Capel Lofft, and the meditated motion to the general and uninterrupted free of Mr Waddington, which was too dom allowed by our laws to the circu- strong for the Lord Mayor's diges, lation of opinions of every sort, are apt tion. That Buonaparte was a priso, to consider the reveries of wild and ner of war was evident, from his şur, speculative persons, which the daily render to a captain in the British napapers give them an opportunity of in- vy, after his power had been destroytruding on the public, as sentiments se- ed in a dreadful battle betwixt his riously entertained by an efficient party forces and those of Britain ; and if having weight in the state. They are there is a maxim of public law more ignorant, that, in Britain, the restless clear than another, it is that which and violent politicians who speculate puts into the hands of the victorious and bluster in the public prints, have combatants the power of disposing of but little influence of any kind upon the captive enemy who surrenders at the practical maxims by which the discretion. It is a right constantly state is managed. . Indeed, the senti- exercised during a period of hostility. ments of the people of England, in Each nation shuts up its prisoners of general, though as subject to constant war in places of confinement; or if agitation as the magnetic needle, soon any of them are allowed freedom upon re-assume the polar direction of com- their parole, they are deprived of it mon sense and sound reason. The and placed under actual restraint the crowds who sailed round the Bellero.. instant it is discovered that their tie phon, and cheered Buonaparte as he of honour is not to be trusted, Buo. shewed himself on deck, would have naparte stood in this latter predica

VOL. VIII. PART I.

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ment. Sad experience had shewn in some part of Britain, whence he that the most favourable treaty could might have watched and inflamed at not bind him as a prince, and that he pleasure such causes of irritation as possessed both means and inclination should occur on the continent, or to renew scenes of confusion in Eu. perhaps in Britain itself, and he was rope. As a gentleman and a soldier, furious at the disappointment. He his word could be still less trusted, gave his indignation vent in a prosince Lefebvre and other officers, who test, which, we presume, contains had broken their parole in England, the essence of his cause of displeawere received by him, not only with impunity, but with favour and prefer- “ I protest solemnly, in ment. It had been too much his ob- the face of heaven and of Aug. 4. ject to disregard and even to deface men, against the violation those points of honourable feeling and of my most sacred rights, by the sentiment by which the military cha- forcible disposal of my person and of racter is at once dignified aod soften. my liberty. I came freely on board ed, and to sacrifice, on all occasions, the Bellerophon. I am not the prisofaith and honour to instant conveni- ner, I am the guest of England. Once ence and advantage. A just, though seated on board the Bellerophon, I severe retribution, has rendered him

was immediately entitled to the hosthe victim of his own want of faith pitality (Je fus sur le foyer) of the and indifference to character.

British people. If the government, After mature consideration, the mi. by giving orders to the captain of the nisters of Great Britain, who would Bellerophon to receive me and my have had on their heads all the blood suite, intended merely to lay a spare which might afterwards have been for me, it has forfeited'its honour, and shed on this man's account, had they sullied its flag. If this act be conomitted to secure his person when in summated, it will be in vain that the their power, determined that his fu- English will talk to Europe of their ture residence should be on the island integrity, of their laws, of their liberof St Helena, a place which seemed ty. The British faith will be lost in in a singular degree to combine the the hospitality of the Bellerophon. I necessary quality of absolute security appeal, therefore, to history; it will with facilities of exercise and domes- say that an enemy who made war for tic freedom, which could hardly have 20 years on the people of England, been united with it elsewhere. It was

came freely in his misfortune to seek determined that he should be consi,

an asylum under its laws. What more dered as a captive general, whom cir- striking proof could he give of his es. cumstances, arising out of his own teem and of his confidence ? But how character and conduct, prevented from did they answer it in England ? They being set at large on his parole, but pretended to hold out an hospitable to whom, nevertheless, the British hand to this enemy, and when he surnation was desirous, from a respect to rendered himself to them in good faith, misfortune, to soften captivity as far they sacrificed him. as it could receive alleviation.

