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1. Interior

2. Public Safety

3. Public Health

4. Legal

5. Education

6. Property Control

7. Monuments and Fine Arts


1. Industry and Commerce

2. Labor

3. War Factories

4. Agriculture

5. Food

6. Public Works and Mines

7. Finance

8. Internal Transportation

The Political Section is headed by joint vice presidents, one American and one Englishman: Samuel Reber and Harold Caccia. The Economic Section is headed by Col. William O'Dwyer, American, with the title of Vice President of the Control Commission and personal rank of Minister. The Administrative Section is headed by Air Commodore Lord Stansgate, a British officer, with the title of Vice President of the Control Commission. The Regional Control and Military Government Section is headed by Brig. Maurice Lush, an English Army officer, with the title of Vice President of the Control Commission.

The personnel of the Control Commission is roughly 50 percent American and 50 percent British, the only exceptions being a Soviet and a French representative on the Control Commission attached to the staff of the chief commissioner. The personnel of the Commission was originally entirely military except for the members of the Political Section and a limited number of experts in the Economic Section. It is present policy, however, to assign civilian experts of both nationalities to the Control Commission to relieve the increasing personnel problem and to provide for the time when the Allied military authorities may wish to turn over the function of the Control Commission to civilian agencies of the Allied Governments.

The chief commissioner of the Allied Control Commission is also chief civil-affairs officer for Allied Military Government. Originally Allied Military Government and the Allied Control Commission were separate entities: the former under the direct command of the Theater Commander in Italy, the latter under the Supreme Allied Commander in Algiers. In the reorganization of the Control Commission in January 1944 the headquarters and general staffs of the two organizations were combined and made identical. They are now known as AMG/ACC in Italy. The distinction between the two branches of the now combined organization is briefly that the Allied Military Government functions in territory in the forward areas behind the Allied lines where administration of allied forces is necessary, while the

Allied Control Commission functions in that territory more remote from the front line which it has been possible to restore to Italian administration. Since the beginning of the Italian campaign the Supreme Allied Commander has, upon the recommendation of the Advisory Council for Italy, withdrawn Allied Military Government from and restored to Italian administration the Islands of Sicily and Sardinia and the 15 southern Provinces of the mainland (with the exception of the port of Naples); that is, all territory south of the northern boundaries of the Provinces of Naples and Campobasso. It is contemplated that on August 15 the Provinces of Littoria, Frosinone, and Rome (including the city of Rome) will be added to that territory already restored to Italian administration. The remaining areas behind the Allied lines will be administered directly by Allied Military Government. The Supreme Allied Commander will, however, continue to exercise supreme authority in all of liberated Italy through the Allied Control Commission of which he is president ex officio. The relationship of the Control Commission to the Italian Government and to Italian administration in liberated areas is one of supervision and guidance rather than one of direct administration as in the case of Allied Military Government.

The Allied Control Commission for Italy is the organ through which relations between the United Nations and the Italian Government are conducted. Consequently, the relations of the United Nations, including the United States and Great Britain, with the Italian Government are on a military basis.

The Allied Control Commission established itself in Rome on July 15, 1944 at the time the Italian Government returned to the capital.

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The President has sent the following message to Rear Admiral Ellery W. Stone, U. S. N. R., Rome, Italy, formerly Chief Commissioner of the Allied Commission for Italy:

"On the occasion of the abolition of the Allied Cominission for Italy, with which you have been intimately associated since its inception and of which you have been Chief Commissioner since July 1944, I wish to express to you the sincere appreciation of the United States Government for the splendid service which you have rendered your country and the very real contribution which you have made to the Allied cause.

"The purpose of the Allied Commission was only partially to insure security in the theater of a great battle. Equally important has been the guidance and assistance which the Commission has given to the new Italy in its work of reconstruction and its rebirth as a true democracy. With the support and cooperation of your British and American colleagues you have made an outstanding contribution to the achievement of both these high purposes of the Allied Commission in Italy." 1 Department of State Bulletin of February 16, 1947, p. 287.

67. RENEWAL OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH ITALY Statement by the Acting Secretary of State, October 26, 1944 1

After consultation with the other American republics, as provided in the resolutions made at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942, it has been agreed that diplomatic relations with the Government of Italy should be resumed. The Governments of Great Britain and the Soviet Union likewise have been consulted.

Consequently, the President will submit to the Senate, after it reconvenes on November 14, 1944, the nomination of the Honorable Alexander C. Kirk as American Ambassador to Italy. Mr. Kirk is presently American Representative on the Advisory Council for Italy in Rome.2



The Preamble gives a brief historical review of Italy's entry into the war, its surrender, and its co-belligerency against Germany as well as expressing the willingness of the Allied and Associated Powers to support its application to become a member of the United Nations and to conclude the present Treaty.


Section I-Frontiers-Articles 1-5 establish Italy's frontiers, describing the four minor rectifications in the Franco-Italian line and the new lines of the Yugoslav-Italian and Free Territory of TriesteItalian frontiers as shown on the maps in Annex I, and create boundary commissions for the delimitation of the latter.

Section II-France-Special Clauses-Articles 6-9 provide for the return of archives to France, the establishment of a special railway link and the guarantee to insure Italy electric and water supply from the ceded area of Tenda and Briga, further details of which are given in Annex III.

Section III-Austria-Special Clauses-Article 10 takes note of the Austro-Italian agreement regulating autonomy of South Tyrol, the text of which is given in Annex IV.

Section IV-Yugoslavia Special Clauses-Articles 11-13 provide for cession to Yugoslavia of Zara and the Dalmatian Islands, delivery of cultural property and guarantee of water supply for Gorizia in accordance with detailed provisions of Annex V.

