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[Treaty of Adrianople.]

ing between themselves the relations of a sincere friendship, grant a general pardon and a full and complete Amnesty to all such of their subjects, of whatever condition they may be, who, during the continuance of the War now happily terminated, shall have taken part in the military operations, or have shown, either by their conduct or their opinions, their attachment to one or other of two Contracting Powers. In consequence whereof, none of these individuals shall be molested or prosecuted, either in person or property, on account of their past conduct, and each of them, l'ecovering the landed property woich he before possessed, shall have the peaceable enjoyment of the same, under the protection of the laws, or else shall be at liberty to dispose thereof within the space of 18 months, in order to transfer himself, together with his family and his movable property, into any country which he may select; and this without undergoing any molestation, or being opposed by any obstacle whatsoever. Power of respective Subjects of Ceded Countries to dispose of their

Lantled Property and to Reside in either Country. There shall, moreover, be granted to the respective subjects, established in the Countries restored to the Sublime Porte, or ceded to the Imperial Court of Russia, the same term of 18 months, to be reckoned from the exchange of the Ratifications of the present Treaty of Peace, for the purpose, should they think fit so to do, of disposing of their Landed Property, acquired either before or since the War; and of retiring with their assets and their movable Property from the States of one of the Contracting Powers into those of the others, and reciprocally. Restoration of Prisoners. Exception in farour of Christians who

have become Mahometans, and Mahometans who have become Christians.

Art. XIV. All the Prisoners of War, of whatsoever nation, condition, and sex they may be, who are in the two Empires, must, immediately after the exchange of the Ratifications of the present Treaty of Peace, be delivered up and restored without the least ransom or payment. Exception is made in favour of the Christians who, of their own free will, have embraced the Mahometan religion, in the States of the Sublime Porte, and of the Mahometans, who in like manner, of their own free will, have embraced the Christian religion in the States of the Empire of Russia

[Treaty of Adrianople.]

Prisoners taken after conclusion of Peace to be Restored.

The same shall be observed with respect to the Russian subjects, who, after the signing of the present Treaty of Peace, may have, in any manner, fallen into captivity, and who are in the States of the Sublime Porte. The Imperial Court of Russia promises, on its part, to act in the same manner towards the subjects of the Sublime Porte.

Expenses of Prisoners of War not to be reimbursed. No reimbursement of the sums which have been expended by the Iligh Contracting Powers for the maintenance of the Prisoners of War, shall be required. Each of them shall provide all that is necessary for them during their journey to the frontier, where they will be exchanged by Commissioners appointed respectively.

Confirmation of Treaties. ART. XV. All the Treaties, Conventions, and Stipulations, entered into and concluded at different epochs, between the Imperial Court of Russia and the Sublime Ottoman Porte, excepting the Articles which have been modified or changed by the „present Treaty of Peace, are confirmed in all their force and integrity, and the two High Contracting Powers engage to observe them religiously and inviolably.

Rutifications. ART. XVI. The present Treaty of Peace shall be ratified by the two High Contracting Powers, and the exchange of the Ratifications between the respective Plenipotentiaries shall be effected within the space of six weeks, or sooner if possible.

The present Document of Peace, containing 16 Articles, and which shall be completed by the exchange of the respective Ratifications, has been, in virtue of our Full Powers, signed and sealed by us, and exchanged against a similar one, signed by the undermentioned Plenipotentiaries of the Sublime Ottoman Porte, and sealed with their Seals. Done at Adrianople, the 4th September, 1829.



[Treaty of Adrianople. Moldavia and Wallachia.]

(Translation as laid before Parliament.*) SEPARATE ACTS annexed to the Treaty signed at Adrianople,

14th September, 1829. SEPARATE Act (1) relative to the Principalities of Moldavia anul


Hospodars to be Elected for Life.

In the Name of Almighty God. The two IIigh Contracting Powers, at the same time that they confirm all that has been stipulated by the Separate Act of the Convention of Ackermann, relative to the mode of electing the IIospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia, have been convinced of the necessity of imparting to the Government of those Provinces a basis more stable and better adapted to the real interests of the two countries. For this purpose it has been definitively agreed upon and determined, that the duration of the government of the IIospodars should no longer be limited to 7 years, as heretofore, but that they should henceforth be invested with that dignity for life, excepting in cases of voluntary abdication, or of deprivation by reason of criminality, foreseen by the said Separate Act.

