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HAVING CONSIDERED the report of the United Nations Commission on Korea, and having taken note of the conclusions reached therein,
MINDFUL of the fact that, due to difficulties referred to in the report of the Commission, the objectives set forth in the resolutions referred to have not been fully accomplished, and in particular that the unification of Korea and the removal of barriers to economic, social and other friendly intercourse caused by the division of Korea have not yet been achieved,
HAVING NOTED that the Commission has observed and verified the withdrawal of United States occupation forces, but that it has not been accorded the opportunity to observe or verify the reported withdrawal of Soviet occupation forces,
RECALLING its declaration of 12 December 1948 that there has been established a lawful government (the Government of the Republic of Korea) having effective control and jurisdiction over that part of Korea where the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea was able to observe and consult and in which the great majority of the people of Korea reside; that this Government is based on elections which were a valid expression of the free will of the electorate of that part of Korea and which were observed by the Temporary Commission; and that this is the only such Government in Korea;
CONCERNED lest the situation described by the Commission in its report menace the safety and well-being of the Republic of Korea and of the people of Korea and lead to open military conflict in Korea,
1. Resolves that the United Nations Commission on Korea shall continue being with the following membership: Australia, China, El Salvador, France, India, Philippines and Turkey and, having in mind. the objectives set forth in the General Assembly resolutions of 14 November 1947 and 12 December 1948 and also the status of the Government of the Republic of Korea as defined in the latter resolution, shall:
(a) Observe and report any developments which might lead to or otherwise involve military conflict in Korea;
(b) Seek to facilitate the removal of barriers to economic, social and other friendly intercourse caused by the division of Korea; and make available its good offices and be prepared to assist, whenever in its judgment a favorable opportunity arises, in bringing about the unification of Korea in accordance with the principles laid down by the General Assembly in the resolution of 14 November 1947;
(c) Have authority, in order to accomplish the aims defined under subparagraphs (a) and (b) of the present paragraph, in its discretion to appoint observers, and to utilize the services and good offices of one or more persons whether or not representatives on the Commission;
(d) Be available for observation and consultation throughout Korea in the continuing development of representative government based on the freely-expressed will of the people, including elections of national scope;
(e) Verify the withdrawal of Soviet occupation forces insofar as it is in a position to do so;
2. DECIDES that the Commission:
(a) Shall meet in Korea within thirty days from the date of the present resolution;
(b) Shall continue to maintain its seat in Korea;
(c) Is authorized to travel, consult and observe throughout Korea;
(d) Shall continue to determine its own procedures;
(e) May consult with the Interim Committee of the General Assembly (if it be continued) with respect to the discharge of its duties in the light of developments and within the terms of the present resolution;
(f) Shall render a report to the next regular session of the General Assembly and to any prior special session which might be called to consider the subject matter of the present resolution, and shall render such interim reports as it may deem appropriate to the Secretary-General for transmission to Members;
(g) Shall remain in existence pending a new decision by the General Assembly;
3. CALLS UPON Member States, the Government of the Republic of Korea, and all Koreans to afford every assistance and facility to the Commission in the fulfilment of its responsibilities, and to refrain from any acts derogatory to the purposes of the present resolution;
4. REQUESTS the Secretary-General to provide the Commission with adequate staff and facilities, including technical advisers and observers as required; and authorizes the Secretary-General to pay the expenses and per diem of a representative and an alternate from each of the States members of the Commission and of such persons as may be appointed in accordance with paragraph 1(c) of the present resolution.
Part VII. OTHER AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO
THE UNITED STATES
122. HYDE PARK AGREEMENT
Statement on Exchange of Defense Materials With Canada, April 20, 1941 1
Among other important matters, the President and the Prime Minister discussed measures by which the most prompt and effective utilization might be made of the productive facilities of North America for the purposes both of local and hemisphere defense and of the assistance which in addition to their own programs both Canada and the United States are rendering to Great Britain and the other democracies.
It was agreed as a general principle that in mobilizing the resources of this continent each country should provide the other with the defense articles which it is best able to produce, and, above all, produce quickly, and that production programs should be coordinated to this end.
While Canada has expanded its productive capacity manyfold since the beginning of the war, there are still numerous defense articles which it must obtain in the United States, and purchases of this character by Canada will be even greater in the coming year than in the past. On the other hand, there is existing and potential capacity in Canada for the speedy production of certain kinds of munitions, strategic materials, aluminum, and ships, which are urgently required by the United States for its own purposes.
While exact estimates cannot yet be made, it is hoped that during the next 12 months Canada can supply the United States with between $200,000,000 and $300,000,000 worth of such defense articles. This sum is a small fraction of the total defense program of the United States, but many of the articles to be provided are of vital importance. In addition, it is of great importance to the economic and financial relations between the two countries that payment by the United States for these supplies will materially assist Canada in meeting part of the cost of Canadian defense purchases in the United States.
