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of real and true believers,* on what are emphatically termed the grounds of Christian verity.

THE HARMONY OF CONFESSIONS was first published in Latin, at Geneva, in the year 1581, in 4to, under the following title :-Harmonia Confessionum Fidei Orthodoxarum et Reformatarum Ecclesiarum, quæ, in præcipuis quibusque Europæ regnis, nationibus, et provinciis, sacram Evangelii doctrinam purè profitentur, &c. Additæ sunt ad calcem, &c. Quæ omnia, Ecclesiarum Gallicarum et Belgicarum nomine, subjiciuntur libero et prudenti reliquarum omnium judicio.

Of the English translationt the first edition appeared at Cambridge, 1586, 12mo; the second and last in London, 1643, 4to; as follows :-- An Harmony of the Confessions of the Faith of the Christian and Reformed Churches, which purely profess the holy doctrine of the Gospel, in all the chief kingdoms, nations, and provinces of Europe, &c. There are added in the end very short Notes:f in

• Bossue

Histoire des ions Eglises Protestantes, Par. 1688, 2 vols. 4to. should be read with Basnage's Histoire de la Religion des Eglises Reformées, Rotterd. 1725, 2 vols. 4to. Indeed, an English translation of the latter is greatly needed, to counteract the circulation of the former, especially in Ireland. Those who imagine, meanwhile, that either unanimity or uniformity prevails among the subjects of the Pope, may consult Bp. Hall's Peace of Rome, Lond. 1609, 4to. repr. 1838, 8vo., and Edgar's Variations of Popery, Lond. 1838, 8vo.

† Augusti, having seen the title of the English Harmony cited by G. W. Alberti in his Briefe betr. den Rel. Zustand in Grossbritanien, observes, laughably enough: “I have nowhere seen it stated, and it remains a matter of doubt, whether (what I could hardly believe) this is a new collection, or an English translation of the Harmonia of 1581, or even the same book in Latin but with an English title. If it be an English translation, perhaps the same noble personage, whom the editor of the Syntagma praised as the translator of the Scottish Confession into Latin, may be supposed to have performed the task. How I wish (he adds) that some learned bibliographer would make us better acquainted with this book !". Dissertatio in Libros Symbolicos, p. 607. Niemeyer (preceded by Lückius) has convinced his fellow-countrymen that the English Harmony, in both editions, is but a translation of the Latin.-Præfatio in Collectionem Con. fessionum, p. ix.

These are afterwards designated, —“Very Brief Observations upon all the former Harmony: wherein the doubtful sayings of every Confession are made plain, the dark speeches opened, and, besides, such as in outward shew seem to be contrary one to the other, are with modesty reconciled;

which both the obscure things are made plain, and those things which may in shew seem to be contrary to each other, are plainly and very modestly reconciled ; and if any points do as yet hang in doubt, they are sincerely pointed at. All which things, in the names of the Churches of France and Belgia, are submitted to the free and discreet judgment of all other Churches. Newly translated out of Latin into English, &c. Allowed by public authority.* Each of the English editions has the Confession

and, to be brief, such things wherein there is yet any controversy (which indeed are very few) are favourably marked and noted, that they also may at length through God's assistance come to be agreed upon by a common consent of all the Churches." 1 Cor. xiv. 32; “ The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.” Phil. iii. 15, 16; “ Let us therefore, so many as be perfect, be thus minded : and if ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even the same unto you. Nevertheless, in that whereunto we are come, let us proceed by one rule, that we may mind one thing."

* It has been charged upon Archbishop Whitgift, as an act of religious persecution, that, so far from allowing, he actually prohibited the publication of the Harmony. The authority adduced is that of Strype : but a perusal of the passage entire would seem to indicate that he subsequently withdrew his opposition; and certainly proves that either way it was not on a principle of religious persecution that he acted. It was shewed before,” says the historian, “how the art of printing was set up, and began at Cambridge, by the advice and care of the heads and governors thereof. But there was a jealousy of the liberty of printing books there, the purposes whereof sometimes might tend to more harm than good; namely, such as might either disturb the government, or the peace of the church. And therefore, for the preventing of any such inconveniences, the lords of the council had lately ordered that no book should be printed in London, or in either of the Universities, but the copies to be first reviewed and allowed by the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop of London. And of this the careful Archbishop gave the University of Cambridge information, and that on occasion of a book now printing there, called, The Harmony of Confessions, &c. translated out of Latin into English; which, for some reasons, was not allowed in London to be printed. This the Archbishop understanding was going in hand with these in Cambridge, sent his letter to the Vice-Chancellor and heads to cause the said book to be staid from printing, and that presently upon the receipt thereof, until they should receive further direction from him : and that, in regard of that late order of the council, he required them to take special care that nothing should be printed there, but what should be authorized accordingly. (This letter, as taken from the records of that University, may be read in the Appendix.) And yet, however it came to pass, the said book was printed and published this year in 8vo. at Cambridge, by Tho. Thomas, who was the University's

of the Church of Scotland, issued the same year with the Latin edition of the Harmony, annexed.

