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these countries that moral and political support which will enable them to increase the cultivation and exportation of many
of their valuable products, which are of staple consumption in this country, and by which alone they can make return for a larger quantity of manufactures.
For these reasons we feel justified in calling the immediate attention of your Honourable House to the state of our commercial relations with Turkey and Persia, and we pray that your Honourable House will take such steps as may obtain a removal of the restrictions we complain of, and may extend, under adequate protection, this most valuable and rising portion of British trade.
Ertract of a Letter, dated Cracow, April 7, 1836.
We have received accounts from our Exiles, who, on their way to Trieste, have every where been greeted with the deepest interest and succoured by the populations. Thus the whole of Europe testifies its pity, but nothing more.
They are at the present moment shut up in the Castle of Trieste, where they are made to wait for transports. Amongst them are to be found Prince Gedroye, M. Janiszewicz, formerly Prefect of the Palatinate of Sandomir, M. Wiercinski, Doctor Terlecki, &c. entire number of the refugees carried away from hence amounts to more than a thousand. A new census of the population is now commenced. This work is directed by an Austrian officer, and is to be reviewed by a Commission named by the three Courts for the purpose of striking out all the inhabitants who have arrived since the year 1821. If this measure is executed the population of the town will be diminished by nearly 10,000 inhabitants.
The evacuation is announced for the 15th. Nevertheless, General Kaufmann is making preparations for a grand parade in honour of the Emperor of Austria, whose name-day is the 18th; besides, what signifies the presence of the troops on the territory, since the Conference of the Residents remains, and may at any moment call them back. The Conference of Residents has usurped the Sovereign power. This circumstance is much more grave than a temporary occupation would be, however violent the proceeding.
The Senate decrees no further acts without saying,
6. The Senate, having received the sanction of the Conference of the Residents of the Protecting Courts, orders," &c. &c.
The greater part of the soldiers of the Austrian corps are natives
of Gallicia, and live on good terms with the inhabitants. But the officers dread an explosion of despair on the part of the Cracovians. The spies of the police have spread the rumour of a projected mas
The officers at first believed it, and now they blush for their credulity.
The Ex-President of the Republic, Wiegloglowski has addressed to Prince Metternich a Memoir by which he maintains, that “Summoned by the Conference of the three Residents, he had for a long time solicited passports for a small number of persons who had been designated as turbulent; but that he had not obtained these passports from any of the three Courts whose possessions surround the territory of Cracow ; he calls to mind that to answer the uneasiness expressed by the Conference on the subject of the Militia of the Republic, and of the number of refugees admitted into this Militia, and of the degree of authority that this force might in case of need give to the Senate, he had long since offered to increase the amount of this militia by recruiting from the inhabitants of the territory—but that this proposition remained without any answer.
" In a word, he maintains that the Residents desired the inconveniences which subsequently gave a motive for the occupation. With respect to the pretended powerlessness of the Senate, he observes, that on the simple demand of this authority five hundred refugees repaired to Podgoree without compulsion ; resistance and presumed revolts were spoken of, but nothing of the kind has appeared; and even the execution of the rigours which had been ordered only caused tears to appear in the eyes of those who were thereby reduced to despair."
The Bishop of Cracow is not the only victim of the religious persecution exercised by the Russians against Catholicism. The Bishop of Podlachie has also incurred the displeasure of the Emperor Nicolas. Driven from his diocese he lives in destitution. Latterly he commissioned his Chaplain to sell a gold snuff box, The proprietor of the neighbourhood to whom this box was presented sent it back to the Bishop filled with gold pieces.
An admirable article on the affairs of Cracow has just appeared in the British and Foreign Quarterly Review, No. IV. for April.-ED.
The speech of Sir Stratford Canning on the 18th of March, on the occupation of Cracow, so clearly developing the sound principles of a truly British policy, that any comment on our part would savour of presumption, terminated with “ the expression of a hope that some step might be taken by Parliament to mitigate the sufferings of the unfortunate individuals who are to be shipped off to America."
The infringement of the law and rights of nations by the forcible abduction of the natives of an independent state through the agents of a foreign power, which can exercise no legal jurisdiction over them, is a question deeply interesting to the statesmen of Europe and the United States. The expulsion of the Morescoes from Spain, incompatible as it was with the principles of humanity, did not involve the separation of families. The father was not separated from his children, nor the husband from the wife ; and al. though torn from the land which contained the ashes of their forefathers, they were allowed to convey to another and a neighbouring shore, the elements of a new home and the living objects of their earthly affections.
What the feelings of the Americans will be on the arrival on their shores of exiles from Cracow, may be easily imagined. But can the enlightened benevolence that will animate every community amongst our Anglo-Saxon brethren, compensate to these unhappy men for the apathy of Europe ? What must be their sensations on passing the rock of Gibraltar, when their last glance of despair rests on that banner on which the sun never sets, and dwells on the scene where, in a few short hours, one English arm scattered to the winds the powers of despotism, and identified the name of England with the liberation of the world ?
The gentlemanlike style of the Letters in the “ Times” of the 20th and 22d ult., addressed to the Editor of the Portfolio, under the signature of “Sulpicius," entitled them to an earlier notice on our part, but with every desire of replying to the arguments of the writer we are compelled to postpone our remarks until we expose in more minute detail the whole drama of Russian Diplomacy as connected with the origin and negotiation of the Treaty of July the 6th.
In the mean time we hope that “ Sulpicius” will not suffer himself to be deterred by our silence from continuing his criticisms of our opinions, the discussion of which, we feel convinced, will serve the purposes of truth, and thus conduce to the national interest.
We should be glad, however, to be favoured with any observations from “Sulpicius," or any other quarter, which may tend to prove that our notions of the finesse and skill of Russian Diplomatists have been in any degree exaggerated, for we are not conscious of having hitherto ventured on a single assertion which cannot be substantiated by evidence, and which may not be fully borne out in the progress of this work.