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[Treaty of Adrianople.]

Province of Gouriel, from the Black Sea, ascends to that of Imeritia, and thence in the most direct line to the point where the frontiers of the Pashalics of Akhaltzik and of Kars unite with those of Georgia, leaving, in this manner, to the north and within this line the city of Akhaltzik and the fort of Alkhalkhaliki, at a distance which must not be less than two hours. All the countries situated to the south and west of this line of demarcation towards the Pashalics of Kars and of Trebizond, together with the greater part of the Pashalic of Akhaltzik, shall remain in perpetuity under the dominion of the Sublime Porte, whilst those which are situated to the north and east of the said line, towards Georgia, Imeritia, and Gouriel, as well as the whole of the coast of the Black Sea, from the mouth of the Kouban as far as the port of St. Nicholas inclusively, shall remain in perpetuity under the dominion of the Empire of Russia. In consequence of which the Imperial Court of Russia gives up and restores to the Sublime Porte the remaining portion of the Pashalic of Akhaltzik, the city and the Pashalic of Kars, the city and the Pashalic of Bayazid, the city and the Pashalie of Erzeroum, as well as all the places occupied by the Russian troops, and which are situated without the above-mentioned line. *

Moldavia and Wallachia placed under Suzerainty of the Porte,

enjoying an Independent National Government. Art. V. The Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia having been in consequence of a Capitulation placed under the Suzerainty of the Sublime Porte, and Russia having guaranteed their prosperity, it is understood that they shall preserve all the privileges and immunities which have been granted to them either by their Capitulations, or by the Treaties concluded between the two Empires, or by the Hatti-Sherifs promulgated at different times. In consequence whereof, they shall enjoy the free exercise of their Worship, perfect security, an independent national Government, and full liberty of Commerce. The additional clauses to the preceding stipulations, clauses which are judged to be necessary in order to secure to these two Provinces the enjoyment of their Rights, are consigned to the Separate Act hereunto annexed (1)+, which is and shall be considered as forming an integral part of the present Treaty.

Measures for Tranquillity of Servia. ART. VI. The circumstances which have occurred since the * See also Art. IX.

+ Page 824.

[Treaty of Adrianople.]

conclusion of the Convention of Ackermann (No. 131), not having allowed the Sublime Porte to occupy itself immediately with the carrying into execution the clauses of the Separate Act relative to Servia, and annexed to Article V of the said Convention; it undertakes in the most solemn manner to fulfil them without the least delay, and with the most scrupulous exactitude, and to proceed especially to the immediate restitution of the six districts detached from Servia, so as to secure for ever the tranquillity and welfare of that faithful and devoted nation. The Firman furnished with the Hatti-Sherif commanding the execution of the said clauses shall be delivered and officially communicated to the Imperial Court of Russia within the term of one month, reckoning from the signature of the present Treaty of Peace. *

Freedom of Trade in Turkey. ART. VII. Russian subjects shall enjoy, throughout the whole extent of the Ottoman Empire, as well by land as by sea, the full and entire freedom of trade secured to them by the Treaties concluded heretofore between the two High Contracting Powers. This freedom of trade shall not be molested in any way, nor shall it be fettered in any case, or under any pretext, by any prohibition or restriction whatsoever, nor in consequence of any regulation or measure, whether of public government or internal legislation. Russian subjects, ships, and merchandise, shall be protected from all violence and imposition. The first shall remain under the exclusive jurisdiction and control of the Russian Minister and Consuls; Russian ships shall never be subjected to any search on the part of the Ottoman authorities, neither out at sea nor in any of the ports or roadsteads under the dominion of the Sublime Porte; and all merchandise or goods belonging to a Russian subject may, after payment of the Custom-house dues imposed by the tariffs, be freely sold, deposited on land in the warehouses of the owner or consignee, or transhipped on board another vessel of any nation whatsoever, without the Russian subject being required, in this case, to give notice of the same to any of the local authorities, and much less to ask their permission so to do. It is expressly agreed that the different kinds of wheat coming from Russia shall partake of the same privileges, and that their free transit shall never, under any pretext, suffer the least difficulty or hindrance.

* See Hatti-Sherif of 1st October, 1829; and Firmans of October, 1830; December, 1833 ; 24th December, 1838; General Treaty of 30th March, 1856, Art. XXVIII; and Protocol of 4th September, 1862.

[Treaty of Adrianople.]

Free Passage to Russian J[erchant Vessels in Straits of Constanti

Tople and Bosphorus. The Sublime Porte engages, moreover, to take especial care that the trade and navigation of the Black Sea, particularly, shall be impeded in no manner whatsoever. For this purpose it admits and declares the passage of the Strait of Constantinople and that of the Dardanelles to be entirely free and open to Russian vessels under the merchant flag, laden or in ballast, whether they come from the Black Sea for the purpose of entering the Mediterranean, or whether, coming from the Mediterranean, they wish to enter the Black Sea: such vessels, provided they be merchant ships, whatever their size and tonnage, shall be exposed to no hindrance or annoyance of any kind, as above provided. The two Courts shall agree upon the most fitting means for preventing all delay in issuing the necessary instructions. ' In virtue of the same principle the passage of the Strait of Constantinople and of that of the Dardanelles is declared free and open to all the merchant ships of Powers who are at Peace with the Sublime Porte, whether going into the Russian ports of the Black Sea or coming from them, laden or in ballast, upon the same conditions which are stipulated for vessels under the Russian flag.

