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not be palliated if resorted to by a Power which has subdued all opposition, and which cannot plead for its measures the necessity of any pressing emergency.
It has often been stated in the Proclamations which have been issued by the Russian Government from time to time during the war, that only a part of the Poles had joined in the revolt, and that the majority of the nation remained faithful. If that be so, it affords a strong argument for not purishing the innocent for the offences of the guilty, by depriving all of the advantages which the Constitution confers
them. If, on the contrary, the whole of the nation should appear to have partaken in the revolt, such a general insurrection could only have proceeded from deeply-seated discontent, and such a feeling is not likely to be removed by a sweeping abrogation of the Constitution.
In pressing these considerations upon the Russian Government, your Excellency will be careful that while, on the one hand, you urge, as far as possible, the arguments which have been suggested, you do not, on the other, depart from that tone of friendly representation which is suited to the 'amicable relations existing between Great Britain and Russia.
I am, &c.,
PALMERSTON. Lord Heytesbury.
No. 156.-CONVENTION between Great Britain, Austria,
Prussia, and Russia, and Belgium, relative to the Belgic Fortresses. Signed at London, 14th December, 1831.
TABLE. Preamble. Referencc to Treaties of 1815. 1. Demolition of Belgian Fortresses. Fortresses of Menin, Ath, Mons,
Philippeville, and Marienburg to be demolished. 2. Artillery, stores, &c., to be removed from Fortresses. 3. Immediate partial demolition of Fortresses. Period of entire Demolition. 4. Maintenance of Belgian Fortresses. 5. Residue of sums appropriated to Defence of Belgium to be made over to
Belgium. 6. Reservation of 4 Powers. 7. Ratifications.
(Translation as laid before Parliament.*)
Preamble. Reference to Treaties of 1815. THEIR Majesties the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of All the Russias, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of the Belgians, on the other, having taken into consideration the present state of Belgium, and the changes effected in the relative position of that country, by its political Independence, as well as by the perpetual Neutrality which has been guaranteed to it; and being desirous of concerting the modifications which this new situation of Belgium renders necessary in the system of Military Defence which was therein adopted, in pursuance of the Treaties and Engagements of the year 1815, they have resolved to comprise in a special Convention a series of joint determinations on this subject.
With this view, their said Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries, viz. :
His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable Henry John Viscount Palmerston, his Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; IIis Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and * For French Version, see “ State Papers," vol. xviii, p. 664.
Bohemia, the Prince Paul Esterhazy, his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to His Britannic Majesty, &c. ;-And the Sieur John Philip Baron de Wessenberg, &c.;
His Majesty the King of Prussia, the Sieur Henry William Baron de Bülow, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to His Britannic Majesty, &c.;
His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, the Sieur Christopher, Prince of Lieven, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to His Britannic Majesty, &c. ;-—And the Sieur Adam. Count Matuszewic, &c.;
And His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the Sieur Albert Goblet, General of Brigade ;
Who, after having exchanged their Full Powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following Articles :
Demolition of Belgian Fortresses. Art. I. In consequence of the changes which the Independence and the Neutrality of Belgium (No. 152) have effected in the military situation of that country, as well as in its disposable means of defence, the Iligh Contracting Parties agree to cause to be dismantled such of the Fortresses constructed, repaired, or enlarged in Belgium since the year 1815, either wholly or partly at the cost of the Courts of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, of which the maintenance would henceforward only become a useless charge. Fortresses of Menin, Ath, Mons, Philippeville, and Marienburg to
be demolished. In conformity with this principle, all the fortified works of the Fortresses of Menin, Ath, Mons, Philippeville, and Marienburg, shall be demolished within the periods fixed by the following Articles.
Artillery Stores, Ø:c., to be removed from Fortresses. ART. II. The artillery, the stores, and all the articies which form part of the equipment of those Fortresses, of which the dismantling is determined upon by the preceding Article, shall be withdrawn from the said Fortresses within the space of one month from the ratification of the present Convention, or sooner if possible, and shall be transported into those Fortresses which are to be maintained.
Immediate partial Demolition of Fortresses. Art. III. In each of the places destined to be dismantled steps shall immediately be taken for the demolition of two fronts, as well as of the works which are situated in advance of those fronts, and also of the means of inundation which might serve to cover them, in such wise that each of the said places shall be rendered open by such demolition, which shall be effected within the space of two months after the Ratification of the present Convention.
Period of entire Demolition. With regard to the entire Demolition of the fortified works of the places above mentioned, it shall be completed by the 31st of December, 1833.
Maintenance of Belgian Fortresses. ART. IV. The Fortresses of Belgium, which are not mentioned in Article I of the present Convention as destined to be dismantled, shall be maintained: His Majesty the King of the Belgians engages to keep them constantly in good order.
Residue of sums appropriated to Defence of Belgium to be made over
to Belgium. Arr. V. If in consequence of a settlement of accounts which shall be made, the 4 Courts, or either of them, should find that they have at their disposal any residue of the sums originally appropriated to the system of Defence of Belgium, such residue shall be made over to His Majesty the King of the Belgians, in order to be employed for the purpose to which the said sums were destined.
Reservation of 4 Powers. Art. VI. The Courts of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia reserve to themselves to ascertain, according to the periods fixed in Articles II and III, that the said Articles have been carried into full and entire execution.
Ratifications. ART. VII. The present Convention shall be ratified, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at London within the space of two months, or sooner if possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the Seal of their Arms.
Done at London, the 14th day of December, in the year of Our Lord, 1831.
(L.S.) MATUSZEWIC. (L.S.) A. GOBLET.