“ NAPOLEON.” The intention of the British_government was communicated to Buo. In this morsel of bombastic expos. naparte by Lord Keith. It would tulation, Napoleon assumes, as grantseem be had buoyed himself up with ed, the very question on which the hopes of being permitted to reside decision of the justice of the proceed, ings of Great Britain depended, by strain from trafficking in his old trade declaring that he came freely on board of ambition, would be contented to the Bellerophon; which is no other reside a private and suspected indivi. wise true than as a criminal may be dual in Great Britain, bound only by said to walk freely to the gallows, his verbal engagement, which, in rem when the executioners stand by to straining the passions of a tyrant, is, drag him thither in case he pauses or says the eastern proverb, like a band of resists. At Rochefort, he could not flax around a blazing faggot? stay without falling into the hands of When the late emperor of France the royalists. On the isle of Aix, he understood that the British governcould not remain, for it was neither ment were peremptory in their reso. tenable against force, nor against lution, and that he was to be removed blockade. He had conceived various from the Bellerophon to the Northummodes of escape, and found each and berland, commanded by Sir George all of them impossible: He had tried Cockburn, and destined to convey to gain a free passage by negociation, him to St Helena, he had recourse to. it had been refused. He had made one of those mean tricks, which, mix. an attempt to annex his present pro- ing with and degrading what is grand posal of residing as a prisoner at large in his character, have procured for in Britain, as a stipulated condition of him the apt name of Jupiter-Scapin. his surrender, and it had been reject. He declared publicly, that he would ed. The absurdity of the charge. never be removed into the Northumagainst the captain of the Bellerophon berland alive, and solemnly reiterahaving spread an ambush for him, is ted his protestation with such an afgrossly evident. Captain Maitland, fectation of desperate sincerity, that with the feelings of an English officer all who heard him expected some traand a man of honour, had given Napo.. gical event. The road by which anleon's emissary, Las Casas, distinctly to cient warriors escaped to death from understand, that he was empowered to defeat and captivity, is closed against give him no conditions whatever; and Christians by the Divine command; if ever a prisoner of war could be said and far be it from us to censure the to surrender at discretion, that priso. losing gamester of ambition, for not ner was Napoleon Buonaparte. The adopting the desperate course of the doom inflicted on him was indeed congenial gambler, ruined at the hamore severe than probably would have zard table. We blame only the poor been imposed on any other individual unworthy artifice, by which Napoleon in similar circumstances: but the se. endeavoured to work upon the feelverity was that of caution, not of ings of those around him, and view, in cruelty, and it was rendered neces- the meanness with which he quietly sary by the character of the person to sneaked from the Bellerophon into the whom it was applied. What attention Northumberland, without any attempt to his word of honour could be ex- to realize his threats, the disgrace of pected from one who had encouraged a detected trickster. a breach of parole amongst his own On Monday, 7th August, Buonaofficers, by promoting and distinguish- parte, with the part of his train who ing those who had committed that dis. were permitted to attend, being the honourable crime? Or why should the faithful Bertrand, with Montholon, British government have trusted, that Las Casas, Gourgaud, and the wives he whom the treaty of Fontainbleau, of Bertrand and Montholon, four with all its advantages, could not re- children, and twelve domestics, were

Aransferred to the Northumberland, point of view, this arrangement was which instantly set sail for St Helena. important, as Russia, already too

They arrived safely at powerful a neighbour for the Ottoman August 16. their place of destina- Porte, would otherwise have acquired

tion, where Buonaparte a predominating influence in the locommenced his future line of life, un- nian republic. And, upon the whole, der the inspection of Sir Hudson there was sound national policy in the Lowe, who had been appointed go- measure, as it gave Britain a strength vernor of the island. He was lodged and an interest with a people and for the time in a villa, which, by a re- country, whom late events have once markable coincidence, had been for a

more placed within the scope of Eufortnight the residence of the Duke of ropean politics, and which, in the Wellington, while the vessel in which course of future events, may have he went out to India was lying at St considerable importance in the baHelena. At the very time when Na- lance of European power, poleon was tenant of this sequestered Before proceeding to the history of mansion, the Duke of Wellington was the more remote British settlements in possession of his favourite palace of during this eventful year, there is one the Elysee-Bourbon at Paris. The domestic incident of an unpleasing but rules to which Buonaparte was sub- transitory nature, which claims brief jected, with his mode of confinement notice from the annalist. The sailors in general, became the subject of a in the ports of the bishoprick of Dur. debate in parliament at a subsequent ham and Northumberland shewed a period, when they will fall most pro- spirit of insubordination, and a desire perly under our consideration. to dictate to their employers, which

In the conferences carried on at attained an alarming height, although Paris, there was only one concession it was altogether unmixed with any made to Great Britain in her national political opinions, which so often gancapacity, which was the ratification of grene and inflame the wounds occaher authority as protectress of the sioned by partial and professional dis

Seven Fonian Islands. By contents. Nov. 5. a special treaty, to which The paying off so many of the ships

all the allied powers acce- of war had occasioned a great influx ded, these islands were recognised as of seamen at the northern ports, paran independent state, to be governed ticularly at North and South Shields, by a constitution and charter, such as The coasters and colliers which daily should be adopted with the consent of sailed were unable to give employment a lord high commissioner, nominated to so many hands. Cabals ensued; by Great Britain, the protecting pow- clubs and daily meetings, processions, er. Our government, according to with fags and music, and the whole recent travellers, had, during the short ended in the appointment of a committime it possessed influence in these tee of insurgents, and the resolution islands since they were re-conquered, of the refractory seamen to guard the that is from the French, been very passage of the Tyne, and suffer no ves beneficial to the inhabitants. Their sel to sail without a permit from the commerce had already increased, and said committee, and being manned in their revenues, formerly misapplied such a manner as they were pleased to and abused, had, during the British prescribe. The navigation of the Tyne administration, been devoted to the was thus strangely interrupted for six proper national objects. In another

In another or seven weeks, while the attempts of

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