Section V-Greece-Special Clauses-Article 14 provides for cession of the Dodecanese Islands to Greece, their demilitarization and the withdrawal of troops.

1 Department of State Bulletin of October 29, 1944, p. 491: also, Department of State publication 2669, European Series 17, p. 93. Edward R. Stettinius was Acting Secretary of State.

2 On December 7, 1944, the Senate confirmed the nomination of Alexander C. Kirk as American Ambassador to Italy.

3 S. Exec. F, G, H, I, 80th Cong., 1st sess., February 27, 28, 1947, pp. 5-10. See also texts of the President's letter of transmittal, report of the Secretary of State, and summaries of texts of treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Roumania, and Hungary, Department of State Bulletin of March 23 and June 1, 1947; full text of treaty of peace with Italy, Department of State publication 2960, Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1648, also Treaties of Peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Roumania, and Finland, Department of State publication 2743, European Series 21. Treaty of peace with Italy signed at Paris February 10, 1947; ratified by the U. S. June 14, 1947; entered into force September 15, 1947.


Section I-General Clauses-Articles 15-18 contain (a) the assurance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, (b) the guarantees of non-persecution of Allied supporters and abolition of Fascist organizations, and (c) the recognition of the Peace settlements.

Section II-Nationality, Civil and Political Rights Articles 19-20 grant right of option to persons in territories ceded by Italy and to Yugoslav residents in Italy and assure their human rights and freedoms.

Section III-Trieste-Articles 21-22 set up the Free Territory of Trieste with its integrity and independence to be assured by the Security Council and describe its frontiers with Yugoslavia. Annexes VI, VII, VIII, IX and X refer to this Section. Annex VI contains the statute or charter of the Free Territory to be incorporated in its constitution. The Statute provides for the territory's demilitarization, citizenship of its inhabitants, the democratic organization of its government with legislative authority vested in a popular Assembly and executive power in a Council of Government with special powers conferred upon the Governor appointed by the Security Council, enabling him to protect the integrity and independence of the Territory and human rights of the inhabitants. The statute likewise insures the economic independence of the Territory, makes provision for the operations of its railways and establishes a customs free port with freedom of railway transport to and from the Territory.

Annex VII sets up the rules for the provisional regime until elections can be held in the Free Territory and until the approval of the Security Council can bring the statute into force. During this period the Governor, assisted by a provisional Council of Government appointed by him, has greater powers, and the responsibility for holding free elections. Allied forces now in occupation are to be limited to 5,000 each for the United Kingdom, the United States and Yugoslavia and are placed at the disposal of the Governor who shall determine after 90 days whether conditions of internal order require their services for a further period.

Annex VIII sets forth the rules for the operation, under a Director appointed by the Governor, of the Free Port available for use on equal terms by all international commerce, provides for freedom of transit of goods transported by railway and precludes the establishment of any special zones within the Port but guarantees berthing facilities to Italy and Yugoslavia. A special international commission of an advisory character composed of representatives of France, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, Yugoslavia, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Switzerland, Austria and Hungary is created to investigate all matters relating to the operation and administration of the Free Port and to make recommendations thereon.

Annex IX gives technical guarantees for the Free Territory to insure water and electric supply from Italy and Yugoslavia and grants facilities for local frontier trade.

Annex X-Economic and Financial Provisions-provides for an orderly transfer of Italian property to the Free Territory, an

adjustment with respect to the Italian public debt, the continuance and reassignment of insurance obligations, and the return of United Nations property, and contains provisions for such matters as property rights including right of removal, restitution, and the disposition of local government property and records. Section IV-Italian Colonies-Article 23 provides for renunciation of Italian sovereignty over its Colonial possessions and their final disposal under the terms of Annex XI by the United States, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and France in the light of the wishes and welfare of the inhabitants and the interests of peace and security. Failing agreement within one year, matter is to be referred to the UN Assembly for final solution.

Section V-Special Interests of China-Articles 24-26 liquidate former Italian leases and special rights in China.

Section VI-Albania-Articles 27-32 provide for the final liquidation of the special position, rights and claims of Italy in Albania and for the restoration of property.

Section VII-Ethiopia-Articles 33-38 likewise provide for final liquidation of the special position, rights and claims of Italy in Ethiopia and for the restoration of property.

Section VIII-International Agreements-Articles 39-43 eliminate any special position for Italy as regards mandate system, Congo Basin treaties, Red Sea Islands and the Statute of Tangier and provide for the recognition by Italy of the liquidation of the League of Nations and other similar bodies.

Section IX-Bi-Lateral Treaties-Article 44 provides for the revival of pre-war treaties notified to Italy by the Allied and Associated Power concerned.


Article 45 insures that Italy will take necessary steps looking to the surrender of war criminals and persons accused of treason but gives the Ambassadors at Rome of the great Powers control of the interpretation of this clause.


Section 1-Duration of Application-Article 46 provides that the limitations imposed upon the Italian armed forces remain in effect until modified by agreement either with the Allied and Associated Powers or with the Security Council.

Section II-General Limitations-Articles 47-55 provide for demilitarization of the Franco-Italian frontier, the Italian-Yugoslav frontier, Sardinia, Sicily, and the Mediterranean Islands, as well as for prohibition upon atomic weapons, guided missiles, long-range guns and the limitation on the number of tanks and war material in excess of the amount required for forces limited by the treaty, as well as a prohibition upon service in the armed forces of a former Fascist militia and Republican Army member.

Section III-Limitation of the Italian Navy-Articles 56-60 establish limitations upon the Italian Navy in accordance with the schedule contained in Annex 12-A providing for a small but balanced fleet. The remaining vessels of the Italian Navy are to be placed at the disposal of the four Powers in good condition and provision is made for

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