The history of the compilation of the Harmony is thus related by Koecher :* - “ The rulers and pastors of the Reformed Congregations, assembled at more than one of the Synods of France, but chiefly at the assembly of Frankfort in the year 1577, took counsel occasionally for the writing of one common Confession, composed from the several Confessions of all the Churches; with a view to bring their studies and endeavours to bear against the accusations, partly of their adversaries who were incessantly reproaching them with the multitude and variety of their Confessions, and partly of the Lutherans who were at that time meditating the Formulary of Concord. . . But when (in apprehension of the danger which appeared in departing from the formularies of public doctrine received in each and every Church, and sealed with the blood of so many martyrs, and instituting a new one in their place, as well as for other and weighty reasons) the project failed of the result anticipated; the people of Zurich and Geneva suggested the compilation of a HARMONY

printer, (as my learned friend hath observed,) with this title, An Harmony of the Confessions of the Reformed Churches, &c. No doubt the printing of the book had the permission of the Archbishop, after some review or correction of it." -Annals of the Reformation, Oxf. 1824, 8vo. vol. iii. pt. 1. pp. 650, 651. book ii. chap. 8. ann. 1586. That portion of the letter of the Archbishop, which refers directly to the Harmony, it may be right to extract:-" I understand that there is now in printing by the printer of that University a certain book, called, Harmonia Confessionum Fidei, in English, translated out of Latin ; which book, for some special causes, was here rejected, and not allowed to be printed. These are therefore to require you, that presently upon receipt hereof you cause the said book to be stayed from printing any further; and that nothing be done more therein, until you shall receive further direction from me. Dated from Croydon, the 8th of August, 1586.-Annals, vol. iii. pt. 2. p. 444. Appendix to book ii. No. 18.

Bibliotheca Theologiæ Symbolicæ et Catecheticæ ; itemque Liturgica. Guelph : 1751, 12mo. Whoever becomes the purchaser of this valuable little volume, should take care that he has, what is seldom found, the second part, printed at Jena, in 1769, and containing, among other things of note, a Catalogue of the Library of the author.

OF CONFESSIONS, by which all parties might be called back to agreement, and any appearance of variation that existed might be discussed and explained. The design was accordingly entrusted to Beza, Daneau, and Salnar, (otherwise named Salnard, or Salvart, minister of the Church of Castres ;*) but was executed chiefly by the last of them." After a minute description of the volume, (which he truly designates opus minime vulgare,) the learned bibliographer concludes by observing :-“ In this HARMONY OF CONFESSIONS, as being the clearest exposition and surest defence of their consent, the teachers of the Reformed Churches are wont exceedingly to glory.”—Art. clxxiii. pp. 319–323.

The account given by Clement, enumerates some particulars unnoticed in the narrative of Koecher. “ At the assembly of Frankfort, in 1577, they had already thought of proper means for bringing all the Reformed Churches of the Christian world into close combination; and had given commission to prepare a Confession of uniform faith, which should be taken and regarded as the general and common Confession of all the Protestants. The National Synod of the Reformed Churches of France, held at St. Foix, in 1578,

* “Those who proposed the compilation of this book," says Walch, were the people of Zurich and Geneva: and no sooner was the preparation of it entrusted to Beza, Daneau, and Salnar, than the last of the three named was the first to bestow his utmost care in executing it.”Bibliotheca Theologica Selecta, Jenæ, 1757, 8vo. tom. i. p. 426.

+ “This compilation," says Weismann,“ published at Geneva, and consisting of Confessions formerly circulated through all the provinces of Christendom, by all the Churches distinguished as Lutheran and Reformed, presents a serviceable and necessary collection, and fetches a high price among Protestants. In short we wonder, if only for the sake of ecclesiastical history, and of the help ensuing to theological studies, that it is not everywhere reprinted, and brought under the notice and within the reach of teachers as well as scholars; particularly if augmented and adapted to the present time. And this is probably what would have been done long ago, were the disposition of the age we live in more favourable to this kind of writings.” — Introductio in Historiam Sacram. Hal: Mag: 1745, 4to. vol. ii. p. 1267.

1 Bibliotheque Curieuse Historique et Critique, Gott: et Lips: 1750-60, 9 vols. 4to. It is greatly to be regretted, that, through the decease of the author, this work, which is arranged alphabetically, proceeded no further than the middle of the letter H.

approved this expedient; and ordered that if the draft of this Confession was sent to them in time, it should be examined in the provincial Synods. They nominated four ministers, namely, Antoine Chandieu, Jean d’Estre, Pierre Merlin, and M. Gabert, with charge to assemble themselves, accompanied by the Viscount of Turin, in order that they might do what was agreed upon in this respect, pursuant to their instructions.

“ The National Synod, held at Figeac, in 1579, resolved again to seek whatever means were necessary for restoring all believers of the particular Confessions of the Protestant nations to one single common Confession, which might afterwards be approved by all the said nations, according to the advice and resolutions of the Conference held for this purpose at Neustadt, in the month of September, 1570.

“ M. Salnar, seeing that this General Confession did not appear, laboured in the mean time to reunite several particular Confessions in one single body, by extracting from each the passages which referred to the same subject, without altering or changing any thing; and thus formed a General Confession from portions of divers particular Confessions, ranged according to the Common-Place-Book.

“ The National Synod of the Reformed Churches of France, held at Vitré, in 1583, gave their approbation to this excellent work of M. Salnar, minister to the Church of Castres, as being very necessary; judging also that they would be doing a great service, if they had it written in the vulgar tongue. This is the reason why the Province of Upper Languedoc was charged by this Synod to have it translated, and to affix to the said book a Letter of recommendation in the name of all the Provinces.

“ The National Synod of Gergeau, held in 1601, sent back the French translation of THE HARMONY OF THE CONFESSIONS OF Faith, made by the late M. Salvart, for the Synod of Upper Languedoc to see it, and to judge whether it would be expedient to publish it: on condition, nevertheless, that they should not publish it, without at the

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