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Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi.]

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Highness, &c., and the Most Excellent and Most Honorable Hadgi Mehmet Akiff Reis Effendi, actual Reis Effendi, &c. ;

Who, after having exchanged their Full Powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles :

Peace, Amity, and Alliance. ART. I. There shall be for ever Peace, Amity, and Alliance between His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, their Empires and their Subjects, as well by land as by sea. This Alliance having solely for its object the common defence of their dominions against all attack, their Majesties engage to come to an unreserved understanding with each other upon all the matters which concern their respective tranquillity and safety, and to afford to each other mutually for this purpose substantial aid, and the most efficacious assistance.

Confirmation of Treaties.
ART. II. The Treaty of Peace concluded at Adrianople on the

September, 1829 (No. 145), as well as all the other Treaties comprised therein, as also the Convention signed at St. Petersburgh on the .ch April, 1830* and the Arrangement relating to Greece, concluded at Constantinople on the 9th July, 1832 (No. 161), are fully confirmed by the present Treaty of Defensive Alliance, in the same manner as if the said transactions had been inserted in it word for word.

2nd 14th

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Maintenance by Russia of Independence of Turkey. ART. III. In consequence of the principle of conservation and mutual defence, which is the basis of the present Treaty of Alliance, and by reason of a most sincere desire of securing the permanence, maintenance, and entire Independence of the Sublime Porte, His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, in the event of circumstances occurring which should again determine the Sublime Porte to call for the naval and military assistance of Russia, although, if it please God, that case is by no means likely to happen, engages to furnish, by land and by sea, as many troops and forces as the two High Contracting Parties may deem necessary. It is accordingly agreed, that in this case the Land and Sea Forces, whose aid the Sublime Porte may call for, shall be held at its disposal.

* Reduction of War Indemnity.

[Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi.)

Land and Sea Forces to be Maintained by the Power requesting

Assistance. ART. IV. In conformity with what is above stated, in the event of one of the two Powers requesting the assistance of the other, the expense only of provisioning the Land and the Sea Forces which may be furnished, shall fall to the charge of the Power who shall have applied for the aid.

Duration of Treaty. Art. V. Although the two High Contracting Parties sincerely intend to maintain this engagement to the most distant period of time, yet, as it is possible that in process of time circumstances may require that some changes should be made in this Treaty, it has been agreed to fix its duration at 8 years from the day of the exchange of the Imperial Ratifications. The two parties, previously to the expiration of that term, will concert together, according to the state of affairs at that time, as to the renewal of the said Treaty.

Ratifications. Art. VI. The present Treaty of Defensive Alliance shall be ratified by the two High Contracting Parties, and the Ratifications thereof shall be exchanged at Constantinople within the space of two months, or sooner if possible.

The present Instrument, consisting of 6 Articles, and to be finally completed by the exchange of the respective Ratifications, having been agreed upon between us, we have signed it, and sealed it with our Seals, in virtue of our Full Powers, and have delivered it to the Plenipotentiaries of the Sublime Ottoman Porte in exchange for a similar Instrument. Done at Constantinople, the 26th June, 1833 (the 20th of the

8th July' moon Safer, in the 1249th year of the Hegira).



SEPARATE ARTICLE. Strait of the Dardanelles to be closed to Foreign Ships of War

during War between Russia and any other Foreign Power. In virtue of one of the clauses of Article I of the Patent Treaty

* See Convention of 13th July, 1841 : and Treaties of 30th March, 1856, and 13th March, 1871.

[Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi.)

of Defensive Alliance concluded between the Imperial Court of Russia and the Sublime Porte, the two High Contracting Parties are bound to afford to each other mutually substantial aid, and the most efficacious assistance for the safety of their respective dominions. Nevertheless, His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, wishing to spare the Sublime Ottoman Porte the expense and inconvenience which might be occasioned to it by affording substantial aid, will not ask for that aid if circumstances should place the Sublime Porte under the obligation of furnishing it, the Sublime Ottoman Porte, in place of the aid which it is bound to furnish in case of need, according to the principle of reciprocity of the Patent Treaty, shall confine 'its action in favour of the Imperial Court of Russia to closing the Strait of the Dardanelles, that is to say, to not allowing any Foreign Vessels of War to enter therein under any pretext whatsoever. .

The present Separate and Secret Article shall have the same force and value as if it was inserted word for word in the Treaty of Alliance of this day.

Done at Constantinople, the 1833 (the 20th of the moon of Safer, in the 1249th year of the Hegira).


