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CHAP. XXII.

West Indies..Martinico occupied by the British Forces.-Guadaloupe reduced

by Sir James Leith.-Continued Hostilities in South America.-- Lamentable State of Affairs in Spain.--Insurrection of Porlier-He is arrested and executed. Constitution of the Netherlands. Remonstrance of the Belgian Clergy.-Marriage of the Prince of Orange.

-Poland united with Russia. Germany.Disputes betwixt the King and States of Wirtemburgh.Territorial Acquisitions of Prussia-Her new Constitution.-German Confederation and Diet.

The earthquake which shook the cene vernment, generally wished to return tre of the French empire, failed not home. Count Vaugiraud acted with to agitate its extremities. The situa• much good sense in anticipating the tion of the island of Martinico became mischief which might have arisen, and critical so soon as the revolution of which he had not the power to have March became known there. The controuled, by assembling the troops governor, Count Vaugiraud, was faith- and releasing those of the officers who ful to the royal cause, and the militia, desired it from their obligations, inamounting to six thousand men, of forming them at the same time, that whom, however, only one-half had they must quit Martinique, and dearms, were sufficiently well inclined. claring that any attempt to raise the But the troops of the line, consisting standard of rebellion would be repelof 1300 men, who possessed the forts, led by force, and punished as an act shewed too much of the same disposi- of mutiny, in defiance of the oaths of tion which manifested itself in France. fidelity which they had taken to Louis The majority of the officers were de- the Eighteenth. cidedly for Buonaparte, some putting-Sir James Leith, commanding offi. up the tri-coloured cockade, and cer in the Leeward Islands, on learnothers, with similar sentiments less ing the precarious state of this valuaavowed, pretending that they only ble colony, immediately sent to the wished to return to France. The sul- aid of Count Vaugiraud a strong auxidiers were chiefly refractory con- liary force, which landed there on the scripts, who had never served, and had 5th of June. The French soldiers of no attachment to Buonaparte, butwho, the line, except about 450 men, who having escaped from the army under remained faithful to the king, were his severe system, and finding them- disarmed, and suffered to leave the selves expatriated under the king's go. island, which was thus saved from a from falling into the hands of the banishment, or to the fortresses. This, French, and who was covered with however, can be no ground of wonwounds, while fighting against them der, when it is known that the nume in the celebrated battle of Espinosa ; ber of persons in prison in Spain for Lieutenant-General Copons, the de- their political opinions, is supposed to fender of Tarifa, and general in chief exceed 51,000. of the first army of Catalonia ; Villa- “The distinguished deputy and pacampa, governor of Madrid, and ge- triot Antillon was very severely treatneral of the division which bore his ed. The persons who took him into name, who conducted the war so suc- custody, though they found him in cessfully against the usurper in the bed, afflicted with a very dangerous south of Arragon; and the ex-minister disorder, tore him from it, in order to at war, O'Donoju; the Camp-Marshal convey him in a cart from the village Porlier; and the Camp-Marshal Agu- of his residence to the city of Sarairre, one of the intrepid defenders of gossa, thus totally regardless of the Saragossa, who has died in prison. law of humanity, and deaf to the re

Among them are also various flections which could not fail to be other officers of merit, such as Briga- excited by the deplorable situation of dier Don Juan Moscoso, and Lieu. the sick man, who died in the cart in tenant-Colonels the Conde de Torre- which he was conveyed before arriNueva, Don Jacobo Escario, Don ving at the place of his destination. Luis Landaburu, and Don Joachim The principal charges brought aEscario of the general staff, Brigadier gainst the deputies were, the having Moreda, &c.

approved of the two decrees of the 1st “ Lieutenant-General Lacy has been of January, 1811, and of the 2d of banished, who was general-in-chief of February, 1814, upon the conduct the army of reserve of Gallicia, and which the army and the authorities who distinguished himself so much in should observe in case the king should the war of the Peninsula. In fact, it present himself on the frontiers of the may be observed, that almost all the kingdom, either surrounded by the chiefs who conducted the war with troops of Buonaparte, or under his insuccess have been disgraced, impri- Auence. These two decrees, known soned, or banished.

