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If I have said nothing new tonight, it may well be because, in a family of nations as in families of individuals we should expect nothing more sensational than growth.
We can take satisfaction in the stability of our policy in the hemisphere. The good-neighbor policy as we practice it today is, for us, an historic, bipartisan, national policy. It has been wrought by Democrats at both ends of Pennsylvania Avenue-President Roosevelt, Secretary Hull, and Senator Connally, and also by Republicans at both ends of the Avenue-President Hoover, Secretary Stimson, and Senator Vandenberg. And this by no means exhausts the distinguished list who have contributed to this great policy.
It is the firm intention of President Truman, as it is of myself as Secretary of State of the entire personnel of my Department and, I believe, of the people of my country-to work for ever closer relations between the nations of this hemisphere. We seek by positive good will and effort to strengthen the Organization of American States, within the more extensive design of the United Nations, as the most effective expression of law and order in this hemisphere.
We and the other American Republics have determined and pledged ourselves to carry on our common policy of the Good Neighbor as a living and constantly growing reality.
DEFEATED AND OCCUPIED AREAS 1
64. DECLARATION OF WAR WITH ITALY, DECEMBER 11, 1941 JOINT RESOLUTION Declaring That a State of War Exists Between The Government of Italy and the Government and the People of the United States and Making Provision To Prosecute the Same 2
Whereas the Government of Italy has formally declared war against the Government and the people of the United States of America: Therefore be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Government of Italy which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Government of Italy; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States. Approved, December 11, 1941, 3:06 p. m., E. S. T.
65. ITALIAN MILITARY ARMISTICE 3
Conditions Presented September 3, 1943
FAIRFIELD CAMP SICILY
September 3, 1943
The following conditions of an Armistice are presented by
GENERAL DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER,
Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces,
acting by authority of the Governments of the United States and Great Britain and in the interest of the United Nations, and are accepted by
1 Each enemy country or occupied territory in this part is considered in the order in which its surrender occurred or a peace treaty was concluded with the country.
a 55 Stat. 707.
United States and Italy 1936-1946: Documentary Record, Department of State publication 2669, European Series 17, pp. 51-52; Armistice with Italy, 1943, Department of State publication 2963, Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1604. See ibid. for texts of other documents relating to the Italian Armistice: instrument of surrender of Italy; protocol; memorandum of agreement on the employment and disposition of the Italian fleet and mercantile marine between the Allied Naval Commander in Chief, Mediterranean, acting on behalf of the Allied Commander in Chief and the Italian Minister of Marine; and amendment to agreement between the Naval Commander in Chief, Mediterranean, Allied Forces and the Royal Italian Minister of Marine with respect to the employment of the Italian navy.
MARSHAL PIETRO BADOGLIO
Head of the Italian Government
1. Immediate cessation of all hostile activity by the Italian armed forces.
2. Italy will use its best endeavors to deny, to the Germans, facilities that might be used against the United Nations.
3. All prisoners or internees of the United Nations to be immediately turned over to the Allied Commander in Chief, and none of these may now or at any time be evacuated to Germany.
4. Immediate transfer of the Italian Fleet and Italian aircraft to such points as may be designated by the Allied Commander in Chief, with details of disarmament to be prescribed by him.
5. Italian merchant shipping may be requisitioned by the Allied Commander in Chief to meet the needs of his military-naval program. 6. Immediate surrender of Corsica and of all Italian territory, both islands and mainland, to the Allies, for such use as operational bases and other purposes as the Allies may see fit.
7. Immediate guarantee of the free use by the Allies of all airfields and naval ports in Italian territory, regardless of the rate of evacuation of the Italian territory by the German forces. These ports and fields to be protected by Italian armed forces until this function is taken over by the Allies.
8. Immediate withdrawal to Italy of Italian armed forces from all participation in the current war from whatever areas in which they may be now engaged.
9. Guarantee by the Italian Government that if necessary it will employ all its available armed forces to insure prompt and exact compliance with all the provisions of this armistice.
10. The Commander in Chief of the Allied Forces reserves to himself the right to take any measure which in his opinion may be necessary for the protection of the interests of the Allied Forces for the prosecution of the war, and the Italian Government binds itself to take such administrative or other action as the Commander in Chief may require, and in particular the Commander in Chief will establish Allied Military Government over such parts of Italian territory as he may deem necessary in the military interests of the Allied Nations.
11. The Commander in Chief of the Allied Forces will have a full right to impose measures of disarmament, demobilization, and demilitarization.
12. Other conditions of a political, economic and financial nature with which Italy will be bound to comply will be transmitted at a later date.
The conditions of the present Armistice will not be made public without prior approval of the Allied Commander in Chief. The English will be considered the official text.
Rt. Hon. Harold Macmillan
British Resident Minister, A.F.H.Q.
Personal Representative of the President of the United States Royer Dick
R. N., Chief of Staff to the C. in C. Med.
Lowell W. Rooks
Major General, U. S. Army, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 A.F.H.Q. Franco Montanari
Official Italian Interpreter
Brigadier Kenneth Strong
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, A.F.H.Q.
66. ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION FOR ITALY
(a) Establishment, November 10, 1943 1
The armistice with Italy provided for a Control Commission to regulate and execute the terms of the armistice under the direction of the Supreme Allied Commander. On November 10, 1943 General Eisenhower announced the establishment of the Allied Control Commission for Italy to assume "the duty of carrying out the terms of the armistice and of aligning Italian economy in complete support of the United Nations fight against Germany". The president of the Allied Control Commission is the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater, Gen. Sir Henry Maitland Wilson. General Wilson has delegated his authority as president of the Control Commission to General Alexander, the Allied Theater Commander in Italy. The active head of the Control Commission, however, is the deputy president or chief commissioner, as he is more commonly referred to, who was, until his recent resignation for reasons of health, Lt. Gen. Noel Mason-MacFarlane, former Governor of Gibraltar. General Mason-MacFarlane's immediate assistant, Capt. Ellery Stone, U.S.N.R., is acting_chief commissioner until the appointment of General Mason-MacFarlane's successor.
The Control Commission is divided into four sections, headed by vice presidents of the Control Commission, and six independent subcommissions:
1. Political Section
2. Economic Section
3. Administrative Section
4. Regional Control and Military Government Section.
5. Navy Subcommission
6. Army Subcommission
7. Air Subcommission
8. War Material Subcommission
9. Telecommunication Subcommission
10. Prisoners of War and Displaced Persons Subcommission The Economic Section and the Administrative Section are further divided into subcommissions, as follows:
1 Department of State Bulletin, August 6, 1944, pp. 137-138; also Department of State publication 2669, European Series 17, pp. 76-78.