Insofar as Canada's defense purchases in the United States consist of component parts to be used in equipment and munitions which Canada is producing for Great Britain, it was also agreed that Great Britain will obtain these parts under the Lease-Lend Act and forward them to Canada for inclusion in the finished article.
The technical and financial details will be worked out as soon as possible in accordance with the general principles which have been agreed upon between the President and the Prime Minister.
1 Department of State Bulletin of April 26, 1941, pp. 494-495. This statement was released at the conclusion of a conference between President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King of Canada at Hyde Park, New York.
123. COLLABORATION FOR SECURITY PURPOSES 1
Continuance of United States Canadian Permanent Joint Board on Defense, February 12, 1947
Announcement was made in Ottawa and Washington on February 12 of the results of discussions which have taken place in the Permanent Joint Board on Defense on the extent to which the wartime cooperation between the armed forces of the United States and Canada should be maintained in this post-war period. In the interest of efficiency and economy, each Government has decided that its national defense establishment shall, to the extent authorized by law, continue to collaborate for peacetime joint security purposes. collaboration will necessarily be limited and will be based on the following principles:
1. Interchange of selected individuals so as to increase the familiarity of each country's defense establishment with that of the other country.
2. General cooperation and exchange of observers in connection with exercises and with the development and tests of material of common interest.
3. Encouragement of common designs and standards in arms, equipment, organization, methods of training, and new developments. As certain United Kingdom standards have long been in use in Canada, no radical change is contemplated or practicable and the application of this principle will be gradual.
4. Mutual and reciprocal availability of military, naval, and air facilities in each country; this principle to be applied as may be agreed in specific instances. Reciprocally each country will continue to provide with a minimum of formality for the transit through its territory and its territorial waters of military aircraft and public vessels of the other country.
5. As an underlying principle all cooperative arrangements will be without impairment of the control of either country over all activities in its territory.
While in this, as in many other matters of mutual concern, there is an identity of view and interest between the two countries, the decision of each has been taken independently in continuation of the practice developed since the establishment of the Joint Defense Board in 1940.2 No treaty, executive agreement, or contractual obligation has been entered into. Each country will determine the extent of its practical collaboration in respect of each and all of the foregoing principles. Either country may at any time discontinue collaboration on any or all of them. Neither country will take any action inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations. The Charter remains the cornerstone of the foreign policy of each.
An important element in the decision of each Government to authorize continued collaboration was the conviction on the part of each that in this way their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security could be fulfilled more effectively. Both Governments believe that this deci
1 Department of State Bulletin of February 23, 1947, p. 361.
Department of State Bulletin of August 24, 1940, p. 154. See also Department of State Bulletin of November 8, 1941, p. 360, and February 4, 1945, p. 162.
sion is a contribution to the stability of the world and to the establishment through the United Nations of an effective system of worldwide security. With this in mind each Government has sent a copy of this statement to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for circulation to all its members.
In August 1940, when the creation of the Board was jointly announced by the late President Roosevelt and Prime Minister King, it was stated that the Board "shall commence immediate studies relating to sea, land, and air problems including personnel and matériel. It will consider in the broad sense the defense of the north half of the Western Hemisphere." In discharging this continuing responsibility the Board's work led to the building up of a pattern of close defense cooperation. The principles announced on February 12 are in continuance of this cooperation. It has been the task of the Governments to assure that the close security relationship between Canada and the United States in North America will in no way impair but on the contrary will strengthen the cooperation of each country within the broader framework of the United Nations.
124. COMMON OBJECTIVES AND IDEALS MANIFESTED IN U. S.-CANADIAN RELATIONS
Address by President Truman Before the Canadian Parliament at Ottawa, June 11, 1947 1
MR. PRIME MINISTER, HONORABLE MEMBERS OF THE SENATE, and MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS OF CANADA:
This is my first visit to Canada as President of the United States, and I am happy that it affords me the opportunity to address this meeting of the members of both houses of the Canadian Parliament. Here is a body which exemplifies the self-government and freedom of the nations of the great British Commonwealth. The history of the Commonwealth proves that it is possible for many nations to work and live in harmony for the common good.
I wish to acknowledge the many courtesies extended to me on this visit by the Governor General, Viscount Alexander, who paid me the honor of a visit in Washington a few months ago. His career as a soldier and as a statesman eminently qualifies him to follow his illustrious predecessors.
For the courtesy of appearing before you, as for other courtesies, I am sure I am largely indebted to my good friend, Prime Minister Mackenzie King. I have come to value and cherish his friendship and statesmanship. As our two nations have worked together in solving the difficult problems of the postwar period, I have developed greater and greater respect for his wisdom.
Americans who come to know Canada informally, such as our tourists, as well as those whose approach is more academic, learn that Canada is a broad land-broad in mind and in spirit as well as in physical expanse. They find that the composition of your population and the evolution of your political institutions hold a lesson
1 Department of State Bulletin of June 22, 1947, pp. 1210-1213. President Truman was the guest of the Canadian Government from June 9 to June 12.