26th June
8th July

The British and French Governments protested against the above Treaty. The following is a Copy of the British Protest delivered to the Porte :

The Undersigned has been instructed to express to the Sublime Porte the deep concern with which the British Government has learnt the conclusion of the Treaty of the 8th of July between the Emperor of Russia and the Sultan. That Treaty appears to His Majesty's Government to produce a change in the relations between Turkey and Russia, to which other European States are entitled to object; and the Undersigned is instructed to declare that if the stipulations of that Treaty should hereafter lead to the armed interference of Russia in the internal affairs of Turkey, the British Government will hold itself at liberty to act upon such an occasion, in any manner which the circumstances of the moment may appear to require, equally as if the Treaty above mentioned were not in existence.

PONSONBY. Constantinople, 26th August, 1833.


No. 169.--FIRMAN of the Sultan (Mahmoud II), addressed

to the Prince of Servia. December, 1833.*

TABLE. Preamble. § 1. Districts to pass under Administration of Servia. Commissioners to define

Boundaries of Districts. 2. Period of 5 Years for Turks to sell their Property and quit Servia. 3. Servians to supply Victuals to Turks and Garrisons. 4. Turkish Authorities not to interfere in Affairs of Servians. 5. Turks to leave at expiration of 5 Years. Turks in neighbourhood of

Fortresses to reside within them at expiration of 5 Years. 6. Servians to pay for Lands or Properties of Turks at expiration of 5

Years. 7. Turks and Servians to reside within the City of Belgrade. 8. Liberty of Commerce to Turks and Servians in Belgrade. 9. No one to carry Arms in Belgrade except the Military. 10. Turks not to erect Houses or Buildings out of the City of Belgrade. 11. Police Regulations. 12. Submission to Turkey. 13. Administration and Police of Belgrade. 14. Commercial Liberty to Subjects of Foreign Powers according to Treaties. 15. Foreigners may sell their Properties to Serrians or Turks. 16. Aliens not to possess Landed Estates. 17. Turks or Servians may sell their respective Estates or Properties to

each other. 18. Tribute to be paid to the Porte. Servians to manage their own Reve


19. Fortresses to be Demolished. 20. Execution of Firman.

(Translation as laid before Parliament.) To the ornament of the Princes of the Christian nation, and the

chief of the Grandees of the followers of Jesus, the head Kniez (leader) of the Servian nation, Milosch Obrenovitz Bey; may his end terminate in peace.

On the receipt of this noble and Imperial mandate, it may be known to you that, being desirous of rewarding the Servian nation, subject to my Empire, for the proofs of fidelity which they cease not giving to my Sublime Porte, and in accordance with my declared mercy and Imperial clemency towards them, I have promulgated, in the year 1246, an Imperial Firman (Nos. 146, 150), by which I was pleased to grant them several Privileges, such as

* See also Firmans of 24th December, 1838 ; General Treaty of 30th March, 1856, Arts. XXVIII, XXIX; and Protocol of 4th September, 1862.


its interior administration; the reunion of such districts which had formerly been detached from Servia; the payment of all taxes consolidated into one sum only; the administration of all the wealth of the Turks, who, with the exception of the garrisons of the Fortresses, are on the point of quitting Servia in the space of twelve months, &c. But as the accomplishment of several of these points was necessarily deferred till some circumstances, connected with both the advantage of the Turks and that of the Servians, could be brought to light, and which it was necessary to know beforehand; and as now every doubt on these points has been removed, and all difficulties overcome by an understanding of the means of execution; and as it is my supreme will that the Privileges which I have granted to the said nation should be put into execution, and exercised according to the above-mentioned first Firman, granted to them out of my Imperial mercy, and be now consolidated with your own knowledge, I order and decree as follows:

Districts to pass under Administration of Servia. Commissioners to

Define Boundaries of Districts. That the Districts detached from Servia, which were formerly in litigation, will pass, as well as the rest of the Districts of Servia, under your administration, and their Boundary will be determined according to the information given by the Commissioners sent on the spot for that purpose, and in accordance with the topographical Maps made expressly for those Districts, which are the following :-Kraina, including Klioute; Tzerna-Jeka, with Gourgouchevatz; Barvia and Sverlic; Alexinitza, with Rosnia and Paroquina ; Kruchevatz, known as Allaja-IIissar; a part of the Stari-Vla (Old Wallachia), with part of the district of NoviPavar, known by the name of Berveme; and the Districts of Drina, formed of Jadra and Radgevena. In order, therefore, that the said Districts may regularly pass under the Servian administration, the requisite Firmans have been issued and sent to our Viziers, Hossein Pasha of Vidin, and to Veli Pasha of Belgrade ; and it was ordered by these Firmans that Commissioners shall be appointed by you, as well as by Hossein Pasha, to go on the spot to make a correct survey; and in order that this affair may be brought to a suitable conclusion, the Officers and Authorities of those places have been directed to join the said Commissioners, and to assist and help them as much as may be necessary for the

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