Powers of Hospodars. The IIospodars shall have full liberty in the management of the internal affairs of their provinces, after consulting their respective Divans, without, however, the power of injuring in any degree the rights guaranteed to the two countries by Treaties or IIatti-sheriffs, and they shall not be disturbed in their internal administration by any order contrary to those rights. Non-interference by Turkish Authorities in Adjoining Provinces to

Interfere in Affairs of Moldavia and Wallachia. The Sublime Porte promises and engages to take especial care that the privileges granted to Moldavia and Wallachia, be not in any manner infringed upon by its officers commanding in the adjoining provinces, and not to allow any interference on their part in the affairs of the two provinces, as well as to prevent all inroads of the inhabitants of the right bank of the Danube upon the Wallachian or Moldavian territory.

* For French Version, see “State Papers," vol. xvi, p. 654.

+ Altered by General Treaty of 30th March, 1856, Art. xxii; and Con. voution of 19th August, 1838.

[Treaty of Adrianople. Moldavia and Wallachia.]

Boundary of Principalities. All the Islands belonging to the left bank of the Danube shall be considered as forming an integral part of this territory, and the stream (Thalweg) of this River shall form the Boundary of the two Principalities, from its entrance into the Ottoman States as far as its confluence with the Pruth.

Porte not to retain any Fortified Point, or allow any Establishment

by Mussulman Subjects on Left Bank of the Danube. For the better securing the inviolability of the Moldavian and Wallachian territory, the Sublime Porte engages not to retain any Fortified Point, nor to allow any establishment whatsoever of its Mussulman subjects on the left bank of the Danube. In consequence whereof it is permanently ordained, that upon the whole of that bank in Great and Little Wallachia, as well as in Moldavia, no Mussulman can ever establish his residence, and that the only Mahometans who can be admitted therein are merchants provided with firmans, whose object in repairing thither is to purchase, on their own account in the Principalities, the goods necessary for the consumption of Constantinople, or other articles.

Turkish Towns on Left Bank of the Danube to be Restored to

Wallachia. Mussulmans to Sell their Landed Estates. The Turkish towns situated upon the left bank of the Danube shall, as well as their territories (Rayahs), be restored to Wallachia, in order to be henceforward united to that Principality, and the fortifications heretofore standing upon that bank can never be rebuilt. Such Mussulmans as possess landed estates not unjustly obtained from private individuals, whether situated in these same towns, or upon any other point of the left bank of the Danube shall be required to sell them to natives within the space of 18 months.

Quarantine Establishment. Militia for Security of Frontier, dc.

The Government of the two Principalities, possessing all the privileges of an independent internal administration, is at liberty to establish Sanitary cordons and Quarantines along the course of the Danube, and elsewhere in the country where they shall be needed, without the strangers who arrive there, as well Mussulmans as Christians, being allowed to exempt themselves from the exact observance of the Sanitary Regulations. For the Quarantine

[Treaty of Adrianople. Moldavia and Wallachia.]

service, as well as for watching over the security of the Frontiers, for the maintenance of good order in the towns and country places, and for the execution of the laws and regulations, the Government of each Principality may keep in pay such a number of armed guards as shall be strictly necessary for these different duties. The number and maintenance of this Militia shall be regulated by the Hospodars, in concert with their respective Divans, the examples of former times forming the bases of these arrangements.

Principalities freeil from furnishing Supplies for Constantinople,

g'c., or provide Workmen for erection of Fortresses, fc. Indemnity to Porte for relinquishing Rights. Sum to be paid on each Appointment of Hospodars.

The Sublime Porte, animated by the sincere desire of insuring to the two Principalities all the welfare of which they are susceptible, and being informed of the abuses and annoyances to which they were subjected on account of the supplies required for the consumption of Constantinople, the provisioning of the Fortresses situated upon the Danube, and the requisitions of the Arsenal, fully and entirely relinquishes in their favour its right in this respect. Wallachia and Moldavia shall, in consequence, be for ever dispensed from furnishing grains and other commodities, sheep, and building timber, all of which they were formerly required to supply. In like manner, these provinces shall never be compelled, under any circumstances, to provide Workmen for the erection of Fortresses, nor for any other Public Works of whatever kind. But in order to indemnify the Imperial Treasury for the losses which this total cession of its rights might cause it, independently of the annual Tribute which the two Principalities are bound to pay to the Sublime Porte, under the denominations of “haratch,” “idige,” and “ kekiabiye” (according to the tenor of the IIatti-sheriffs of 1802), Moldavia and Wallachia shall each pay annually to the Sublime Porte, by way of compensation, a sum of money, the amount of which shall be determined hereafter by common consent. Besides which, at each reappointment of the Hospodars, whether in consequence of decease, abdication, or legal deprivation by the titularies, the Principality in which the circumstance shall have taken place shall be bound to pay to the Sublime Porte a sum equivalent to the annual Tribute of the province as fixed by the Hatti-sheriffs. With the

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