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péror Don Pedro and his brother. It is not necessary for the undersigned to inquire at present into the motives which have induced his Imperial Majesty to desire to transfer the seat of this negotiation from Rio de Janeiro to London, but the undersigned learns with sincere pleasure that the Marquis de Barbacena is invested with full powers and instructions which may enable him to bring the points at issue to a speedy termination.

The obstacles which have been opposed by the conduct of the Infant Don Miguel to the completion of those measures which originated with the Emperor Don Pedro, regarding the future sove. reignty of Portugal, ate not, in the opinion of bis Majesty's Government, so great as to preclude the possibility of their being surmounted by friendly negotiation. Propositions modified by the force of circumstances, but formed upon principles of reconciliation and peace, are such as his Majesty will most approve in any attempt to terminate these unfortunate differences.

The undersigned is ready and impatient to confer with the Marquis de Barbacena upon the important interests with which his Excellency is charged, and to co-operate with him in the endeavour to effect an arrangement, which may restore tranquillity and hap, piness to Portugal, and fulfil, as far as may be possible, the just expectation of his Imperial Master.

The undersigned, &c.

The Marquis de Barbacenu.

ABERDEEN. PRECIS OF THE DEBATE ON THE AGGRESSIONS

OF RUSSIA, APRIL 20.

MR. PATRICK STEWART stated that his motion amounted in substance to the prayer of the two petitions which had just been laid on the table. The discussion which had alrcady taken place this session, on the motions of Lord Dudley Stuart and Sir Stratford Canning, with regard to the ag: gressive policy of Russia, had only led to further acts of wanton hostility towards our political and mercantile interests, to fresh aggressions on the Poles, and also to interruptions of our commerce in the Black Sea. The question was one of the highest importance; it involved the existence of some of the states of Europe, the independence of others, and the honour of all. After proving the violation by Russia of the treaty of Vienna, and the consequent breach of faith with the seven powers of Europe who signed that treaty, by destroying the freedom of commerce and the constitutional rights expressly secured to the kingdom of Poland, he drew the attention of the House to the importance of our trade with Turkey, a trade which so far as Turkey was concerned, had ever been conducted with a spirit of the most perfect liberality -most fully in that spirit which he doubted not would be found in exact accordance with the views of his Right Hon. Friend, the President of the Board of Trade. It was perfectly amazing how any British Government could be insensible to the importance of Turkey as an outlet for the manufactured produce of England. He would lay before the House a few short statements relating to the period between 1827 and 1834. The total cotton manufactures exported from the United Kingdom in 1834, amounted to 355,793,809 yards, valued at £14,157,352. of which Turkey took 28,621,490 yards, and paid £828,245. He should now beg the attention of Hon. Members to a comparative statement of the value of shipments of British manufactures to Russia and Turkey, which he begged to read, and as it had been prepared most carefully from authentic sources, he could answer for its accuracy :1827.-To Russia £1,408,970. Turkey, £531,704.—of which for twist

£933,204.-ditto, Turkey, £39,694. 1834.- To Russia, £1,382,309. Turkey, £1,207,941.-of which for twist,

£1,037,533.--ditto, Turkey, £109,723. So that our export trade to Russia had declined 13 per cent. whilst with Turkey it had increased 100 per cent. and more, and was rapidly incrcasing.

SHIPPING EMPLOYED IN THE TURKEY TRADE.
All British, 1831, 28,249 tons (outwards).

1832, 28,882
1833, 24,831

1834, 28,789 Foreign, increased about 1000 tons the last two years, equal to our tonnage in the China trade.

EXPORTED TO TURKEY.
Cotton Cloth.

Cotton Twist.
1827, 11,560,172 yards.

1827, 647,094 lbs. 1828, 4,719,481

1828, 156,860 1829, 15,566,350

1829, 662,538
1834, 28,621,490

1834, 1,989,851
VALUE OF MANUFACTURES EXPORTED TO TURKEY.
1827, £531,704.

1829, £568,684.
1828, £185,842.

1834, £1,207,941.
IMPORTS FROM TURKEY.
1829, Silk, 358,757 lbs. 1829, Sheep's Wool, 315,807
1834, Silk, 419,368

1834, Wool...... 1,474,322 It would, therefore, be madness to shut our eyes to the immense value which the Turkish trade was to this country, a value not less than our trade with China. In further illustration of the views he was labouring to impress upon the House, he begged to state that, in 1830, the transit trade through Trebizond, consisted of about 5000 bales, valued at £250,000; in 1834, it had increased to 12,000, valued at £600,000 ; and in 1835, to 19,300 bales, valued at £965,000; and in the ports of Persia connected with it during 1835. Thus, in five years (1830 to 1835), trade increased 140 per cent.; in the sixth year, as compared with the first year, 300 per cent.; and as compared with the preceding year 60 per cent.; consisting of European manufactures, nine-tenths being British.