in almost all Europe, and particularly « l'he following also have been im- by the allied powers, were highlý apprisoned :-Senors Agar and Ciscar, plauded for the patriotic sentiments celebrated mathematicians, and mem- with which they abound; particularly bers of the Regency; Alvarez Guer- the latter decree, which was justly cera, minister of the interior; Cano lebrated in England, because it anManuel, ex-minister of grace and nulled the peace concluded at Valenjustice; Quintana, secretary of the cy between King Ferdinand and Buoking, and interpreter of languages; naparte. the Conde de Noblejas, marshal of Almost all the sentences were passCastile, and his brother Don Ramon ed when the processes were still in a de Chaves ; Domenech, political chief state of sumario,--that is, before the of Madrid; Acevedo, the same for accused could defend themselves; bethe Asturias, &c. &c. Every journal. fore they had brought forward witist who supported the character of nesses for their exculpation; which the government during the revolu- is the same as if in England the accution, is either a fugitive, or groans in sed were condemned upon no other dungeons, or has been condemned to evidence than that of the coroner's

inquest; for that which in Spain is deputies of the Cortes; Senor Luycalled the sumario of a process, is no- ando, minister of state ; the goverthing else but the first information. nors of Segovia, Santander, and seveThose processes,

in which a more re. ral other individuals; without inclugular course has been pursued, abound ding in this list the two Generals with a thousand other invalidatory Mina, of whom the first raised in Nacircumstances. Among these, one of varre the division which bore his the most shocking is, that of the per- name, and the second succeeded him sons accused having been prevented in the command when he was made from defending themselves in person prisoner." before the tribunal, which the laws of We know not whether we are most Spain authorise them to do.

to admire the gross ingratitude of the « The Special Commission, appointed king, or the stupid subservience of the for deciding these causes, because the people, when we observe these seveTribunal of the Alcades of the court, rities directed against those guerilla to which the commissịon was first gi. leaders who defended the throne and ven, twice refused to take cognizance the independence of Spain, when the of them, consists of four judges, one counsellors by whom Ferdinand is of whom, besides, acts in the charac- now surrounded had laid both as an ter of accuser and witness. It is wor- offering at the feet of Buonaparte. It thy of remark, that all these judges is evident that Spain's time for freehad themselves taken the oath to the dom is not yet arrived, and that the constitution framed by the Cortes: Egyptian bondage of despotism must one as member of the Council of Cas. bind his willing subjects perhaps for tile, two as deputies, and the fourth as

many years to come, Yet she did President of the Regency. This has not relapse into this lethal slumber given occasion to one of the most sin- without a slight convulsive struggle, gular occurrences that can be imagi- Our last year's annals mentioned the ned, and which is as follows: On the premature and unsuccessful attempt trial of Adıniral Valdez, one of the of Mina in Navarre, and we have now questions put to him was, “Why did to conmemorate a similar, but more you cause the constitution to be tragical, effort of the celebrated guesworn in Cadiz:' to which the Ad- rilla leader Porlier. miral answered, “Because I was com. The Marshal-de-Camp Juan Diez manded to do so by Senor Mosquera, Porlier, styled Marquis of Matarosa, in then President of the Regency, and rightof his wife, had distinguished himnow judge in my cause.'

selt in the guerilla war, where he com“ Some individuals, although not mandeda division in the Asturias under many, have succeeded in withdrawing the soubriquet of the Marquesito, or themselves from persecution, seeking Little Marquis, given him on account an asylum in foreign countries. The of his diminutive size, which, like that most distinguished among them is the of the Grecian hero of old, formed a Conde Toreno, deputy of the Cortes, singular contrast to the courage and well known in England under the activity of his mind. He had been retitle of Viscount Matarosa, as having warded as others were by confinement been the first diplomatic agent who in the castle of Antonio, where he had appeared in that country requesting remained a close prisoner since Auassistance in the war against Buona- gust 1814. Having obtained liberty parte; Senors Ysturiz, Diaz del Mo- to visit the baths at Artrigo, he seems ral, Quartero, Rodrigo, and Caneja, to have imagined his interest with the troops in garrison at Corunna was suf- of force, which is the foundation of ficient to accomplish a revolution upon the tranquillity of the state. All this, the principles of the oppressed Libe- soldiers, is offered you as a reward by rales. Whether this is to be regarded the change of the present system ; to as a mere insulated effort of despair, obtain it, unite your forces with mine, or whether he had rational hopes of and have confidence in your

chiefs ; assistance from accomplices who re

doubt not but that the other armies deemed these pledges indifferently, will follow you, and that all will be we have not the means of knowing. actuated by the same impulse. And His first step was successful. He as- if even there should be obstacles and

sembled the troops which difficulties to overcome, valour makes Sept. 18.

lay at Santa Lucia near every thing easy."