Freedom of Trade and Navigation in the Black Sea. Lastly, the Sublime Porte, recognizing in the Imperial Court of Russia the right of securing the necessary guarantees for this full freedom of trade and navigation in the Black Sea, declares solemnly, that on its part not the least obstacle shall ever, under any pretext whatsoever, be opposed to it. Above all, it promises never to allow itself henceforth to stop or detain vessels laden or in ballast, whether Russian or belonging to nations with whom the Ottoman Porte should not be in a state of declared war, which vessels shall be passing through the Strait of Constantinople and that of the Dardanelles, on their way from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean, or from the Mediterranean into the Russian ports of the Black Sea. And if, which God forbid, any one of the stipulations contained in the present Article should be infringed, and the remonstrances of the Russian Minister thereupon should fail in obtaining a full and prompt redress, the Sublime Porte recognizes beforehand in the Imperial Court of Russia the right of considering sach an infraction as an act of

[Treaty of Adrianople.)

hostility, and of immediately having recourse to reprisals against the Ottoman Empire.

Indemnity due to Russia. Art. VIII. The arrangements formerly stipulated by Article VI of the Convention of Ackermann (No. 131), for the purpose of regulating and liquidating the claims of the respective subjects and mercnants relatively to the indemnification for the losses incurred at various times since the War of 1806, not having been carried into execution, and the Russian trade having, since the conclusion of the aforesaid Convention of Ackermann, suffered fresh injury to a considerable extent, in consequence of the measures adopted with respect to the navigation of the Bosphorus, it is agreed and determined that the Sublime Porte, by way of reparation for these losses and injuries, shall pay to the Imperial Court of Russia, within the course of 18 months, at periods which shall hereafter be agreed upon, the sum of 1,500,000 ducats of Holland; so that the payment of this sum shall put an end to every reciprocal de:nınd or claim of the two Contracting Powers, on the score of the circumstances above mentioned.* Cession of Territory to Russia to be agreed upon in Part Payment

of Indemnity. Art. IX. The prolongation of the War to which the present Treaty of Peace happily puts an end, having occasioned the Imperial Court considerable expenses, the Sublime Porte acknowedges the necessity of offering it a suitable indemnification. Therefore, independently of the cession of a small portion of territory in Asia, stipulated in Article IV, which the Court of Russia consents to receive in part of the said Indemnity, the Sublime Porte engages to pay it a sum of money, the amount of which shall be fixed by mutual agreement.* Athesion of Turkey to Act of 22nd March, 1829, between Great

Britain, France, and Russia. Art. X. In declaring its entire adhesion to the stipulations of the Treaty concluded at London on the 28th June, 1827 (No. 136),

6th between Russia, Great Britain, and France, the Sublime Porte equally accedes to the Act entered into on the of March, 1829 (No. 142), with common consent, between those same Powers upon the bases of the said Treaty, and containing the arrange

See also Separate Act (2), page 828.

10th 22nd

[Treaty of Adrianople.]

ments of detail relating to its definitive execution. Immediately after the exchange of the Ratifications of the present Treaty of Peace, the Sublime Porte will appoint Plenipotentiaries for the purpose of agreeing with those of the Imperial Court of Russia, and of the Courts of England and of France, upon the carrying into execution the said stipulation and arrangements.

Evacuation of Ottoman Territory by Russia. ART. XI. Immediately after the signing of the present Treaty of Peace between the two Empires, and the exchange of the Ratifications of the two Sovereigns, the Sublime Porte shall take the necessary measures for the prompt and scrupulous execution of the stipulations contained therein, and especially of the Articles III and IV, relative to the Boundaries which are to separate the two Empires, as well in Europe as in Asia, and of the Articles V and VI, concerning the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as Servia : and from the moment when these different Articles may be considered as having been executed, the Imperial Court of Russia will proceed to the evacuation of the territory of the Ottoman Empire, conformably to the principles established by a Separate Act (2), which forms an integral part of the present Treaty of Peace.*

Until the complete Evacuation of the Countries occupied, the administration and order of things which are there now established under the influence of the Imperial Court of Russia, shall be maintained, nor can the Sublime Porte interfere therein in any manner whatsoever.

Cessation of Hostilities. ART. XII. Immediately after the signature of the present Treaty of Peace, orders shall be issued to the Commanders of the respective forces, as well on land as on sea, to cease from all hostilities; such as shall have been committed after the signature of the present Treaty shall be considered as not having occurred, and shall produce no change in the stipulations therein contained. In like manner, whatever conquests which, during this interval, shall have been made by the troops of either of the High Contracting Powers, must be restored without the least delay. Amnesty. Liberty of respective Subjects to dispose of their Landed

ART. XIII. The High Contracting Powers, upon re-establish-

* See page 828.

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