After alluding to the disastrous treaties extorted from Turkey ever since the year 1812, the Hon. Member alluded to the retention of Silistria, and its occupation by a garrison of 6000 men, and there was another fort with in a very inconsiderable distance of it, and the garrison became thereby linked with another army of 40,000 men. In direct violation of the treaty of Vienna, which enacted that the navigation of the Danube should be free to ships of all nations, Russia had recently extorted tribute from British shipping passing down that river, and not only bad she put a stop to the trade of England, but to the trade of the whole of central Europe. Our remonstrances had hitherto been fruitless. He claimed the protection of the British Governinent to our trade in the Black Sea, a protection which, as

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we had so lately increased our navy for the purpose of protecting our commerce, he earnestly hoped would not be withheld. He concluded by moving that" An humble address be presented to His Majesty, praying that He will be graciously pleased to take such steps as to His Majesty may seem best adapted to protect and extend the commercial interests of Great Britain in Turkey and the Euxine," and sat down amidst loud cheers.

Sir EDWARD CODRINGTON begged to contradict a misrepresentation which had appeared in the French papers, of his sentiments with regard to the Russian fleet. He was stated to have spoken disrespectfully of that fleet, but the fact was, that he had never done so, for he had seen them in battle, and it was because he felt that the Russian fleet was very powerful that he was anxious the navy of this country should be strengthened, so as to meet them on equal terms. It was evident to him, that we had the means in our power of stopping the aggressions of Russia. It was the old mode, and one which had always been successful—it was to arm. (Hear, hear.) If we did not, we should only lead Russia on from aggression to aggression_if we did not, we should lose one by one, the allies whom an earlier show of determination would have maintained in our interests, and what is more, we should lose our own honour.

We were bound to send a fleet into the Black Sea to protect our com, merce against the aggressions of Russia, and if we took that line of conduct, and exacted reparation as we ought, it would put an end to the danger of that war which he as much as any merchant deprecated.

LORD PALMERSTON, whilst complimenting his Hon. Friend on his very able and eloquent speech, wished to correct the opinion that the Cabinet was divided on this question. They were desirous of maintaining peace so long as peace could be maintained consistently with the honour and inte. rests of the country, but they were alive to the interests of British com, merce, and they indulged the hope of being able to protect their interests without having recourse to war.

His Majesty's Government entirely concurred with the Hon. Member in his expressions of the extreme importance-politically and commercially-in respect to the relations of the country with Turkey and the countries beyond the Black Sea. His Lordship admitted the rapid increase, in recent years, of our trade with Turkey and Persia. He could assure the House that there existed no desire or disposition to submit to aggression from any power. He begged to take this opportunity to correct an error in the reports which had gone forth as to his views, on a former occasion. What he then stated was, that if the Government of Russia did entertain the project of exterminating the Polish nation, the attempt would be hopeless, for that it would be impossible to extinguish a nation of so much bravery.

LORD MAHON, after lamenting that assistance had not been afforded by

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England to the Sultan against Mehemet Ali in 1833, added, that with regard to the statement that British vessels had experienced obstacles in the navigation of the Danube, he was of opinion, that not a moment ought to be lost before the complaint was investigated, and if proved to be well founded, the amplest satisfaction should be insisted on.

MR. WARBURTON, deprecating the event of war, suggested a more simple and less expensive recipe for maintaining and extending British commerce with Turkey. Let encouragement be given to importation from Turkey, by reducing the import duties, and it would follow as a matter of course that the amount of 'exportation to Turkey would be greatly increased.* (Hear, hear.) And let it be our care to secure powerful friends in whatever quarter Russia is to be feared. (Hear, hear.)

MR. ROEBUCK strongly objected to our interfering in European politics. Ours was an isolated position. Justice was a virtue, but justice like charity should begin at home. Were we bound to maintain a treaty which had been broken by every other power ? (!) Supposing Russia was to send a diplomatic agent to some of the Rajahs under British control in India. Should we not speedily send him about his business?

Sir Robert Peel could not concur with the Hon. Member for Bath, when he maintained that this country ought to withdraw from all connection and interference with continental affairs. He did not stand there to defend Russia, or to under-rate the importance of those aggressions, if aggressions had been committed. If there had been any undue encroachments on the part of Rnssia, he said, let us have redress. But if he was not to continue to leave the matter in the hands of the King's Government, and if he was to call for the aid of the House, of course before he took the first step that approximated him to hostile movements, he must have demonstration clear as day that such a proceeding was required. He must have direct evidence--he must have the treaty-he must compare the alleged infraction of it with its provisions. He must determine the character of that aggression, and then he would not content himself with calling on the King to take such steps as might seem to him best adapted to extend and promote the general interests of our commerce, but he would tell the Thuone, and he would tell the House, that an injustice had been done to England, and that reparation had been refused ; and he knew that the House would assure the King of their determination to support him in his demand for justice. (Loud cheers.)

MR. CUTLAR FERGUSON's speech closed the deliberation. He could not refrain from remarking that the Hon. Member for Bath was, perhaps, the

We feel the fullest confidence that this idea, coming from such a quarter, and from so distinguished an authority on matters of general commerce, will not be lost upon the President of the Board of Trade.--Ev.

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