the gates of Corunna, and, These stirring promises were breathentering into the town, took posses- ed into indifferent ears. After maintainsion of it about one in the morning, ing possession of Corunna, Ferrol, &c. arrested the captain-general of the for four days, Porlier received intelliprovince and other persons in autho- gence that the wealthy Chapter of St rity, and published a proclamation ad- Jago had distributed money among dressed to the armies of Gallicia. In the soldiers quartered there, in order this manifesto he complained, with too to induce them to declare for Ferdimuch justice, that the restoration of nand. Conceiving that his presence King Ferdinand, which had cost so might counteract their mamany lives and sacrifices, had disap- chinations, Porlier left Co. Sept. 21. pointed the hopes of the nation-that, runna in charge of a small surrounded by unjust and selfish coun- garrison of 300 men, and marched sellors, he had consented to, and exe- with the rest of his forces towards St cuted a proscription of the most illus- Jago. He had not long left the town trious and deserving Spaniards, and ere a counter-revolution took place, opened the flood-gates of despotism. through the influence chiefly of the There remained but one remedy—to clergy. The members of the royal re-assemble the Cortes, and let them government whom Porlier had impridetermine the system by which Spain soned were set at liberty, and those should be hereafter governed, and in who had shewn themselves friendly the mean time to name an internal to his cause, including the small garjunta for the provisional government rison of Corunna, dispersed, and enof the kingdom of Gallicia. The adop- deavoured to save themselves without tion of this violent, but necessary re- even the show of resistance. This medy, was to produce, according to change appeared so wonderful to those the proclamation, the most beneficial who enjoyed the benefit of it, that the effects. “ Henceforth the valiant sols members of the royal junta attribute it dier, the man of talent, and of real to the immediate interference of the merit, shall meet with a solid recom- Most Holy Lady of the Rosary, to pence; arts, agriculture, and com- whom they prayed fervently in primerce, shall resume their ancient son, and whose festival was then in splendour; the national wealth shall the act of being solemnized. The recover the same channels which spirit of timidity and defection seized formerly nourished it; the soldiers, the main body of Porlier's army, who and others employed by the public, were under his own command. They shall be punctually paid; the scale of learned that the troops at Saint Jago, justice shall return to that equilibrium far from evincing any intention to join

them, had resolved to defend the pass The death of Porlier, indeed, was by which Porlier must approach the not altogether fruitless to his country, town. He was deserted on his march even in its present state. The governby the greater part of his men; and ment of Ferdinand appear to have taat length the rest, listening to fears ken the alarm at the insurrection of for their own safety and the instiga- Corunna, and suddenly became distions of the clergy, suffered their ge- posed to listen to the advice which neral and officers to be arrested in the was carnestly pressed on them by the midst of their ranks, and thrown into allied sovereigns. A sudden change the prison of the Inquisition. He did took place in Ferdinand's counsels, not long languish in uncertainty of and many of his worst counsellors his doom, being condemned and exe- were unexpectedly removed from cuted at Corunna, with three of his around the throne. The Duke of adherents, about four days after the San Carlos, author of the infamous miscarriage of his enterprize. In the treaty at Valençay, was removed from last will of the unfortunate Porlier, he ministry, and sent as ambassador he requested his wife, whom he named to Vienna, as to a kind of honourable his sole executor, to inter his remains, exile. Escoquiez, the preceptor of when circumstances should permit, in Ferdinand, to whose bigotted couna simple tomb, bearing the following sels many of the king's worst meaaffecting epitaph :

sures were imputed, was disgraced “ Here rest the ashes of Juan Diez and sent to Cordova. Other court. Porlier, general of the Spanish armies. iers were banished, chiefly men of He was always fortunate in what he that infamous class which truckled to undertook against the external ene- the French power while uppermost, mies of his country, and died a victim and who now, not inconsistently, were of its civil dissensions. Ye men, sen- the most ready to advise the imprusible to glory, respect the ashes of an dent monarch to acts of despotism. unfortunate patriot."

But no beneficial effects followed this About one hundred officers were favourable change. Instead of conarrested on this occasion, and several senting to pass an act of amnesty in were severely punished. Romain, Por- favour of the Liberales, Ferdinand has. lier's second-in-command, had thegood tened to pronounce sentences of exfortune to make his escape to England. ile, imprisonment, and personal serviThus ended a rash and ill-concerted tude upon the deputies of the Cortes, enterprise. The martyrs of liberty, who had distinguished themselves by however, resemble the martyrs of re- their zeal for freedom. Arguelles, ligion, in so much as they frequently the celebrated leader of that party, incur destruction by a premature at distinguished by his patriotic zeal and tempt to extend its principles among eloquence, was condemned to serve a people blinded by prejudice, and ten years as a private soldier; and siunprepared to receive its lights. Yet milar penalties, worse to a well-conthe death of such men is not fruitless. stituted mind than death itself, were It excites, like every other remarkable inflicted upon almost all who had held scene, the attention of the public, and up the cause of their sinking country men secretly begin to enquire into during her late agony. Chains, dunthe nature of those sentiments which geons, despair, death-daily toil, ren. have led the sufferers into danger, and dered more dreadful by being shared supported them in their last moments. in the society of common stabbers

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